Guide showing you how to use ForgeRock® Access Management with OAuth 2.0.

Preface

This guide covers concepts, configuration, and usage procedures for working with OAuth 2.0 and ForgeRock Access Management.

This guide is written for anyone using OAuth 2.0 with Access Management to manage and federate access to web applications and web-based resources.

About ForgeRock Identity Platform™ Software

ForgeRock Identity Platform™ is the only offering for access management, identity management, user-managed access, directory services, and an identity gateway, designed and built as a single, unified platform.

The platform includes the following components that extend what is available in open source projects to provide fully featured, enterprise-ready software:

  • ForgeRock Access Management (AM)

  • ForgeRock Identity Management (IDM)

  • ForgeRock Directory Services (DS)

  • ForgeRock Identity Gateway (IG)

Chapter 1. Introducing OAuth 2.0

This chapter covers AM support for the OAuth 2.0 authorization framework. The chapter begins by showing where AM fits into the OAuth 2.0 authorization framework, and then shows how to configure the functionality.

RFC 6749, The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework, provides a standard way for resource owners to grant client applications access to the owners' web-based resources. The canonical example involves a user (resource owner) granting access to a printing service (client) to print photos that the user has stored on a photo-sharing server.

The section describes how AM supports the OAuth 2.0 authorization framework in terms of the roles that AM plays.[1] The following sequence diagram indicates the primary roles AM can play in the OAuth 2.0 protocol flow.

Figure 1.1. OAuth 2.0 Protocol Flow
OAuth 2.0 protocol flow

1.1. OAuth 2.0 Authorization Server

AM can function as an OAuth 2.0 authorization server. In this role, AM authenticates resource owners and obtains their authorization in order to return access tokens to clients.

When using AM as authorization server, you can register clients in the AM console alongside policy agent profiles under the OAuth 2.0 Client tab. AM supports both confidential and public clients.

AM supports the four main grants for obtaining authorization described in RFC 6749: the authorization code grant, the implicit grant, the resource owner password credentials grant, and the client credentials grant. See RFC 6749 for details on the authorization grant process, and for details on how clients should make authorization requests and handle authorization responses. AM also supports the SAML v2.0 Bearer Assertion Profiles for OAuth 2.0, described in the Internet-Draft.

1.1.1. OAuth 2.0 Authorization Grant

The authorization code grant starts with the client, such as a web-based service, redirecting the resource owner's user-agent to the AM authorization service. After authenticating the resource owner and obtaining the resource owner's authorization, AM redirects the resource owner's user-agent back to the client with an authorization code that the client uses to request the access token. The following sequence diagram outlines a successful process from initial client redirection through to the client accessing the protected resource.

Figure 1.2. OAuth 2.0 Authorization Code Grant Process
OAuth 2.0 Authorization Code Grant process

1.1.2. OAuth 2.0 Implicit Grant

The implicit grant is designed for clients implemented to run inside the resource-owner user agent. Instead of providing an authorization code that the client must use to retrieve an access token, AM returns the access token directly in the fragment portion of the redirect URI. The following sequence diagram outlines the successful process.

Figure 1.3. OAuth 2.0 Implicit Grant Process
OAuth 2.0 Implicit Grant process

1.1.3. OAuth 2.0 Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant

The resource owner password credentials grant lets the client use the resource owner's user name and password to get an access token directly. Although this grant might seem to conflict with an original OAuth goal of not having to share resource owner credentials with the client, it can makes sense in a secure context where other authorization grant types are not available, such as a client that is part of a device operating system using the resource owner credentials once and thereafter using refresh tokens to continue accessing resources. The following sequence diagram shows the successful process.

Figure 1.4. OAuth 2.0 Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant Process
OAuth 2.0 Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant process

1.1.4. OAuth 2.0 Client Credentials Grant

The client credentials grant uses client credentials as an authorization grant. This grant makes sense when the client is also the resource owner, for example. The following sequence diagram shows the successful process.

Figure 1.5. OAuth 2.0 Client Credentials Grant Process
OAuth 2.0 Client Credentials Grant process

1.1.5. OAuth 2.0 Device Flow

The OAuth 2.0 Device Flow is designed for client devices that have limited user interfaces, such as a set-top box, streaming radio, or a server process running on a headless operating system.

Rather than logging in by using the client device itself, you can authorize the client to access protected resources on your behalf by logging in with a different user agent, such as an Internet browser on a PC or smartphone, and entering a code displayed on the client device.

The sequence diagram below demonstrates the OAuth 2.0 Devlice Flow:

Figure 1.6. OAuth 2.0 Device Flow
Diagram of the OAuth 2.0 Device Flow in AM

The steps in the diagram are described below:

  1. The client device requests a device code from AM by using a REST call.

  2. AM returns a device code, a user code, a URL for entering the user code, and an interval, in seconds.

  3. The client device provides instructions to the user to enter the user code. The client may choose an appropriate method to convey the instructions, for example text instructions on screen, or a QR code.

  4. The client device begins to continuously poll AM to see if authorization has been completed.

  5. If the user has not yet completed the authorization, AM returns an HTTP 403 status code, with an authorization_pending message.

  6. The user follows the instructions from the client device to enter the user code by using a separate device.

  7. If the user code is valid AM will ask the user to authenticate.

  8. Upon authentication the user can authorize the client device. The AM consent page also displays the requested scopes, and their values:


  9. Upon authorization, AM responds to the client device's polling with an HTTP 200 status, and an access token, giving the client device access to the requested resources.

For more information, see Section 3.2, "OAuth 2.0 Device Flow Endpoints".

1.1.6. JWT Bearer Profile

The Internet-Draft, JSON Web Token (JWT) Profile for OAuth 2.0 Client Authentication and Authorization Grants describes a means to use a JWT for client authentication or to use a JWT to request an access token. When clients are also resource owners, the profile allows clients to issue JWTs to obtain access tokens rather than use the resource owner password credentials grant.

AM implements both features of the profile. Both involve HTTP POST requests to the access token endpoint.

When the client bearing the JWT uses it for authentication, then in the POST data the client sets client_assertion_type to urn:ietf:params:oauth:client-assertion-type:jwt-bearer and client_assertion to the JWT string.

Figure 1.8. JWT Bearer Client Authentication
JWT Bearer Client Authentication

The HTTP POST to AM looks something like the following, where the assertion value is the JWT:

POST /openam/oauth2/realms/root/access_token HTTP/1.1
Host: openam.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

grant_type=authorization_code&
code=362ad374-735c-4f69-aa8e-bf384f8602de&
client_assertion_type=urn%3Aietf%3Aparams%3Aoauth%3A
 client-assertion-type%3Ajwt-bearer&
client_assertion=eyAiYWxnIjogIlJTMjU2IiB9.eyAic3ViIjogImp3...
    

In the above profile, AM must be able to validate the JWT. Therefore, the JWT must include the following claims:

  • "iss" (issuer) whose value identifies the JWT issuer.

  • "sub" (subject) whose value identifies the principal who is the subject of the JWT.

    For client authentication, the "sub" value must be the same as the value of the "client_id".

  • "aud" (audience) whose value identifies the authorization server that is the intended audience of the JWT.

    When the JWT is used for authentication, this is the AM access token endpoint.

  • "exp" (expiration) whose value specifies the time of expiration.

Also for validation, the issuer must digitally sign the JWT or apply a keyed message digest. When the issuer is also the client, the client can sign the JWT by using a private key, and include the public key in its profile registered with AM.

A sample Java-based client is available online.

1.1.7. SAML v2.0 Bearer Assertion Profiles

The Internet-Draft, SAML v2.0 Bearer Assertion Profiles for OAuth 2.0, describes a means to use SAML v2.0 assertions to request access tokens and to authenticate OAuth 2.0 clients.

At present AM implements the profile to request access tokens.

In both profiles, the issuer must sign the assertion. The client communicates the assertion over a channel protected with transport layer security by performing an HTTP POST to the AM's access token endpoint. AM as OAuth 2.0 authorization server uses the issuer ID to validate the signature on the assertion.

In the profile to request an access token, the OAuth 2.0 client bears a SAML v2.0 assertion that was issued to the resource owner on successful authentication. A valid assertion in this case is equivalent to an authorization grant by the resource owner to the client. OAuth 2.0 clients must make it clear to the resource owner that by authenticating to the identity provider who issues the assertion, they are granting the client permission to access the protected resources.

Figure 1.9. SAML v2.0 Bearer Assertion Authorization Grant
SAML v2.0 Bearer Assertion Authorization Grant

The HTTP POST to AM to request an access token looks something like this:

POST /openam/oauth2/realms/root/access_token HTTP/1.1
    Host: openam.example.com
    Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

    grant_type=urn%3Aietf%3Aparams%3Aoauth%3Agrant-type%3Asaml2-bearer&
    assertion=PHNhbWxwOl...[base64url encoded assertion]...ZT4&
    client_id=[ID registered with OpenAM]

1.2. OAuth 2.0 Client and Resource Server Solution

AM can function as an OAuth 2.0 client for installations where the web resources are protected by AM. To configure AM as an OAuth 2.0 client, you set up an AM OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect authentication module instance, and then integrate the authentication module into your authentication chains as necessary.

When AM functions as an OAuth 2.0 client, AM provides an AM SSO session after successfully authenticating the resource owner and obtaining authorization. This means the client can then access resources protected by policy agents. In this respect the AM OAuth 2.0 client is just like any other authentication module, one that relies on an OAuth 2.0 authorization server to authenticate the resource owner and obtain authorization. The following sequence diagram shows how the client gains access to protected resources in the scenario where AM functions as both authorization server and client for example.

Figure 1.10. OAuth 2.0 Client and Authorization Server
OAuth 2.0 client and authorization server

As the OAuth 2.0 client functionality is implemented as an AM authentication module, you do not need to deploy your own resource server implementation when using AM as an OAuth 2.0 client. Instead, use policy agents or IG to protect resources.

To configure AM as an OAuth 2.0 client, see the section Section 2.2.18, "OAuth 2.0/OpenID Connect Authentication Module" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide.

1.3. Using Your Own Client and Resource Server

AM returns bearer tokens as described in RFC 6750, The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework: Bearer Token Usage. Notice in the following example JSON response to an access token request that AM returns a refresh token with the access token. The client can use the refresh token to get a new access token as described in RFC 6749:

{
   "expires_in": 599,
   "token_type": "Bearer",
   "refresh_token": "f6dcf133-f00b-4943-a8d4-ee939fc1bf29",
   "access_token": "f9063e26-3a29-41ec-86de-1d0d68aa85e9"
}

In addition to implementing your client, the resource server must also implement the logic for handling access tokens. The resource server can use the /oauth2/tokeninfo endpoint to determine whether the access token is still valid, and to retrieve the scopes associated with the access token.

The default AM implementation of OAuth 2.0 scopes assumes that the space-separated (%20 when URL-encoded) list of scopes in an access token request correspond to names of attributes in the resource owner's profile.

To take a concrete example, consider an access token request where scope=mail%20cn and where the resource owner is the default AM demo user. (The demo user has no email address by default, but you can add one, such as demo@example.com to the demo user's profile.) When the resource server performs an HTTP GET on the token information endpoint, /oauth2/tokeninfo?access_token=token-id, AM populates the mail and cn scopes with the email address (demo@example.com) and common name (demo) from the demo user's profile. The result is something like the following token information response:

{
   "mail": "demo@example.com",
   "scope": [
       "mail",
       "cn"
   ],
   "cn": "demo",
   "realm": "/",
   "token_type": "Bearer",
   "expires_in": 577,
   "client_id": "MyClientID",
   "access_token": "f9063e26-3a29-41ec-86de-1d0d68aa85e9"
}

AM is designed to allow you to plug in your own scopes implementation if the default implementation does not do what your deployment requires. See Section 4.1, "Customizing OAuth 2.0 Scope Handling" for an example.

1.4. Security Considerations

OAuth 2.0 messages involve credentials and access tokens that allow the bearer to retrieve protected resources. Therefore, do not let an attacker capture requests or responses. Protect the messages going across the network.

RFC 6749 includes a number of Security Considerations, and also requires Transport Layer Security (TLS) to protect sensitive messages. Make sure you read the section covering Security Considerations, and that you can implement them in your deployment.

Also, especially when deploying a mix of other clients and resource servers, take into account the points covered in the Internet-Draft, OAuth 2.0 Threat Model and Security Considerations, before putting your service into production.

1.5. OAuth 2.0 JSON Web Token Proof-of-Possession

AM supports associating a confirmation key with an access token to support proof-of-possession interactions as per the Proof-of-Possession Key Semantics for JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) internet-draft. This allows the presenter of a bearer token to prove that it was originally issued the access token.

AM supports confirmation keys for both stateful and stateless OAuth 2.0 tokens. For more information about stateless OAuth 2.0 tokens, see Section 2.4, "Stateless OAuth 2.0 Access and Refresh Tokens".

To implement proof-of-possession for tokens, the client should include a JSON web key (JWK) when making a request to an authorization server, such as AM, for an OAuth 2.0 access token. The JWK consists of the public key of a keypair generated by the client.

When the issued access token is presented to a resource server, the resource server can cryptographically confirm proof-of-possession of the token by using the associated JWK to form a challenge-response interaction with the client.

OAuth 2.0 Proof-of-Possession Flow

For information on adding proof-of-possession keys to access token requests, see Section 3.1.1, "Using OAuth 2.0 JSON Web Token Proof-of-Possession".



[1] Read RFC 6749 to understand the authorization framework itself.

Chapter 2. Implementing OAuth 2.0

This chapter covers implementing and configuring AM support for OAuth 2.0.

2.1. Configuring the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Service

You configure the OAuth 2.0 authorization service for a particular realm from the Realms > Realm Name > Dashboard page of the AM console.

Procedure 2.1. To Set Up the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Service

Follow the steps in this procedure to set up the service with the Configure OAuth Provider wizard:

When you create the service with the Configure OAuth Provider wizard, the wizard also creates a standard policy in the Top Level Realm (/) to protect the authorization endpoint. In this configuration, AM serves the resources to protect, and no separate application is involved. AM therefore acts both as the policy decision point and also as the policy enforcement point that protects the OAuth 2.0 authorization endpoint.

There is no requirement to use the wizard or to create the policy in the Top Level Realm. However, if you create the OAuth 2.0 authorization service without the wizard, then you must set up the policy independently as well. The policy must appear in a policy set of type iPlanetAMWebAgentService, which is the default in the AM policy editor. When configuring the policy allow all authenticated users to perform HTTP GET and POST requests on the authorization endpoint. The authorization endpoint is described in Section 3.1, "OAuth 2.0 Client and Resource Server Endpoints". For details on creating policies, see Chapter 2, "Implementing Authorization" in the Authorization Guide.

  1. In the AM console, select Realms > Realm Name > Dashboard > Configure OAuth Provider > Configure OAuth 2.0.

  2. On the Configure OAuth 2.0 page, select the Realm for the authorization service.

  3. (Optional) If necessary, adjust the lifetimes for authorization codes (a lifetime of 10 minutes or less is recommended in RFC 6749), access tokens, and refresh tokens.

  4. (Optional) Select Issue Refresh Tokens unless you do not want the authorization service to supply a refresh token when returning an access token.

  5. (Optional) Select Issue Refresh Tokens on Refreshing Access Tokens if you want the authorization service to supply a refresh token when refreshing an access token.

  6. (Optional) If you want to use the default scope implementation, whereby scopes are taken to be resource owner profile attribute names, then keep the default setting.

    If you have a custom scope validator implementation, put it on the AM classpath, and provide the class name as Scope Implementation Class. For an example, see Section 4.1, "Customizing OAuth 2.0 Scope Handling".

  7. Click Create to complete the process.

    To access the authorization server configuration in the AM console, browse to Realms > Realm Name > Services, and then click OAuth2 Provider.

    As mentioned at the outset of this procedure, the wizard sets up a policy in the Top Level Realm to protect the authorization endpoint. The policy appears in the iPlanetAMWebAgentService policy set. Its name is OAuth2ProviderPolicy.

  8. (Optional) If your provider has a custom response type plugin, put it on the AM classpath, and then add the custom response types and the plugin class names to the list of Response Type Plugins.

  9. (Optional) If you use an external identity repository where resource owners log in not with their user ID, but instead with their mail address or some other profile attribute, then complete this step.

    The following steps describe how to configure AM authentication so OAuth 2.0 resource owners can log in using their email address, stored on the LDAP profile attribute, mail. Adapt the names if you use a different LDAP profile attribute, such as cn:

    1. When configuring the data store for the LDAP identity repository, make sure that you select Load schema when saved, and that you set the Authentication Naming Attribute to mail. You can find the data store configuration under Realms > Realm Name > Data Stores.

    2. Add the mail profile attribute name to the list of attributes that can be used for authentication.

      To make the change, navigate to Realms > Realm Name > Services, click OAuth2 Provider, add the profile attributes to the list titled User Profile Attribute(s) the Resource Owner is Authenticated On, and then click Save Changes.

    3. Create an LDAP authentication module to use with the external directory:

      1. In the AM console under Realms > Realm Name > Authentication > Modules, create a module to access the LDAP identity repository, such as LDAPAuthUsingMail.

      2. In the Attribute Used to Retrieve User Profile field, set the attribute to mail.

      3. In the Attributes Used to Search for a User to be Authenticated list, remove the default uid attribute and add the mail attribute.

      4. Click Save.

    4. Create an authentication chain to include the module, such as authUsingMail.

      1. When creating the authentication chain, choose the LDAPAuthUsingMail module in the Instance drop-down list, and set the criteria to REQUIRED.

      2. Click Save.

    5. Set Organization Authentication Configuration to use the new chain, authUsingMail, and then click Save.

      At this point OAuth 2.0 resource owners can authenticate using their email address rather than their user ID.

  10. Add a multi-valued string syntax profile attribute to your identity repository. AM stores resource owners' consent to authorize client access in this profile attribute. On subsequent requests from the same client for the same scopes, the resource owner no longer sees the authorization page.

    You are not likely to find a standard profile attribute for this. For evaluation purposes only, you might try an unused existing profile attribute, such as description.

    When moving to production, however, use a dedicated, multi-valued, string syntax profile attribute that clearly is not used for other purposes. For example, you might call the attribute oAuth2SavedConsent.

    Adding a profile attribute involves updating the identity repository to support use of the attribute, updating the AMUser Service for the attribute, and optionally allowing users to edit the attribute. The process is described in Section 3.3.1, "Customizing Profile Attributes" in the Setup and Maintenance Guide, which demonstrates adding a custom attribute when using DS to store user profiles.

  11. Navigate to Realms > Realm Name > Services, click OAuth2 Provider, and then specify the name of the attribute created in the previous step in the Saved Consent Attribute Name field.

  12. Click Save Changes.

To further adjust the authorization server configuration after you create it, in the AM console navigate to Realms > Realm Name > Services, and then click OAuth2 Provider.

To adjust global defaults, in the AM console navigate to Configure > Global Services, and then click OAuth2 Provider.

2.2. Registering OAuth 2.0 Clients With the Authorization Service

You register an OAuth 2.0 client with the AM OAuth 2.0 authorization service by creating and configuring an OAuth 2.0 Client agent profile.

At minimum you must have the client identifier and client password in order to register your OAuth 2.0 client.

Procedure 2.2. To Create an OAuth 2.0 Client Agent Profile
  • Use either of these two facilities:

    • In the AM console, access the client registration endpoint at /oauth2/registerClient.jsp.

      The full URL depends on where you deployed AM. For example, https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/registerClient.jsp.

      The Register a Client page lets you quickly create and configure an OAuth 2.0 client in a simple web page without inline help.

    • In the AM console under Realms > Realm Name > Applications > OAuth 2.0 > Agent, click New, then provide the client identifier and client password, and finally click Create to create the profile.

      This page requires that you perform additional configuration separately.

Procedure 2.3. To Configure an OAuth 2.0 Client Agent Profile

After initially registering or creating a client agent profile as necessary.

  1. In the AM console, browse to Realms > Realm Name > Applications > OAuth 2.0 > Client Name to open the Edit Client Name page.

  2. Adjust the configuration as needed using the inline help for hints, and also the documentation section Section 5.3, "OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect 1.0 Client Settings".

    Examine the client type option. An important decision to make at this point is whether your client is a confidential client or a public client. This depends on whether your client can keep its credentials confidential, or whether its credentials can be exposed to the resource owner or other parties. If your client is a web-based application running on a server, such as the AM OAuth 2.0 client, then you can keep its credentials confidential. If your client is a user-agent based client, such as a JavaScript client running in a browser, or a native application installed on a device used by the resource owner, then yours is a public client.

  3. When finished, save your work.

2.3. Managing OAuth 2.0 Tokens

AM exposes a RESTful API that lets administrators read, list, and delete OAuth 2.0 tokens. OAuth 2.0 clients can also manage their own tokens. For details, see Section 3.4, "OAuth 2.0 Token Administration Endpoint".

2.3.1. Configuring as an Authorization Server and Client

This section takes a high-level look at how to set up AM both as an OAuth 2.0 authorization server and also as an OAuth 2.0 client in order to protect resources on a resource server by using an AM policy agent.

Figure 2.1. Authorization Server, Client, and Resource Server
Authorization server, client, and resource server

The example in this section uses three servers, http://authz.example.com:8080/openam as the OAuth 2.0 authorization server, http://client.example.com:8080/openam as the OAuth 2.0 client, which also handles policy, http://www.example.com:8080/ as the OAuth 2.0 resource server protected with an AM policy agent where the resources to protect are deployed in Apache Tomcat. The two AM servers communicate using OAuth 2.0. The policy agent on the resource server communicates with AM as policy agents normally do, using AM specific requests. The resource server in this example does not need to support OAuth 2.0.

The high-level configuration steps are as follows:

  1. On the AM server that you will configure to act as an OAuth 2.0 client, configure a policy agent profile, and the policy used to protect the resources.

    On the web server or application container that will act as an OAuth 2.0 resource server, install and configure the AM policy agent.

    Make sure that you can access the resources when you log in through an authentication module that you know to be working, such as the default DataStore authentication module.

    In this example, you would try to access http://www.example.com:8080/examples/. The policy agent should redirect you to the AM login page. After you log in successfully as a user with access rights to the resource, AM should redirect you back to http://www.example.com:8080/examples/, and the policy agent should allow access.

    Fix any problems you have in accessing the resources before you try to set up access through the OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect authentication module.

  2. Configure one AM server as an OAuth 2.0 authorization service, which is described in Section 2.1, "Configuring the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Service".

  3. Configure the other AM server with the policy agent profile and policy as an OAuth 2.0 client, by setting up an OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect authentication module according to the section Section 2.2.18, "OAuth 2.0/OpenID Connect Authentication Module" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide.

  4. On the authorization server, register the OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect authentication module as an OAuth 2.0 client, which is described in Section 2.2, "Registering OAuth 2.0 Clients With the Authorization Service".

  5. Log out and access the protected resources to see the process in action.

2.3.1.1. Web Site Protected With OAuth 2.0

This example pulls everything together (except security considerations), using AM servers both as the OAuth 2.0 authorization server, and also as the OAuth 2.0 client, with an AM policy agent on the resource server requesting policy decisions from AM as OAuth 2.0 client. In this way, any server protected by a policy agent that is connected to an AM OAuth 2.0 client can act as an OAuth 2.0 resource server:

  1. On the AM server that will be configured as an OAuth 2.0 client, set up an AM policy agent and policy in the Top Level Realm, /, to protect resources.

    See the Web Policy Agent User's Guide or the Java EE Policy Agent User's Guide for instructions on installing a policy agent. This example relies on the Apache Tomcat Java EE policy agent, configured to protect resources in Apache Tomcat (Tomcat) at http://www.example.com:8080/.

    The policies for this example protect the Tomcat examples under http://www.example.com:8080/examples/, allowing GET and POST operations by all authenticated users. For more information, see Chapter 2, "Implementing Authorization" in the Authorization Guide.

    After setting up the policy agent and the policy, you can make sure everything is working by attempting to access a protected resource, in this case, http://www.example.com:8080/examples/. The policy agent should redirect you to AM to authenticate with the default authentication module, where you can login as user demo password changeit. After successful authentication, AM redirects your browser back to the protected resource and the policy agent lets you get the protected resource, in this case, the Tomcat examples top page.

    Figure 2.2. Accessing the Apache Tomcat Examples
    Successfully accessing the Apache Tomcat examples

  2. On the AM server to be configured as an OAuth 2.0 authorization server, configure AM's OAuth 2.0 authorization service as described in Section 2.1, "Configuring the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Service".

    The authorization endpoint to protect in this example is at http://authz.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/authorize.

  3. On the AM server to be configured as an OAuth 2.0 client, configure an AM OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect authentication module instance for the Top Level Realm:

    Under Realms > Top Level Realm > Authentication > Modules, click Add Module. Name the module OAuth2, and select the OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect type, then click Create. The OAuth 2.0 client configuration page appears. This page offers numerous options. The key settings for this example are the following:

    Client Id

    This is the client identifier used to register your client with AM's authorization server, and then used when your client must authenticate to AM.

    Set this to myClientID for this example.

    Client Secret

    This is the client password used to register your client with AM's authorization server, and then used when your client must authenticate to AM.

    Set this to password for this example. Make sure you use strong passwords when you actually deploy OAuth 2.0.

    Authentication Endpoint URL

    In this example, http://authz.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/authorize.

    This AM endpoint can take additional parameters. In particular, you must specify the realm if the AM OAuth 2.0 provider is configured for a subrealm rather than for the Top Level Realm.

    When making a REST API call, specify the realm in the path component of the endpoint. You must specify the entire hierarchy of the realm, starting at the top-level realm. Prefix each realm in the hierarchy with the realms/ keyword. For example /realms/root/realms/customers/realms/europe.

    For example, if the OAuth 2.0 provider is configured for the realm customers within the top-level realm, then use the following URL: http://authz.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/realms/customers/authorize.

    The /oauth2/authorize endpoint can also take module and service parameters. Use either as described in Section 8.1, " Authenticating From a Browser" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide, where module specifies the authentication module instance to use or service specifies the authentication chain to use when authenticating the resource owner.

    Access Token Endpoint URL

    In this example, http://authz.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/access_token.

    This AM endpoint can take additional parameters. In particular, you must specify the realm if the AM OAuth 2.0 provider is configured for a subrealm rather than the Top Level Realm (/).

    When making a REST API call, specify the realm in the path component of the endpoint. You must specify the entire hierarchy of the realm, starting at the top-level realm. Prefix each realm in the hierarchy with the realms/ keyword. For example /realms/root/realms/customers/realms/europe.

    For example, if the OAuth 2.0 provider is configured for the realm /customers, then use the following URL: http://authz.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/realms/customers/access_token.

    User Profile Service URL

    In this example, http://authz.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/tokeninfo.

    Scope

    In this example, cn.

    The demo user has common name demo by default, so by setting this to cn|Read your user name, AM can get the value of the attribute without the need to create additional subjects, or to update existing subjects. The description, Read your user name, is shown to the resource owner in the consent page.

    OAuth2 Access Token Profile Service Parameter name

    Identifies the parameter that contains the access token value, which in this example is access_token.

    Proxy URL

    The client redirect URL, which in this example is http://client.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2c/OAuthProxy.jsp.

    Account Mapper

    In this example, org.forgerock.openam.authentication.modules.oauth2.DefaultAccountMapper.

    Account Mapper Configuration

    In this example, cn=cn.

    Attribute Mapper

    In this example, org.forgerock.openam.authentication.modules.oauth2.DefaultAttributeMapper.

    Attribute Mapper Configuration

    In this example, cn=cn.

    Create account if it does not exist

    In this example, disable this functionality.

    AM can create local accounts based on the account information returned by the authorization server.

  4. On the AM server configured to act as an OAuth 2.0 authorization server, register the OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect authentication module as an OAuth 2.0 confidential client, which is described in Section 2.2, "Registering OAuth 2.0 Clients With the Authorization Service".

    Under Realms > Top Level Realm > Applications > OAuth 2.0 > myClientID, adjust the following settings:

    Client type

    In this example, confidential. AM protects its credentials as an OAuth 2.0 client.

    Redirection URIs

    In this example, http://client.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2c/OAuthProxy.jsp.

    Scopes

    In this example, cn.

  5. Before you try it out, on the AM server configured to act as an OAuth 2.0 client, you must make the following additional change to the configuration.

    Your AM OAuth 2.0 client authentication module is not part of the default chain, and therefore AM does not call it unless you specifically request the OAuth 2.0 client authentication module.

    To cause the policy agent to request your OAuth 2.0 client authentication module explicitly, navigate to your policy agent profile configuration, in this case Realms > Top Level Realm > Applications > Agents > J2EE > Agent Name > AM Services > AM Login URL, and add http://client.example.com:8080/openam/XUI/?realm=/#login&module=OAuth2, moving it to the top of the list.

    Save your work.

    This ensures that the policy agent directs the resource owner to AM with the instruction to authenticate using the OAuth2 authentication module.

  6. Try it out.

    First make sure you are logged out of AM, for example by browsing to the logout URL, in this case http://client.example.com:8080/openam/XUI/?realm=/#logout.

    Next attempt to access the protected resource, in this case http://www.example.com:8080/examples/.

    If everything is set up properly, the policy agent redirects your browser to the login page of AM with module=OAuth2 among other query string parameters. After you authenticate, for example as user demo, password changeit, AM presents you with an authorization decision page.

    Figure 2.3. Presenting Authorization Decision Page to Resource Owner
    Presenting authorization decision page to resource owner

    When you click Allow, the authorization service creates an SSO session, and redirects the client back to the resource, thus allowing the client to access the protected resource. If you configured an attribute on which to store the saved consent decision, and you choose to save the consent decision for this authorization, then AM can use that saved decision to avoid prompting you for authorization next time the client accesses the resource, but only ensure that you have authenticated and have a valid session.

    Figure 2.4. Successfully Accessing the Apache Tomcat Examples
    Successfully accessing the Apache Tomcat examples

2.4. Stateless OAuth 2.0 Access and Refresh Tokens

AM supports stateless access and refresh tokens for OAuth 2.0. Stateless access and refresh tokens allow clients to directly validate the tokens without storing session information in server memory. The stateless token is a JWT, which is stored in the iPlanetDirectoryPro cookie if accessed through a web browser or in the tokenid response header if accessed over REST.

The stateless access token allows any AM instance in the issuing cluster to validate an OAuth 2.0 token without the need for cross-server communication.

Procedure 2.5. To Configure Stateless OAuth 2.0 Access and Refresh Tokens
  1. Open the AM console.

  2. Under Realms, select the realm that you are working with.

  3. Click Services, and then select OAuth2 Provider.

  4. For Use Stateless Access & Refresh Tokens, slide the toggle button to the right to enable the feature.

  5. Optional. For Issue Refresh Tokens, slide the toggle button to the right to enable the feature.

  6. For Issue Refresh Tokens on Refreshing Access Tokens, slide the toggle button to the right to enable the feature.

2.5. Configuring Stateless OAuth 2.0 Token Blacklisting

AM provides a blacklisting feature that prevents stateless OAuth v2.0 tokens from being reused if the authorization code has been replayed or tokens have been revoked by either the client or resource owner.

Procedure 2.6. To Configure Stateless OAuth 2.0 Token Blacklisting
  1. On the AM console, navigate to Configure > Global Services > Global > OAuth2 Provider.

  2. Under Global Attributes, enter the number of blacklisted tokens in the Token Blacklisting Cache Size field.

    Token Blacklisting Cache Size determines the number of blacklisted tokens to cache in memory to speed up blacklist checks. You can enter a number based on the estimated number of token revocations that a client will issue (for example, when the user gives up access or an administrator revokes a client's access).

    Default: 10000

  3. In the Blacklist Poll Interval field, enter the interval in seconds for AM to check for token blacklist changes from the CTS data store.

    The longer the polling interval, the more time a malicious user has to connect to other AM servers in a cluster and make use of a stolen OAuth v2.0 access and refresh token. Shortening the polling interval improves the security for revoked tokens but might incur a minimal decrease in overall AM performance due to increased network activity.

    Default: 60 seconds

  4. In the Blacklist Purge Delay field, enter the length of time in minutes that blacklist tokens can exist before being purged beyond their expiration time.

    When stateless blacklisting is enabled, AM tracks OAuth v2.0 access and refresh tokens over the configured lifetime of those tokens plus the blacklist purge delay. For example, if the access token lifetime is set to 6000 seconds and the blacklist purge delay is one minute, the AM tracks the access token for 101 minutes. You can increase the blacklist purge delay if you expect system clock skews in an AM server cluster to be greater than one minute. There is no need to increase the blacklist purge delay for servers running a clock synchronization protocol, such as Network Time Protocol.

    Default: 1 minute

  5. Click Save to apply your changes.

2.6. Configuring Digital Signatures

AM supports digital signature algorithms that secure the integrity of its JSON payload, which is outlined in the JSON Web Algorithm specification (RFC 7518).

AM supports signing algorithms listed in JSON Web Algorithms (JWA): "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS:

• HS256 - HMAC with SHA-256
• HS384 - HMAC with SHA-384
• HS512 - HMAC with SHA-512
• RS256 - RSA using SHA-256
• ES256 - ECDSA with SHA-256 and NIST standard P-256 elliptic curve
• ES384 - ECDSA with SHA-384 and NIST standard P-384 elliptic curve
• ES512 - ECDSA with SHA-512 and NIST standard P-521 elliptic curve

If you intend to use an ECDSA signing algorithm, you must generate a public/private key pair for use with ECDSA. To generate the public and private key pair, see step 1 in Section 6.1.3.3, "Configuring Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithms" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide.

Procedure 2.7. To Configure Digital Signatures
  1. Start the AM console. Under Realms, select the realm that you are working with.

  2. First, create or update your OAuth2 provider:

    1. Select Dashboard > Configure OAuth Provider, then select Configure OpenID Connect, then click Create.

    2. Click Services > OAuth2 Provider.

    3. On the OAuth2 Token Signing Algorithm drop-down list, select the signing algorithm to use for your digital signatures.

    4. Take one of the following actions depending on the token signing algorithm:

      1. If you are using an HMAC signing algorithm, enter the Base64-encoded key used by HS256, HS384 and HS512 in the Token Signing HMAC Shared Secret field.

      2. If you are using RS256, enter the public/private key pair used by RS256 in the Token Signing RSA public/private key pair field. The public/private key pair will be retrieved from the keystore referenced by the property com.sun.identity.saml.xmlsig.keystore.

      3. If you are using an ECDSA signing algorithm, enter the list of public/private key pairs used for the elliptic curve algorithms (ES256/ES384/ES512) In the Token Signing ECDSA public/private key pair alias field. For example, ES256|es256test. Each of the public/private key pairs will be retrieved from the keystore referenced by the property com.sun.identity.saml.xmlsig.keystore.

      4. Click Save Changes.

  3. Next, update the OpenID Connect client:

    1. Under Agent, click New, enter a Name and Password for the agent, and then click Create.

    2. In the ID Token Signing Algorithm field, enter the signing algorithm that the ID token for this client must be signed with. Default: RS256.

      • HS256 (HMAC with SHA-256)
      • HS384 (HMAC with SHA-384)
      • HS512 (HMAC with SHA-512)
      • RS256 (RSA using SHA-256)
      • ES256 (ECDSA with SHA-256 and NIST standard P-256 elliptic curve)
      • ES384 (ECDSA with SHA-384 and NIST standard P-384 elliptic curve)
      • ES512 (ECDSA with SHA-512 and NIST standard P-521 elliptic curve)

    3. Click Save.

Procedure 2.8. To Obtain the OAuth 2.0/OpenID Connect 1.0 Public Signing Key

AM exposes the public keys used to digitally sign OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect 1.0 access and refresh tokens at a JSON web key (JWK) URI endpoint, which is exposed from all realms for an OAuth2 provider. The following steps show how to access the public keys:

  1. To find the JWK URI, perform an HTTP GET at /oauth2/realms/root/.well-known/openid-configuration.

    curl http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/.well-known/openid-configuration
    {
       "id_token_encryption_alg_values_supported":[
           "RSA1_5"
       ],
       "response_types_supported":[
           "token id_token",
           "code token",
           "code token id_token",
           "token",
           "code id_token",
           "code",
           "id_token"
       ],
       "registration_endpoint":"http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/connect/register",
       "token_endpoint":"http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/access_token",
       "end_session_endpoint":"http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/connect/endSession",
       "scopes_supported":[
           "phone",
           "address",
           "email",
           "openid",
           "profile"
       ],
       "acr_values_supported":[
    
       ],
       "version":"3.0",
       "userinfo_endpoint":"http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/userinfo",
       "token_endpoint_auth_methods_supported":[
           "client_secret_post",
           "private_key_jwt",
           "client_secret_basic"
       ],
       "subject_types_supported":[
           "public"
       ],
       "issuer":"http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root",
       "id_token_encryption_enc_values_supported":[
           "A256CBC-HS512",
           "A128CBC-HS256"
       ],
       "claims_parameter_supported":true,
       "jwks_uri":"http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/connect/jwk_uri",
       "id_token_signing_alg_values_supported":[
           "ES384",
           "ES256",
           "ES512",
           "HS256",
           "HS512",
           "RS256",
           "HS384"
       ],
       "check_session_iframe":"http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/connect/checkSession",
       "claims_supported":[
           "zoneinfo",
           "phone_number",
           "address",
           "email",
           "locale",
           "name",
           "family_name",
           "given_name",
           "profile"
       ],
       "authorization_endpoint":"http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/authorize"
    }

  2. Perform an HTTP GET at the JWKS URI to get the public signing key:

    $ curl http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/connect/jwk_uri
    {
        "keys":
        [
            {
                "kty":"RSA",
                "kid":"SylLC6Njt1KGQktD9Mt+0zceQSU=",
                "use":"sig",
                "alg":"RS256",
                "n":"AK0kHP1O-RgdgLSoWxkuaYoi5Jic6hLKeuKw8WzCfsQ68ntBDf6tVOTn_kZA7Gjf4oJ
                AL1dXLlxIEy-kZWnxT3FF-0MQ4WQYbGBfaW8LTM4uAOLLvYZ8SIVEXmxhJsSlvaiTWCbNFaOf
                iII8bhFp4551YB07NfpquUGEwOxOmci_",
                "e":"AQAB"
            }
        ]
    }

Chapter 3. Using OAuth 2.0

This chapter covers examples and usage of AM with OAuth 2.0.

AM exposes the following REST endpoints for different OAuth 2.0 purposes:

When accessing the APIs, browser-based REST clients can rely on AM to handle the session as usual. First authenticate with AM. Then perform the operations in the browser session.

Clients not running in a browser can authenticate as described in Section A.5, "Authentication and Logout", whereby AM returns a tokenId value. Clients pass the tokenId value in a header named after the authentication cookie, by default iplanetDirectoryPro.

3.1. OAuth 2.0 Client and Resource Server Endpoints

AM exposes REST endpoints for making calls to AM acting as an authorization server.

In addition to the standard authorization and token endpoints described in RFC 6749, AM also exposes a token information endpoint for resource servers to get information about access tokens so they can determine how to respond to requests for protected resources, and an introspection endpoint to retrieve metadata about a token, such as approved scopes and the context in which the token was issued.

When making a REST API call, specify the realm in the path component of the endpoint. You must specify the entire hierarchy of the realm, starting at the top-level realm. Prefix each realm in the hierarchy with the realms/ keyword. For example /realms/root/realms/customers/realms/europe.

When acting as an OAuth 2.0 authorization server, AM exposes the following endpoints for clients and resource servers:

/oauth2/authorize

Authorization endpoint defined in RFC 6749, used to obtain consent and an authorization grant from the resource owner.

The /oauth2/authorize endpoint is protected by the policy created during OAuth 2.0 authorization server configuration, which grants all authenticated users access.

Example:

$ curl \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/authorize\
 ?client_id=myClient\
 &response_type=code\
 &scope=profile\
 &redirect_uri=https://www.example.com

If creating your own consent page, you can create a POST request to the endpoint with the following additional parameters:

decision

Whether the resource owner consents to the requested access, or denies consent.

Valid values are allow or deny.

save_consent

Updates the resource owner's profile to avoid having to prompt the resource owner to grant authorization when the client issues subsequent authorization requests.

To save consent, set the save_consent property to on.

You must provide the Saved Consent Attribute Name property with a profile attribute in which to store the resource owner's consent decision.

For more information on setting this property in the OAuth2 Provider service, see Section 5.2, "OAuth2 Provider".

csrf

Duplicates the contents of the iPlanetDirectoryPro cookie, which contains the SSO token of the resource owner giving consent.

Duplicating the cookie value helps prevent against Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attacks.

Example:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header  "Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded" \
 --Cookie "iPlanetDirectoryPro=AQIC5w...*" \
 --data "redirect_uri=http://www.example.net" \
 --data "scope=profile" \
 --data "response_type=code" \
 --data "client_id=myClient" \
 --data "csrf=AQIC5w...*" \
 --data "decision=allow" \
 --data "save_consent=on" \
 "https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/authorize?response_type=code&client_id=myClient"\
 "&scope=profile&redirect_uri=http://www.example.net"

The /oauth2/authorize endpoint can take additional parameters. In particular, you must specify the realm if the AM OAuth 2.0 provider is configured for a subrealm rather than the top-level realm. For example, if the OAuth 2.0 provider is configured for the /customers realm, then use /oauth2/realms/root/realms/customers/authorize.

The /oauth2/authorize endpoint can also take module and service parameters. Use either as described in Section 8.1, " Authenticating From a Browser" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide, where module specifies the authentication module instance to use or service specifies the authentication chain to use when authenticating the resource owner.

/oauth2/access_token

Token endpoint defined in RFC 6749, used to obtain an access token from the authorization server.

Also used to obtain an access token in the OAuth 2.0 Device flow. For more information, see Section 3.2, "OAuth 2.0 Device Flow Endpoints".

The /oauth2/access_token endpoint can take an additional parameter, auth_chain=authentication-chain, which allows client to specify the authentication chain to use for Password Grant Type.

The following example shows how a client can specify the authentication chain, myAuthChain:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --user "myClientID:password" \
 --data "grant_type=password&username=amadmin&password=cangetinam&scope=profile&auth_chain=myAuthChain" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/access_token

The /oauth2/access_token endpoint can take additional parameters. In particular, you must specify the realm if the AM OAuth 2.0 provider is configured for a subrealm rather than the top-level realm.

For example, if the OAuth 2.0 provider is configured for the /customers realm, then use /oauth2/realms/root/realms/customers/access_token.

/oauth2/device

Device flow endpoint as defined by the Internet-Draft OAuth 2.0 Device Flow, used by a client device to obtain a device code or an access token.

Example: https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/device/code

For more information, see Section 3.2, "OAuth 2.0 Device Flow Endpoints".

/oauth2/token/revoke

When a user logs out of an application, the application revokes any OAuth 2.0 tokens (access and refresh tokens) that are associated with the user. The client can also revoke a token without the need of an SSOToken by sending a request to the /oauth2/token/revoke endpoint as follows:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --data "token=d06ab31e-9cdb-403e-855f-bd77652add84" \
 --data "client_id=MyClientID" \
 --data "client_secret=password" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/token/revoke

If you are revoking an access token, then that token will be revoked. If you are revoking a refresh token, then both the refresh token and any other associated access tokens will also be revoked. Associated access tokens means that any other tokens that have come out of the same authorization grant will also be revoked. For cases where a client has multiple access tokens for a single user that were obtained via different authorization grants, then the client will have to make multiple calls to the /oauth2/token/revoke endpoint to invalidate each token.

/oauth2/tokeninfo

Endpoint not defined in RFC 6749, used to validate tokens, and to retrieve information, such as scopes.

The /oauth2/tokeninfo endpoint takes an HTTP GET on /oauth2/tokeninfo?access_token=token-id, and returns information about the token.

Resource servers — or any party having the token ID — can get token information through this endpoint without authenticating. This means any application or user can validate the token without having to be registered with AM.

Given an access token, a resource server can perform an HTTP GET on /oauth2/tokeninfo?access_token=token-id to retrieve a JSON object indicating token_type, expires_in, scope, and the access_token ID.

Example: https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/tokeninfo

The following example shows AM issuing an access token, and then returning token information:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --user "myClientID:password" \
 --data "grant_type=password&username=demo&password=changeit&scope=cn%20mail" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/access_token
    {
  "expires_in": 599,
  "token_type": "Bearer",
  "refresh_token": "f6dcf133-f00b-4943-a8d4-ee939fc1bf29",
  "access_token": "f9063e26-3a29-41ec-86de-1d0d68aa85e9"
 }

$ curl https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/tokeninfo\
  ?access_token=f9063e26-3a29-41ec-86de-1d0d68aa85e9
    {
  "mail": "demo@example.com",
  "grant_type":"password",
  "scope": [
     "mail",
     "cn"
  ],
  "cn": "demo",
  "realm": "/",
  "cnf": {
     "jwk": {
        "alg": "RS512",
        "e": "AQAB",
        "n": "k7qLlj...G2oucQ",
        "kty": "RSA",
        "use": "sig",
        "kid": "myJWK"
     }
  }
  "token_type": "Bearer",
  "expires_in": 577,
  "client_id": "MyClientID",
  "access_token": "f9063e26-3a29-41ec-86de-1d0d68aa85e9"
}

Note

Running a GET method to the /oauth2/tokeninfo endpoint as shown in the previous example writes the token ID to the access log. To not expose the token ID in the logs, send the OAuth 2.0 access token as part of the authorization bearer header:

$ curl \
 --request GET \
 --header "Authorization Bearer aec6b050-b0a4-4ece-a86f-bd131decbb9c" \
 "https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/tokeninfo"

The resource server making decisions about whether the token is valid can thus use the /oauth2/tokeninfo endpoint to retrieve expiration information about the token. Depending on the scopes implementation, the JSON response about the token can also contain scope information. As described in Section 1.3, "Using Your Own Client and Resource Server", the default scopes implementation in AM considers scopes to be names of attributes in the resource owner's user profile. Notice that the JSON response contains the values for those attributes from the user's profile, as in the preceding example, with scopes set to mail and cn.

/oauth2/introspect

Endpoint defined in draft-ietf-oauth-introspection-04, used to retrieve metadata about a token, such as approved scopes and the context in which the token was issued.

Given an access token, a client can perform an HTTP POST on /oauth2/introspect?token=access_token to retrieve a JSON object indicating the following:

active

Is the token active.

scope

A space-separated list of the scopes associated with the token.

client_id

Client identifier of the client that requested the token.

user_id

The user who authorized the token.

token_type

The type of token.

exp

When the token expires, in seconds since January 1 1970 UTC.

sub

Subject of the token.

iss

Issuer of the token.

cnf

Confirmation key claim containing the optional decoded JSON web key (JWK) associated with the access token. For more information, see Section 1.5, "OAuth 2.0 JSON Web Token Proof-of-Possession".

The /oauth2/introspect endpoint requires authentication. Clients can use one of the following three methods to authenticate to the endpoint:

  • Basic Authorization. Authenticate by passing an authorization header with a bearer type of "Basic" with a value of the base64-encoded string of client_id:client_secret. For an example, see below.

  • Header Values. Authenticate by passing in the client_id and client_secret as header values.

  • JWT Bearer Token. Authenticate by passing in a JWT assertion using the client_assertion_type query parameter set to urn:ietf:params:oauth:client-assertion-type:jwt-bearer and a client_assertion query parameter that contains the JWT assertion. For an example, see Section 1.1.6, "JWT Bearer Profile".

The next example shows the response when authenticating to the /oauth2/introspect endpoint with basic authorization:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header "Authorization: Basic ZGVtbzpjaGFuZ2VpdA==" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/introspect\
 ?token=f9063e26-3a29-41ec-86de-1d0d68aa85e9
{
    "active": true,
    "scope": "mail cn",
    "client_id": "myOAuth2Client",
    "user_id": "demo",
    "token_type": "access_token",
    "exp": 1419356238,
    "sub": "demo",
    "iss": "https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2"
    "cnf": {
        "jwk": {
            "alg": "RS512",
            "e": "AQAB",
            "n": "k7qLlj...G2oucQ",
            "kty": "RSA",
            "use": "sig",
            "kid": "myJWK"
        }
    }
}

Note

Running a POST method to the /oauth2/introspect endpoint as shown in the previous example writes the token ID to the access log. To hide the token ID in the logs, send the OAuth 2.0 access token as part of the POST body:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header "Authorization: Basic ZGVtbzpjaGFuZ2VpdA==" \
 --data "token=f9063e26-3a29-41ec-86de-1d0d68aa85e9"
 "https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/introspect"

3.1.1. Using OAuth 2.0 JSON Web Token Proof-of-Possession

To use the proof-of-possession feature and associate a JSON web key with an OAuth 2.0 access token, perform the following steps:

Procedure 3.1. To Use OAuth 2.0 Proof-of-Possession
  1. As the OAuth 2.0 client, generate a JSON web key pair. Only the public key from the pair should be added to the request for an access token. The key should be represented in JWK format, and may resemble the following example:

    {
        "jwk": {
            "alg": "RS256",
            "e": "AQAB",
            "n": "xea7Tb7rbQ4ZrHNKrg...QFXtJ-didSTtXWCWU1Qrcj0hnDjvkuUFWoSQ_7Q",
            "kty": "RSA",
            "use": "enc",
            "kid": "myPublicJSONWebKey"
        }
    }
    

    Note

    The jwe and jku formats are not supported, the public key must be represented in jwk format.

  2. Base64-encode the JWK. The result may resemble the following example:

    ew0KICAgICJKV0siOiB7DQogICAgICAgICJhbGciOiAiUlMyNTYiLA0KICAgICAgICAiZSI6IC
    JBUUFCIiwNDQogICAgICAgICJraWQiOiAibXlQdWJsaWNKU09OV2ViS2V5Ig0KICAgIH0NCn0=
  3. Include the base64-encoded JWK as the value of the cnf_key parameter in the request to the authorization server for an access token:

    $ curl \
     --request POST \
     --header "Authorization: Basic bXlDbGllbnQ6cGFzc3dvcmQ=" \
     --data "grant_type=client_credentials"\
     --data "scope=profile" \
     --data "cnf_key=ew0KICAgICJKV0siOiB7DQogICAgICAgICJhb
                     GciOiAiUlMyNTYiLA0KICAgICAgICAiZSI6IC
                     JBUUFCIiwNDQogICAgICAgICJraWQiOiAibXl
                     QdWJsaWNKU09OV2ViS2V5Ig0KICAgIH0NCn0=" \
     https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/access_token
    • If the authorization server is configured to use stateful OAuth 2.0 tokens, the response will include an access token ID in the access_token property, which identifies the access token data stored on the server. For example:

      {
          "access_token":"f08f1fcf-3ecb-4120-820d-fb71e3f51c04",
          "scope":"profile",
          "token_type":"Bearer",
          "expires_in":3599
      }
    • If the authorization server is configured to use stateless OAuth 2.0 tokens, the response will be a JSON web token in the access_token, which has the JWK embedded within. The following example has shortened the access token for display purposes:

      {
          "access_token": "eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLCHi51zbE3t...zc2NjI3NDgsInNjb3zUOCVKCX0Se0",
          "scope": "profile",
          "token_type": "Bearer",
          "expires_in": 3599
      }
  4. To access a resource on the resource server:

    1. Present the value of the access_token element to the resource server.

    2. If stateful OAuth 2.0 tokens are enabled, the resource server can make a POST request to the /oauth2/introspect endpoint to acquire the public key. The public key from the original JWK is returned in the cnf element:

      $ curl \
       --request POST \
       --header "Authorization: Basic bXlDbGllbnQ6cGFzc3dvcmQ=" \
       https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/introspect\
      ?token=f08f1fcf-3ecb-4120-820d-fb71e3f51c04
      {
          "active": true,
          "scope": "profile",
          "client_id": "myClient",
          "user_id": "myClient",
          "token_type": "access_token",
          "exp": 1477666348,
          "sub": "myClient",
          "iss": "http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root",
          "cnf": {
              "jwk": {
                  "alg": "RS256",
                  "e": "AQAB",
                  "n": "xea7Tb7rbQ4ZrHNKrg...QFXtJ-didSTtXWCWU1Qrcj0hnDjvkuUFWoSQ_7Q",
                  "kty": "RSA",
                  "use": "enc",
                  "kid": "myPublicJSONWebKey"
              }
          }
      }
    3. The resource server should now use the public key to cryptographically confirm proof-of-possession of the token by the presenter, for example with a challenge-response interaction.

      Successful completion of the challenge-response means that the client must possess the private key that matches the public key presented in the original request, and access to resources can be granted.

3.2. OAuth 2.0 Device Flow Endpoints

If a client device has a limited user interface, it can obtain an OAuth 2.0 device code and ask a user to authorize the client on a more full-featured user agent, such as an Internet browser.

AM provides the /oauth2/device/code, /oauth2/device/user, and /oauth2/access_token endpoints to support the OAuth 2.0 Device Flow.

The following procedures show how to use the OAuth 2.0 device flow endpoints:

Note

In the examples nonce and state OAuth 2.0 parameters are omitted, but should be used in production.

Procedure 3.2. To Request a User Code in the OAuth 2.0 Device Flow

Devices can display a user code and instructions to a user, which can be used on a separate client to provide consent, allowing the device to access resources.

As user codes may be displayed on lower resolution devices, the list of possible characters used has been optimized to reduce ambiguity. User codes consist of a random selection of eight of the following characters:

234567ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTVWXYZabcdefghijkmnopqrstvwxyz

To request a user code in the OAuth 2.0 device flow:

  1. Ensure that an OAuth 2.0/OpenID Connect client Agent profile is configured in AM, as described in Section 5.3, "OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect 1.0 Client Settings".

  2. Create a POST request to the /oauth2/device/code endpoint to acquire a device code. The following URL parameters are required:

    response_type

    Specifies the response type required by the request. Must be set to token.

    scope

    Specifies the list of scopes requested by the client, separated by URL-encoded space characters.

    client_id

    Specifies the name of the client agent profile in AM.

    $ curl \
      --data response_type=token \
      --data scope=phone%20email%20profile%20address \
      --data client_id=myDeviceAgentProfile \
      http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/device/code
    {
        "interval": 5,
        "device_code": "7a95a0a4-6f13-42e3-ac3e-d3d159c94c55",
        "verification_url": "http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/device/user",
        "user_code": "VAL12e0v",
        "expires_in": 300
    }

    On success, AM returns a verification URL, and a user code to enter at that URL. AM also returns an interval, in seconds, that the client device must wait for in between requests for an access token.

  3. The client device should now provide instructions to the user to enter the user code and grant access to the OAuth 2.0 device. The client may choose an appropriate method to convey the instructions, for example text instructions on screen, or a QR code. See Procedure 3.3, "To Grant Consent in the OAuth 2.0 Device Flow".

  4. The client device should also begin polling the authorization server for the access token, once consent has been given. See Procedure 3.4, "To Poll for Authorization in the OAuth 2.0 Device Flow".

Procedure 3.3. To Grant Consent in the OAuth 2.0 Device Flow

OAuth 2.0 device flow requires that the user grants consent to allow the client device to access resources.

  • You can grant consent in the OAuth 2.0 device flow using the AM user interface, or by making calls to AM endpoints.

    • To use the AM user interface, the user should visit the verification URL in a web browser and enter the user code:

      Figure 3.1. OAuth 2.0 User Code
      OAuth 2.0 user code.

      The user can then authorize the device flow client by allowing the requested scopes:

      Figure 3.2. OAuth 2.0 Consent Page
      OAuth 2.0 consent page.

    • To use endpoint calls, create a POST request to the /oauth2/device/user endpoint. The following URL parameter is required:

      user_code

      The user code as provided by the /oauth2/device/code endpoint.

      The form data should be in x-www-form-urlencoded format, and contain the following fields:

      user_code

      The user code as provided by the /oauth2/device/code endpoint.

      scope

      Specifies the list of scopes consented to by the user, separated by URL-encoded space characters.

      client_id

      Specifies the name of the client agent profile in AM.

      response_type

      Must be token.

      decision

      To allow client access, specify allow. Any other value will deny consent.

      csrf

      Duplicates the contents of the iPlanetDirectoryPro cookie, which contains the SSO token of the user granting access.

      Duplicating the cookie value helps prevent against Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attacks.

      The iPlanetDirectoryPro cookie is required and should contain the SSO token of the user granting access to the client.

      $ curl \
        -X POST \
        --header "Cookie: iPlanetDirectoryPro=AQIC5..." \
        --header "Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded" \
        --data scope=phone%20email%20profile%20address \
        --data user_code=VAL12e0v \
        --data response_type=token \
        --data client_id=myDeviceAgentProfile \
        --data decision=allow \
        --data csrf=AQIC5... \
        http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/device/user?user_code=VAL12e0v

      AM returns HTML containing a JavaScript fragment named pageData, with details of the result.

      Successfully allowing or denying access returns:

      pageData = {
          locale: "en-us",
          baseUrl : "http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/XUI",
          realm : "//XUI",
          done: true
      };

      If the supplied user code has already been used, or is incorrect, the following is returned:

      pageData = {
          locale: "*",
          errorCode: "not_found",
          realm : "/",
          baseUrl : "http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/XUI"
      };

    If the user gives consent, AM adds the OAuth 2.0 client to the user's profile page in the Authorized Apps section. For more information, see Section 2.3.2, "User Consent Management".

    Important

    As per Section 4.1.1 of the OAuth 2.0 authorization framework, it is required that the authorization server legitimately obtains an authorization decision from the resource owner.

    Any client using the endpoints to register consent is responsible for ensuring this requirement, AM cannot assert that consent was given in these cases.

Procedure 3.4. To Poll for Authorization in the OAuth 2.0 Device Flow
  • On the client device, create a POST request to poll the /oauth2/access_token endpoint to request an access token. Include the client ID, client secret, and the device code as query parameters in the request. You must also specify a grant_type of http://oauth.net/grant_type/device/1.0.

    The client device must wait for the number of seconds previously provided as the value of interval between polling AM for an access token.

    $ curl \
      --data client_id=myDeviceAgentProfile \
      --data client_secret=password \
      --data grant_type=http://oauth.net/grant_type/device/1.0 \
      --data code=7a95a0a4-6f13-42e3-ac3e-d3d159c94c55 \
      http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/access_token
    {
        "scope": "phone email address profile",
        "code": "20c1fc0c-3153-4a11-8d1f-d815c1a522b5"
    }

    If the user has authorized the client device, an HTTP 200 status code is returned, with an access token that can be used to request resources.

    {
        "expires_in": 3599,
        "token_type": "Bearer",
        "access_token": "c1e9c8a4-6a6c-45b2-919c-335f2cec5a40"
    }

    If the user has not yet authorized the client device, an HTTP 403 status code is returned, with the following error message:

    {
        "error": "authorization_pending",
        "error_description": "The user has not yet completed authorization"
    }

    If the client device is polling faster than the specified interval, an HTTP 400 status code is returned, with the following error message:

    {
        "error": "slow_down",
        "error_description": "The polling interval has not elapsed since the last request"
    }

3.3. OAuth 2.0 Resource Set Endpoint

AM provides a read-only REST endpoint for viewing a resource set registered to a particular user. The endpoint is /users/user/oauth2/resourcesets/ resource_set_ID.

When making a REST API call, specify the realm in the path component of the endpoint. You must specify the entire hierarchy of the realm, starting at the top-level realm. Prefix each realm in the hierarchy with the realms/ keyword. For example /realms/root/realms/customers/realms/europe.

The following URL could be used to display the resource sets belonging to a user named demo in a subrealm of the top-level realm named myrealm:

https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/myrealm/users/demo/oauth2/resourcesets/43225628-4c5b-4206-b7cc-5164da81decd0

To read a resource set, either the resource set owner or an administrator such as amadmin must have logged in to AM (the authorization server) and have been issued an SSO token.

Procedure 3.5. To Read an OAuth 2.0 Resource Set
  • Create a GET request to the resourcesets endpoint, including the SSO token in a header based on the configured session cookie name (for example: iPlanetDirectoryPro), and with the resource set ID in the URL.

    The following example uses an SSO token acquired by the amadmin user to view a resource set, and related policy, belonging to the demo user in the top level realm:

    $ curl \
    --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5wM2LY4Sfcxs...EwNDU2NjE0*" \
    https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/users/demo\
    /oauth2/resourcesets/43225628-4c5b-4206-b7cc-5164da81decd0
    {
        "scopes": [
             "http://photoz.example.com/dev/scopes/view",
             "http://photoz.example.com/dev/scopes/comment"
        ],
        "_id": "43225628-4c5b-4206-b7cc-5164da81decd0",
        "resourceServer": "UMA-Resource-Server",
        "name": "My Videos",
        "icon_uri": "http://www.example.com/icons/cinema.png",
        "policy": {
            "permissions": [
                {
                    "subject": "user.1",
                    "scopes": [
                        "http://photoz.example.com/dev/scopes/view"
                    ]
                },
                {
                    "subject": "user.2",
                    "scopes": [
                        "http://photoz.example.com/dev/scopes/comment",
                        "http://photoz.example.com/dev/scopes/view"
                    ]
                }
            ]
        },
        "type": "http://www.example.com/rsets/videos"
    }

    Tip

    You can specify the fields that are returned with the _fields query string filter. For example ?_fields=scopes, resourceServer, name

    On success, an HTTP 200 OK status code is returned, with a JSON body representing the resource set. If a policy relating to the resource set exists, a representation of the policy is also returned in the JSON.

    If the specified resource set does not exist, an HTTP 404 Not Found status code is returned, as follows:

    {
        "code": 404,
        "reason": "Not Found",
        "message": "No resource set with id, bad-id-3e28-4c19-8a2b-36fc24c899df0, found."
    }

    If the SSO token used is not that of the resource set owner or an administrator, an HTTP 403 Forbidden status code is returned, as follows:

    {
        "code": 403,
        "reason": "Forbidden",
        "message": "User, user.1, not authorized."
    }

3.4. OAuth 2.0 Token Administration Endpoint

The AM-specific OAuth 2.0 token administration endpoint lets administrators read, list, and delete OAuth 2.0 tokens. OAuth 2.0 clients can also manage their own tokens.

AM exposes the token administration endpoint at /frrest/oauth2/token, such as https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/frrest/oauth2/token.

Note

This endpoint location is likely to change in the future.

To get a token, perform an HTTP GET on /frrest/oauth2/token/token-id, as in the following example:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --user "myClientID:password" \
 --data "grant_type=password&username=demo&password=changeit&scope=cn" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/access_token
 {
    "scope": "cn",
    "expires_in": 60,
    "token_type": "Bearer",
    "access_token": "f5fb4833-ba3d-41c8-bba4-833b49c3fe2c"
}

$ curl \
 --request GET \
 --header "iplanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5wM2LY4Sfcxs...EwNDU2NjE0*" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/frrest/oauth2/token/f5fb4833-ba3d-41c8-bba4-833b49c3fe2c
 {
    "expireTime": [
        "1418818601396"
    ],
    "tokenName": [
        "access_token"
    ],
    "scope": [
        "cn"
    ],
    "grant_type": [
        "password"
    ],
    "clientID": [
        "myClientID"
    ],
    "parent": [],
    "id": [
        "f5fb4833-ba3d-41c8-bba4-833b49c3fe2c"
    ],
    "tokenType": [
        "Bearer"
    ],
    "redirectURI": [],
    "nonce": [],
    "realm": [
        "/"
    ],
    "userName": [
        "demo"
    ]
}

To list tokens, perform an HTTP GET on /frrest/oauth2/token/?_queryId=access_token to request the list of access tokens for the current user.

The following example shows a search for the demo user's access tokens:

$ curl \
 --request GET \
 --header "iplanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5wM2LY4Sfcw..." \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/frrest/oauth2/token/?_queryId=access_token
 {
    "result": [
    {
      "_rev": "1753454107",
      "tokenName": [
        "access_token"
      ],
      "expireTime": "Indefinitely",
      "scope": [
        "openid"
      ],
      "grant_type": [
        "password"
      ],
      "clientID": [
        "myClientID"
      ],
      "tokenType": [
        "Bearer"
      ],
      "redirectURI": [],
      "nonce": [],
      "realm": [
        "/test"
      ],
      "userName": [
        "user.4"
      ],
      "display_name": "",
      "scopes": "openid"
    },
    {
      "_rev": "1753454107",
      "tokenName": [
        "access_token"
      ],
      "expireTime": "Indefinitely",
      "scope": [
        "openid"
      ],
      "grant_type": [
        "password"
      ],
      "clientID": [
        "myClientID"
      ],
      "tokenType": [
        "Bearer"
      ],
      "redirectURI": [],
      "nonce": [],
      "realm": [
        "/test"
      ],
      "userName": [
        "user.4"
      ],
      "display_name": "",
      "scopes": "openid"
    }
  ],
  "resultCount": 2,
  "pagedResultsCookie": null,
  "totalPagedResultsPolicy": "NONE",
  "totalPagedResults": -1,
  "remainingPagedResults": -1
}

To list a specific user's tokens, perform an HTTP GET on /ffrest/oauth2/token/?_queryId=userName=string, where string is the user, such as user.4. You must use an amadmin token with this GET method. Delegated admins are not supported here.

$ curl \
  --request GET \
  --header "iplanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5wM2LY4Sfcxs...EwNDU2NjE0*" \
  https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/frrest/oauth2/token/?_queryId=userName=user.4
  {
    "result": [
    {
      "_id": "2aaddde8-586b-4cb7-b431-eb86af57aabc",
      "_rev": "-549186065",
      "tokenName": [
        "access_token"
      ],
      "expireTime": "Indefinitely",
      "scope": [
        "openid"
      ],
      "grant_type": [
        "password"
      ],
      "authGrantId": [
        "50e9f80b-d193-4aeb-93e9-e383ea2cabd3"
      ],
      "clientID": [
        "myClientID"
      ],
      "parent": [],
      "refreshToken": [
        "5e1423a2-d2cd-40d5-8f54-5b695836cd44"
      ],
      "id": [
        "2aaddde8-586b-4cb7-b431-eb86af57aabc"
      ],
      "tokenType": [
        "Bearer"
      ],
      "auditTrackingId": [
        "6ac90d13-9cac-444b-bfbc-c7aca16713de-777"
      ],
      "redirectURI": [],
      "nonce": [],
      "realm": [
        "/test"
      ],
      "userName": [
        "user.4"
      ],
      "display_name": "",
      "scopes": "openid"
    },
    {
      "_id": "5e1423a2-d2cd-40d5-8f54-5b695836cd44",
      "_rev": "1171292923",
      "tokenName": [
        "refresh_token"
      ],
      "expireTime": "Oct 18, 2016 10:51 AM",
      "scope": [
        "openid"
      ],
      "grant_type": [
        "password"
      ],
      "authGrantId": [
        "50e9f80b-d193-4aeb-93e9-e383ea2cabd3"
      ],
      "clientID": [
        "myClientID"
      ],
      "authModules": [],
      "id": [
        "5e1423a2-d2cd-40d5-8f54-5b695836cd44"
      ],
      "tokenType": [
        "Bearer"
      ],
      "auditTrackingId": [
        "6ac90d13-9cac-444b-bfbc-c7aca16713de-776"
      ],
      "redirectURI": [],
      "realm": [
        "/test"
      ],
      "userName": [
        "user.4"
      ],
      "acr": [],
      "display_name": "",
      "scopes": "openid"
    },
  ],
  "resultCount": 2,
  "pagedResultsCookie": null,
  "totalPagedResultsPolicy": "NONE",
  "totalPagedResults": -1,
  "remainingPagedResults": -1
}

To delete a token, perform an HTTP POST to /oauth2/token/revoke as per RFC 7009. Include the token to delete, and the client authentication credentials in the POST body data, as in the following example:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --data "client_id=myClientID" \
 --data "client_secret=password" \
 --data "token=2aaddde8-586b-4cb7-b431-eb86af57aabc" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/oauth2/token/revoke
{}

3.5. OAuth 2.0 Client Administration Endpoint

The OAuth 2.0 administration endpoint lets AM administrators and agent administrators create (that is, register) and delete OAuth 2.0 clients.

AM exposes this endpoint at /json/realm-config/agents/OAuth2Client/, for example https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realm-config/agents/OAuth2Client/.

You can use the AM API Explorer for detailed information about the parameters supported by this endpoint, and to test it against your deployed AM instance.

In the AM console, click the Help icon, and then navigate to API Explorer > /realm-config > /agents > /OAuth2Client.

To create an OAuth 2.0 client, perform an HTTP POST to /realm-config/agents/OAuth2Client/Client ID with a JSON object fully specifying the client.

When making a REST API call, specify the realm in the path component of the endpoint. You must specify the entire hierarchy of the realm, starting at the top-level realm. Prefix each realm in the hierarchy with the realms/ keyword. For example /realms/root/realms/customers/realms/europe.

The following example creates an OAuth 2.0 client named myClient in a subrealm of the top-level realm named subrealm1:

$  curl \
  --request PUT \
  --header 'Content-Type: application/json' --header 'Accept: application/json' \
  --header "iplanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5wM...3MTYxOA..*" \
  --data '{
      "userpassword": "secret12",
      "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.clientType":"Confidential",
      "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.redirectionURIs":
          ["www.client.com","www.example.com"],
      "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.scopes":
          ["cn","sn"],
      "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.defaultScopes":
          ["cn"],
      "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.name":
          ["My Test Client"],
      "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.description":
          ["OAuth 2.0 Client"]
  }' \
  'http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/json/realms/root/realms/subrealm1/realm-config/agents/OAuth2Client/testClient'
{
    "_id" : "testClient",
    "_rev" : "2001898072",
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.redirectionURIs" : [ "www.client.com", "www.example.com" ],
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.tokenEndPointAuthMethod" : "client_secret_basic",
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.jwks" : null,
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.claims" : [ "[0]=" ],
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.jwtTokenLifeTime" : 0,
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.accessTokenLifeTime" : 0,
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.defaultMaxAge" : 600,
    "idTokenEncryptionEnabled" : false,
    "userpassword" : "secret12",
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.contacts" : [ "[0]=" ],
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.subjectType" : "Public",
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.postLogoutRedirectURI" : [ "[0]=" ],
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.clientType" : "Confidential",
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.scopes" : [ "cn", "sn" ],
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.description" : [ "OAuth 2.0 Client" ],
    "idTokenPublicEncryptionKey" : null,
    "idTokenEncryptionMethod" : "A128CBC-HS256",
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.jwksURI" : "http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/oauth2/realms/root/realms/subrealm1/connect/jwk_uri",
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.clientJwtPublicKey" : null,
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.authorizationCodeLifeTime" : 0,
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.accessToken" : null,
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.sectorIdentifierURI" : null,
    "idTokenEncryptionAlgorithm" : "RSA1_5",
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.refreshTokenLifeTime" : 0,
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.clientSessionURI" : null,
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.defaultScopes" : [ "cn" ],
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.clientName" : [ "[0]=" ],
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.idTokenSignedResponseAlg" : "HS256",
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.defaultMaxAgeEnabled" : false,
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.name" : [ "My Test Client" ],
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.responseTypes" : [
        "[6]=code token id_token",
        "[0]=code",
        "[4]=token id_token",
        "[2]=id_token",
        "[3]=code token",
        "[1]=token",
        "[5]=code id_token" ],
    "com.forgerock.openam.oauth2provider.publicKeyLocation" : "jwks_uri",
    "sunIdentityServerDeviceStatus" : "Active",
    "isConsentImplied" : false,
    "_type" : {
      "_id" : "OAuth2Client",
      "name" : "OAuth2 Clients",
      "collection" : true
    }
}

To delete an OAuth 2.0 client, perform an HTTP DELETE on /json/realm-config/agents/OAuth2Client/client-id, as in the following example:

$ curl \
 --request DELETE \
 --header "iplanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5wM...3MTYxOA..*" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realm-config/agents/OAuth2Client/myClient
{"success":"true"}

Tip

When making a REST API call, specify the realm in the path component of the endpoint. You must specify the entire hierarchy of the realm, starting at the top-level realm. Prefix each realm in the hierarchy with the realms/ keyword. For example /realms/root/realms/customers/realms/europe.

The following example deletes an OAuth 2.0 client with ID myClient from a subrealm in the top-level realm named myRealm:

$ curl \
 --request DELETE \
 --header "iplanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5wM...3MTYxOA..*" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/myRealm/realm-config/agents/OAuth2Client/myClient
{"success":"true"}

3.6. OAuth 2.0 Sample Mobile Applications

Source code for sample mobile applications is available in sample repositories in the ForgeRock commons project. Get local clones of one or more of the following repositories so that you can try these sample applications on your system:

For example, if you have a Mac running OS X 10.8 or later with Xcode installed, try the AM OAuth 2.0 iOS Sample App.

Figure 3.3. OAuth 2.0 iOS Sample Application
OAuth 2.0 iOS Sample App

Chapter 4. Customizing OAuth 2.0

This chapter covers customizing AM's support for OAuth 2.0.

4.1. Customizing OAuth 2.0 Scope Handling

RFC 6749, The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework, describes access token scopes as a set of case-sensitive strings defined by the authorization server. Clients can request scopes, and resource owners can authorize them.

The default scopes implementation in AM treats scopes as profile attributes for the resource owner. When a resource server or other entity uses the access token to get token information from AM, AM populates the scopes with profile attribute values. For example, if one of the scopes is mail, AM sets mail to the resource owner's email address in the token information returned.

You can change this behavior by writing your own scope validator plugin. This section shows how to write a custom OAuth 2.0 scope validator plugin for use in an OAuth 2.0 provider (authorization server) configuration.

4.1.1. Designing an OAuth 2.0 Scope Validator Plugin

A scope validator plugin implements the org.forgerock.oauth2.core.ScopeValidator interface. As described in the API specification, the ScopeValidator interface has several methods that your plugin overrides.

The following example plugin sets whether read and write permissions were granted.

public class CustomScopeValidator implements ScopeValidator {
    @Override
    public Set<String> validateAuthorizationScope(
            ClientRegistration clientRegistration,
            Set<String> scope,
            OAuth2Request oAuth2Request) {
        if (scope == null || scope.isEmpty()) {
            return clientRegistration.getDefaultScopes();
        }

        Set<String> scopes = new HashSet<String>(
                clientRegistration.getAllowedScopes());
        scopes.retainAll(scope);
        return scopes;
    }

    @Override
    public Set<String> validateAccessTokenScope(
            ClientRegistration clientRegistration,
            Set<String> scope,
            OAuth2Request request) {
        if (scope == null || scope.isEmpty()) {
            return clientRegistration.getDefaultScopes();
        }

        Set<String> scopes = new HashSet<String>(
                clientRegistration.getAllowedScopes());
        scopes.retainAll(scope);
        return scopes;
    }

    @Override
    public Set<String> validateRefreshTokenScope(
            ClientRegistration clientRegistration,
            Set<String> requestedScope,
            Set<String> tokenScope,
            OAuth2Request request) {
        if (requestedScope == null || requestedScope.isEmpty()) {
            return tokenScope;
        }

        Set<String> scopes = new HashSet<String>(tokenScope);
        scopes.retainAll(requestedScope);
        return scopes;
    }

    /**
     * Set read and write permissions according to scope.
     *
     * @param token The access token presented for validation.
     * @return The map of read and write permissions,
     *         with permissions set to {@code true} or {@code false},
     *         as appropriate.
     */
    private Map<String,Object> mapScopes(AccessToken token) {
        Set<String> scopes = token.getScope();
        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<String, Object>();
        final String[] permissions = {"read", "write"};

        for (String scope : permissions) {
            if (scopes.contains(scope)) {
                map.put(scope, true);
            } else {
                map.put(scope, false);
            }
        }
        return map;
    }

    @Override
    public UserInfoClaims getUserInfo(
            AccessToken token,
            OAuth2Request request)
            throws UnauthorizedClientException {
        Map<String, Object> response = mapScopes(token);
        response.put("sub", token.getResourceOwnerId());
        UserInfoClaims userInfoClaims = new UserInfoClaims(response, null);
        return userInfoClaims;
    }

    @Override
    public Map<String, Object> evaluateScope(AccessToken token) {
        return mapScopes(token);
    }

    @Override
    public Map<String, String> additionalDataToReturnFromAuthorizeEndpoint(
            Map<String, Token> tokens,
            OAuth2Request request) {
        return new HashMap<String, String>(); // No special handling
    }

    @Override
    public void additionalDataToReturnFromTokenEndpoint(
            AccessToken token,
            OAuth2Request request)
            throws ServerException, InvalidClientException {
        // No special handling
    }
}

4.1.2. Building the OAuth 2.0 Scope Validator Sample Plugin

The sample scope validator plugin source is available online. Get a local clone so that you can try the sample on your system. In the sources you find the following files.

pom.xml

Apache Maven project file for the module

This file specifies how to build the sample scope validator plugin, and also specifies its dependencies on AM components.

src/main/java/org/forgerock/openam/examples/CustomScopeValidator.java

Core class for the sample OAuth 2.0 scope validator plugin

See Section 4.1.1, "Designing an OAuth 2.0 Scope Validator Plugin" for a listing.

Build the module using Apache Maven.

$ cd /path/to/openam-scope-sample
$ mvn install
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building openam-scope-sample 1.0.0-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

...

[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-jar-plugin:2.3.2:jar (default-jar) @ openam-scope-sample ---
[INFO] Building jar: .../target/openam-scope-sample-1.0.0-SNAPSHOT.jar

...

[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

After you successfully build the module, you find the .jar in the target/ directory of the project.

4.1.3. Configuring an Instance to Use the Plugin

After building your plugin .jar file, copy the .jar file under WEB-INF/lib/ where you deployed AM.

Restart AM or the container in which it runs.

In the AM console, you can either configure a specific OAuth 2.0 provider to use your plugin, or configure your plugin as the default for new OAuth 2.0 providers. In either case, you need the class name of your plugin. The class name for the sample plugin is org.forgerock.openam.examples.CustomScopeValidator.

  • To configure a specific OAuth 2.0 provider to use your plugin, navigate to Realms > Realm Name > Services, click OAuth2 Provider, and enter the class name of your scopes plugin to the Scope Implementation Class field.

  • To configure your plugin as the default for new OAuth 2.0 providers, add the class name of your scopes plugin. Navigate to Configure > Global Services, click OAuth2 Provider, and set Scope Implementation Class.

4.1.4. Trying the Sample Plugin

In order to try the sample plugin, make sure you have configured an OAuth 2.0 provider to use the sample plugin. Also, set up an OAuth 2.0 client of the provider that takes scopes read and write.

Next try the provider as shown in the following example:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --data "grant_type=client_credentials \
&client_id=myClientID&client_secret=password&scope=read" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/access_token

{
    "scope": "read",
    "expires_in": 59,
    "token_type": "Bearer",
    "access_token": "c8860442-daba-4af0-a1d9-b607c03e5a0b"
}

$ curl https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/oauth2/realms/root/tokeninfo\
?access_token=0d492486-11a7-4175-b116-2fc1cbff6d78
{
    "scope": [
        "read"
    ],
    "grant_type": "client_credentials",
    "realm": "/",
    "write": false,
    "read": true,
    "token_type": "Bearer",
    "expires_in": 24,
    "access_token": "c8860442-daba-4af0-a1d9-b607c03e5a0b"
}

As seen in this example, the requested scope read is authorized, but the write scope has not been authorized.

Chapter 5. Reference

This reference section covers settings and other information relating to OAuth 2.0 support in AM.

5.2. OAuth2 Provider

amster type ID: oauth-oidc

5.2.1. Global Attributes

The following settings appear on the Global Attributes tab:

Token Blacklist Cache Size

Number of blacklisted tokens to cache in memory to speed up blacklist checks and reduce load on the CTS.

Default value: 10000

amster data attribute: blacklistCacheSize

Blacklist Poll Interval (seconds)

How frequently to poll for token blacklist changes from other servers, in seconds.

How often each server will poll the CTS for token blacklist changes from other servers. This is used to maintain a highly compressed view of the overall current token blacklist improving performance. A lower number will reduce the delay for blacklisted tokens to propagate to all servers at the cost of increased CTS load. Set to 0 to disable this feature completely.

Default value: 60

amster data attribute: blacklistPollInterval

Blacklist Purge Delay (minutes)

Length of time to blacklist tokens beyond their expiry time.

Allows additional time to account for clock skew to ensure that a token has expired before it is removed from the blacklist.

Default value: 1

amster data attribute: blacklistPurgeDelay

HMAC ID Token Authenticity Secret

A secret to use when signing a claim in HMAC-signed ID tokens so that authenticity can be assured when they are presented back to OpenAM.

Default value: 0ERl/2qAqqQTWOwvLrTsUH2icdnRqKE3tzD+UBiO8iY=

amster data attribute: idTokenAuthenticitySecret

ID Token Signing Key Alias for Agent Clients

The alias for the RSA key that should be used signing ID tokens for Agent OAuth2 Clients

Default value: test

amster data attribute: agentIdTokenSigningKeyAlias

5.2.2. Core

The following settings appear on the Core tab:

Use Stateless Access & Refresh Tokens

When enabled, OpenAM issues access and refresh tokens that can be inspected by resource servers.

Default value: false

amster data attribute: statelessTokensEnabled

Authorization Code Lifetime (seconds)

The time an authorization code is valid for, in seconds.

Default value: 120

amster data attribute: codeLifetime

Refresh Token Lifetime (seconds)

The time in seconds a refresh token is valid for. If this field is set to -1, the token will never expire.

Default value: 604800

amster data attribute: refreshTokenLifetime

Access Token Lifetime (seconds)

The time an access token is valid for, in seconds.

Default value: 3600

amster data attribute: accessTokenLifetime

Issue Refresh Tokens

Whether to issue a refresh token when returning an access token.

Default value: true

amster data attribute: issueRefreshToken

Issue Refresh Tokens on Refreshing Access Tokens

Whether to issue a refresh token when refreshing an access token.

Default value: true

amster data attribute: issueRefreshTokenOnRefreshedToken

Saved Consent Attribute Name

Name of a case-sensitive and multi-valued attribute on resource owner profiles where OpenAM can save authorization consent decisions.

When the resource owner chooses to save the decision to authorize access for a client application, then OpenAM updates the resource owner's profile to avoid having to prompt the resource owner to grant authorization when the client issues subsequent authorization requests.

amster data attribute: savedConsentAttribute

5.2.3. Advanced

The following settings appear on the Advanced tab:

Custom Login URL Template

Custom URL for handling login, to override the default OpenAM login page.

Supports Freemarker syntax, with the following variables:

VariableDescription
gotoUrl The URL to redirect to after login.
acrValues The Authentication Context Class Reference (acr) values for the authorization request.
realm The OpenAM realm the authorization request was made on.
module The name of the OpenAM authentication module requested to perform resource owner authentication.
service The name of the OpenAM authentication chain requested to perform resource owner authentication.
locale A space-separated list of locales, ordered by preference.

The following example template redirects users to a non-OpenAM front end to handle login, which will then redirect back to the /oauth2/authorize endpoint with any required parameters:

http://mylogin.com/login?goto=${goto}<#if acrValues??>&acr_values=${acrValues}</#if><#if realm??>&realm=${realm}</#if><#if module??>&module=${module}</#if><#if service??>&service=${service}</#if><#if locale??>&locale=${locale}</#if>

amster data attribute: customLoginUrlTemplate

Scope Implementation Class

The class that contains the required scope implementation, must implement the org.forgerock.oauth2.core.ScopeValidator interface.

Default value: org.forgerock.openam.oauth2.OpenAMScopeValidator

amster data attribute: scopeImplementationClass

Response Type Plugins

List of plugins that handle the valid response_type values.

OAuth 2.0 clients pass response types as parameters to the OAuth 2.0 Authorization endpoint (/oauth2/authorize) to indicate which grant type is requested from the provider. For example, the client passes code when requesting an authorization code, and token when requesting an access token.

Values in this list take the form response-type|plugin-class-name.

Default value:

code|org.forgerock.oauth2.core.AuthorizationCodeResponseTypeHandler
device_code|org.forgerock.oauth2.core.TokenResponseTypeHandler
token|org.forgerock.oauth2.core.TokenResponseTypeHandler

amster data attribute: responseTypeClasses

User Profile Attribute(s) the Resource Owner is Authenticated On

Names of profile attributes that resource owners use to log in. You can add others to the default, for example mail.

Default value: uid

amster data attribute: authenticationAttributes

User Display Name attribute

The profile attribute that contains the name to be displayed for the user on the consent page.

Default value: cn

amster data attribute: displayNameAttribute

Supported Scopes

The set of supported scopes, with translations.

Scopes may be entered as simple strings or pipe-separated strings representing the internal scope name, locale, and localized description.

For example: read|en|Permission to view email messages in your account

Locale strings are in the format: language_country_variant, for example en, en_GB, or en_US_WIN.

If the locale and pipe is omitted, the description is displayed to all users that have undefined locales.

If the description is also omitted, nothing is displayed on the consent page for the scope. For example specifying read| would allow the scope read to be used by the client, but would not display it to the user on the consent page when requested.

amster data attribute: supportedScopes

Subject Types supported

List of subject types supported. Valid values are:

  • public - Each client receives the same subject (sub) value.

  • pairwise - Each client receives a different subject (sub) value, to prevent correlation between clients.

Default value: public

amster data attribute: supportedSubjectTypes

Default Client Scopes

List of scopes a client will be granted if they request registration without specifying which scopes they want. Default scopes are NOT auto-granted to clients created through the OpenAM console.

amster data attribute: defaultScopes

OAuth2 Token Signing Algorithm

Algorithm used to sign stateless OAuth 2.0 tokens in order to detect tampering.

OpenAM supports signing algorithms listed in JSON Web Algorithms (JWA): "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS:

  • HS256 - HMAC with SHA-256.

  • HS384 - HMAC with SHA-384.

  • HS512 - HMAC with SHA-512.

  • ES256 - ECDSA with SHA-256 and NIST standard P-256 elliptic curve.

  • ES384 - ECDSA with SHA-384 and NIST standard P-384 elliptic curve.

  • ES512 - ECDSA with SHA-512 and NIST standard P-521 elliptic curve.

  • RS256 - RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-256.

The possible values for this property are:

HS256
HS384
HS512
RS256
ES256
ES384
ES512

Default value: HS256

amster data attribute: tokenSigningAlgorithm

Stateless Token Compression

Whether stateless access and refresh tokens should be compressed.

amster data attribute: tokenCompressionEnabled

Token Signing HMAC Shared Secret

Base64-encoded key used by HS256, HS384 and HS512.

Default value: 0ERl/2qAqqQTWOwvLrTsUH2icdnRqKE3tzD+UBiO8iY=

amster data attribute: tokenSigningHmacSharedSecret

Token Signing RSA public/private key pair

The public/private key pair used by RS256.

The public/private key pair will be retrieved from the keystore referenced by the property com.sun.identity.saml.xmlsig.keystore.

Default value: test

amster data attribute: keypairName

Token Signing ECDSA public/private key pair alias

The list of public/private key pairs used for the elliptic curve algorithms (ES256/ES384/ES512). Add an entry to specify an alias for a specific elliptic curve algorithm, for example ES256|es256Alias.

Each of the public/private key pairs will be retrieved from the keystore referenced by the property com.sun.identity.saml.xmlsig.keystore.

Default value:

ES512|es512test
ES384|es384test
ES256|es256test

amster data attribute: tokenSigningECDSAKeyAlias

Subject identifier hash salt

If pairwise subject types are supported, it is STRONGLY RECOMMENDED to change this value. It is used in the salting of hashes for returning specific sub claims to individuals using the same request_uri or sector_identifier_uri.

For example, you might set this property to: changeme

amster data attribute: hashSalt

Code verifier parameter required

If enabled, requests using the authorization code grant require a code_challenge attribute.

For more information, read the draft specification for this feature.

Default value: false

amster data attribute: codeVerifierEnforced

Modified Timestamp attribute name

The identity Data Store attribute used to return modified timestamp values.

amster data attribute: modifiedTimestampAttribute

Created Timestamp attribute name

The identity Data Store attribute used to return created timestamp values.

amster data attribute: createdTimestampAttribute

Allow clients to skip consent

If enabled, clients may be configured so that the resource owner will not be asked for consent during authorization flows.

Default value: false

amster data attribute: clientsCanSkipConsent

Enable auth module messages for Password Credentials Grant

If enabled, authentication module failure messages are used to create Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant failure messages. If disabled, a standard authentication failed message is used.

The Password Grant Type requires the grant_type=password parameter.

Default value: false

amster data attribute: moduleMessageEnabledInPasswordGrant

5.2.4. OpenID Connect

The following settings appear on the OpenID Connect tab:

OIDC Claims Script

The script that is run when issuing an ID token or making a request to the userinfo endpoint during OpenID requests.

The script gathers the scopes and populates claims, and has access to the access token, the user's identity and, if available, the user's session.

The possible values for this property are:

OIDC Claims Script

Default value: OIDC Claims Script

amster data attribute: oidcClaimsScript

ID Token Signing Algorithms supported

Algorithms supported to sign OpenID Connect id_tokens.

OpenAM supports signing algorithms listed in JSON Web Algorithms (JWA): "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS:

  • HS256 - HMAC with SHA-256.

  • HS384 - HMAC with SHA-384.

  • HS512 - HMAC with SHA-512.

  • ES256 - ECDSA with SHA-256 and NIST standard P-256 elliptic curve.

  • ES384 - ECDSA with SHA-384 and NIST standard P-384 elliptic curve.

  • ES512 - ECDSA with SHA-512 and NIST standard P-521 elliptic curve.

  • RS256 - RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-256.

Default value:

ES384
HS256
HS512
ES256
RS256
HS384
ES512

amster data attribute: supportedIDTokenSigningAlgorithms

ID Token Encryption Algorithms supported

Encryption algorithms supported to encrypt OpenID Connect ID tokens in order to hide its contents.

OpenAM supports the following ID token encryption algorithms:

  • RSA-OAEP - RSA with Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) with SHA-1 and MGF-1.

  • RSA-OAEP-256 - RSA with OAEP with SHA-256 and MGF-1.

  • A128KW - AES Key Wrapping with 128-bit key derived from the client secret.

  • RSA1_5 - RSA with PKCS#1 v1.5 padding.

  • A256KW - AES Key Wrapping with 256-bit key derived from the client secret.

  • dir - Direct encryption with AES using the hashed client secret.

  • A192KW - AES Key Wrapping with 192-bit key derived from the client secret.

Default value:

RSA-OAEP
RSA-OAEP-256
A128KW
RSA1_5
A256KW
dir
A192KW

amster data attribute: supportedIDTokenEncryptionAlgorithms

ID Token Encryption Methods supported

Encryption methods supported to encrypt OpenID Connect ID tokens in order to hide its contents.

OpenAM supports the following ID token encryption algorithms:

  • A128GCM, A192GCM, and A256GCM - AES in Galois Counter Mode (GCM) authenticated encryption mode.

  • A128CBC-HS256, A192CBC-HS384, and A256CBC-HS512 - AES encryption in CBC mode, with HMAC-SHA-2 for integrity.

Default value:

A256GCM
A192GCM
A128GCM
A128CBC-HS256
A192CBC-HS384
A256CBC-HS512

amster data attribute: supportedIDTokenEncryptionMethods

Supported Claims

Set of claims supported by the OpenID Connect /oauth2/userinfo endpoint, with translations.

Claims may be entered as simple strings or pipe separated strings representing the internal claim name, locale, and localized description.

For example: name|en|Your full name..

Locale strings are in the format: language + "_" + country + "_" + variant, for example en, en_GB, or en_US_WIN. If the locale and pipe is omitted, the description is displayed to all users that have undefined locales.

If the description is also omitted, nothing is displayed on the consent page for the claim. For example specifying family_name| would allow the claim family_name to be used by the client, but would not display it to the user on the consent page when requested.

amster data attribute: supportedClaims

OpenID Connect JWT Token Lifetime (seconds)

The amount of time the JWT will be valid for, in seconds.

Default value: 3600

amster data attribute: jwtTokenLifetime

Token Encryption RSA public/private key pair alias

The list of public/private key pairs used for the RSA algorithms (RSA1_5/RSA-OAEP/RSA-OAEP-256). Add an entry to specify an alias for a specific RSA algorithm, for example RSA1_5|rsa1_5Alias.

Each of the public/private key pairs will be retrieved from the keystore referenced by the property com.sun.identity.saml.xmlsig.keystore.

Default value:

RSA1_5|test
RSA-OAEP|test
RSA-OAEP-256|test

amster data attribute: tokenEncryptionSigningKeyAlias

5.2.5. Advanced OpenID Connect

The following settings appear on the Advanced OpenID Connect tab:

Remote JSON Web Key URL

The Remote URL where the providers JSON Web Key can be retrieved.

If this setting is not configured, then OpenAM provides a local URL to access the public key of the private key used to sign ID tokens.

amster data attribute: jkwsURI

Idtokeninfo endpoint requires client authentication

When enabled, the /oauth2/idtokeninfo endpoint requires client authentication if the signing algorithm is set to HS256, HS384, or HS512.

Default value: true

amster data attribute: idTokenInfoClientAuthenticationEnabled

Enable "claims_parameter_supported"

If enabled, clients will be able to request individual claims using the claims request parameter, as per section 5.5 of the OpenID Connect specification.

Default value: false

amster data attribute: claimsParameterSupported

Allow Open Dynamic Client Registration

Allow clients to register without an access token. If enabled, you should consider adding some form of rate limiting. See Client Registration in the OpenID Connect specification for details.

Default value: false

amster data attribute: allowDynamicRegistration

Generate Registration Access Tokens

Whether to generate Registration Access Tokens for clients that register via open dynamic client registration. Such tokens allow the client to access the Client Configuration Endpoint as per the OpenID Connect specification. This setting has no effect if open dynamic client registration is disabled.

Default value: true

amster data attribute: generateRegistrationAccessTokens

OpenID Connect acr_values to Auth Chain Mapping

Maps OpenID Connect ACR values to authentication chains. See the acr_values parameter in the OpenID Connect authentication request specification for more details.

amster data attribute: loaMapping

OpenID Connect default acr claim

Default value to use as the acr claim in an OpenID Connect ID Token when using the default authentication chain.

amster data attribute: defaultACR

OpenID Connect id_token amr values to Auth Module mappings

Specify amr values to be returned in the OpenID Connect id_token. Once authentication has completed, the authentication modules that were used from the authentication service will be mapped to the amr values. If you do not require amr values, or are not providing OpenID Connect tokens, leave this field blank.

amster data attribute: amrMappings

Always return claims in ID Tokens

If enabled, include scope-derived claims in the id_token, even if an access token is also returned that could provide access to get the claims from the userinfo endpoint.

If not enabled, if an access token is requested the client must use it to access the userinfo endpoint for scope-derived claims, as they will not be included in the ID token.

Default value: false

amster data attribute: alwaysAddClaimsToToken

Store Ops Tokens

Whether OpenAM will store the ops tokens corresponding to OpenID Connect sessions in the CTS store. Note that session management related endpoints will not work when this setting is disabled.

Default value: true

amster data attribute: storeOpsTokens

Request parameter Signing Algorithms supported

Algorithms supported when verifying the signature of a signed request parameter.

AM supports the following signing algorithms, as listed in the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter Values for JWS:

  • HS256 - HMAC with SHA-256.

  • HS384 - HMAC with SHA-384.

  • HS512 - HMAC with SHA-512.

  • ES256 - ECDSA with SHA-256 and NIST standard P-256 elliptic curve.

  • ES384 - ECDSA with SHA-384 and NIST standard P-384 elliptic curve.

  • ES512 - ECDSA with SHA-512 and NIST standard P-521 elliptic curve.

  • RS256 - RSASSA-PKCS-v1_5 using SHA-256.

Default value:

ES384
HS256
HS512
ES256
RS256
HS384
ES512

amster data attribute: supportedRequestParameterSigningAlgorithms

Request parameter Encryption Algorithms supported

Encryption algorithms supported when decrypting a request parameter.

OpenAM supports the following encryption algorithms:

  • RSA-OAEP - RSA with Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP) with SHA-1 and MGF-1.

  • RSA-OAEP-256 - RSA with OAEP with SHA-256 and MGF-1.

  • A128KW - AES Key Wrapping with 128-bit key derived from the client secret.

  • RSA1_5 - RSA with PKCS#1 v1.5 padding.

  • A256KW - AES Key Wrapping with 256-bit key derived from the client secret.

  • dir - Direct encryption with AES using the hashed client secret.

  • A192KW - AES Key Wrapping with 192-bit key derived from the client secret.

Default value:

RSA-OAEP
RSA-OAEP-256
A128KW
RSA1_5
A256KW
dir
A192KW

amster data attribute: supportedRequestParameterEncryptionAlgorithms

Request parameter Encryption Methods supported

Encryption methods supported when decrypting a request parameter.

OpenAM supports the following encryption methods:

  • A128GCM, A192GCM, and A256GCM - AES in Galois Counter Mode (GCM) authenticated encryption mode.

  • A128CBC-HS256, A192CBC-HS384, and A256CBC-HS512 - AES encryption in CBC mode, with HMAC-SHA-2 for integrity.

Default value:

A256GCM
A192GCM
A128GCM
A128CBC-HS256
A192CBC-HS384
A256CBC-HS512

amster data attribute: supportedRequestParameterEncryptionEnc

Require request URI supported

Specifies whether request_uri values must be pre-registered using the request_uris registration parameter.

Default value: false

amster data attribute: requireRequestUriRegistration

5.2.6. Device Flow

The following settings appear on the Device Flow tab:

Verification URL

The URL that the user will be instructed to visit to complete their OAuth 2.0 login and consent when using the device code flow.

amster data attribute: verificationUrl

Device Completion URL

The URL that the user will be sent to on completion of their OAuth 2.0 login and consent when using the device code flow.

amster data attribute: completionUrl

Device Code Lifetime (seconds)

The lifetime of the device code, in seconds.

Default value: 300

amster data attribute: deviceCodeLifetime

Device Polling Interval

The polling frequency for devices waiting for tokens when using the device code flow.

Default value: 5

amster data attribute: devicePollInterval

5.3. OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect 1.0 Client Settings

To register an OAuth 2.0 client with AM as the OAuth 2.0 authorization server, or register an OpenID Connect 1.0 client through The AM console, then create an OAuth 2.0 Client agent profile. After creating the agent profile, you can further configure the properties in the AM console by navigating to Realms > Realm Name > Applications > OAuth 2.0 > Client Name.

OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect 1.0 Client Configuration Fields

The following configuration fields are for OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect 1.0:

Group

Set this field if you have configured an OAuth 2.0 Client agent group.

Status

Specify whether the client profile is active for use or inactive.

Client password

Specify the client password as described by RFC 6749 in the section, Client Password.

For OpenID Connect 1.0 clients, use this value as the secret when signing the contents of the request parameter with HMAC-based algorithms, such as HS256.

Client type

Specify the client type.

Confidential clients can maintain the confidentiality of their credentials, such as a web application running on a server where its credentials are protected. Public clients run the risk of exposing their passwords to a host or user agent, such as a JavaScript client running in a browser.

Redirection URIs

Specify client redirection endpoint URIs as described by RFC 6749 in the section, Redirection Endpoint. AM's OAuth 2.0 authorization service redirects the resource owner's user-agent back to this endpoint during the authorization code grant process. If your client has more than one redirection URI, then it must specify the redirection URI to use in the authorization request. The redirection URI must NOT contain a fragment (#).

Redirection URIs are required for OpenID Connect 1.0 clients.

Scopes

Specify scopes that are to be presented to the resource owner when the resource owner is asked to authorize client access to protected resources.

The openid scope is required. It indicates that the client is making an OpenID Connect request to the authorization server.

Scopes can be entered as simple strings, such as openid, read, email, profile, or as a pipe-separated string in the format: scope|locale|localized description. For example, read|en|Permission to view email messages.

Locale strings have the format: language_country_variant. For example, en, en_GB, or en_US_WIN. If the locale and pipe is omitted, the localized description is displayed to all users having undefined locales. If the localized description is omitted, nothing is displayed to all users. For example, a scope of read| would allow the client to use the read scope but would not display it to the user when requested.

Claim(s)

Specify one or more claim name translations that will override those specified for the authentication session. Claims are values that are presented to the user to inform them what data is being made available to the client.

Claims can be in entered as simple strings, such as name, email, profile, or sub, or as a pipe-separated string in the format: scope|locale|localized description. For example, name|en|Full name of user.

Locale strings have the format: language_country_variant. For example, en, en_GB, or en_US_WIN. If the locale and pipe is omitted, the localized description is displayed to all users having undefined locales. If the localized description is omitted, nothing is displayed to all users. For example, a claim of name| would allow the client to use the name claim but would not display it to the user when requested.

If a value is not given, the value is computed from the OAuth2 provider.

Display name

Specify a client name to display to the resource owner when the resource owner is asked to authorize client access to protected resources. Valid formats include name or locale|localized name.

The Display name can be entered as a single string or as a pipe-separated string for locale and localized name, for example, en|My Example Company.

Locale strings have the format: language_country_variant. For example, en, en_GB, or en_US_WIN. If the locale is omitted, the name is displayed to all users having undefined locales.

Display description

Specify a client description to display to the resource owner when the resource owner is asked to authorize client access to protected resources. Valid formats include description or locale|localized description.

The Display description can be entered as a single string or as a pipe-separated string for locale and localized name, for example, en|The company intranet is requesting the following access permission.

Locale strings have the format: language_country_variant. For example, en, en_GB, or en_US_WIN. If the locale is omitted, the name is displayed to all users having undefined locales.

Default Scope(s)

Specify scopes in scope or scope|locale|localized description format. These scopes are set automatically when tokens are issued.

The openid scope is required. It indicates that the client is making an OpenID Connect request to the authorization server.

Scopes can be entered as simple strings, such as openid, read, email, profile, or as a pipe-separated string in the format: scope|locale|localized description. For example, read|en|Permission to view email messages.

Locale strings have the format: language_country_variant. For example, en, en_GB, or en_US_WIN. If the locale and pipe is omitted, the localized description is displayed to all users having undefined locales. If the localized description is omitted, nothing is displayed to all users. For example, a scope of read| would allow the client to use the read scope but would not display it to the user when requested.

Response Types

Specify the response type that the client uses. The response type value specifies the flow that determine how the ID token and access token are returned to the client. For more information, see OAuth 2.0 Multiple Response Type Encoding Practices.

By default, the following response types are available:

  • code. Specifies that the client application requests an authorization code grant.

  • token. Specifies that the client application requests an implicit grant type and requests a token from the API.

  • id_token. Specifies that the client application requests an ID token.

  • code token. Specifies that the client application requests an access token, access token type, and an authorization code.

  • token id_token. Specifies that the client application requests an access token, access token type, and an ID token.

  • code id_token. Specifies that the client application requests an authorization code and an ID token.

  • code token id_token. Specifies that the client application requests an authorization code, access token, access token type, and an ID token.

Contacts

Specify the email addresses of users who administer the client.

Token Endpoint Authentication Method

Specify the authentication method with which a client authenticates to AM (as an authorization server) at the token endpoint. The authentication method applies to OIDC requests with scope openid.

  • client_secret_basic. Clients authenticate with AM (as an authorization server) using the HTTP Basic authentication scheme after receiving a client_secret value.

  • client_secret_post. Clients authenticate with AM (as an authorization server) by including the client credentials in the request body after receiving a client_secret value.

  • private_key_jwt. Clients sign a JSON web token (JWT) with a registered public key.

For more information, see Client Authentication in the OpenID Connect Core 1.0 incorporating errata set 1 specification.

Json Web Key URI

Specify the URI that contains the client's public keys in JSON web key format.

Json Web Key

Raw JSON web key value containing the client's public keys.

Sector Identifier URI

Specify the host component of this URI, which is used in the computation of pairwise subject identifiers.

Subject Type

Specify the subject identifier type, which is a locally unique identifier that will be consumed by the client. Select one of two options:

  • public. Provides the same sub (subject) value to all clients.

  • pairwise. Provides a different sub (subject) value to each client.

ID Token Signing Algorithm

Specify the signing algorithm that the ID token must be signed with.

Enable ID Token Encryption

Enable ID token encryption using the specified ID token encryption algorithm.

ID Token Encryption Algorithm

Specify the algorithm that the ID token must be encrypted with.

Default value: RSA1_5 (RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5).

ID Token Encryption Method

Specify the method that the ID token must be encrypted with.

Default value: A128CBC-HS256.

Client ID Token Public Encryption Key

Specify the Base64-encoded public key for encrypting ID tokens.

Post Logout Redirect URIs

Specify the URI to which to redirect the user-agent after the client logout process.

Access Token

Specify the registration_access_token value that you provide when registering the client, and then subsequently when reading or updating the client profile.

Client Session URI

Specify the relying party (client) URI to which the OpenID Connect Provider sends session changed notification messages using the HTML 5 postMessage API.

Client Name

Specify a human-readable name for the client.

Client JWT Bearer Public Key Certificate

Specify the public key certificate of the client's key pair that is used to sign JWTs issued by the client and used for client authentication or to request access tokens.

This is the base64-encoded X509 certificate containing the public key in PEM format, as in the following example.

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----

You can generate a key pair and export the certificate by using the Java keytool command.

$ keytool \
 -genkeypair \
 -keysize 2048 \
 -alias self-signed \
 -keyalg rsa \
 -dname "CN=jwt-bearer-client,O=openam.example.com" \
 -keystore keystore.jks \
 -keypass changeit \
 -storepass changeit \
 -validity 3650 \
 -v
Generating 2,048 bit RSA key pair and self-signed certificate (SHA256withRSA)
with a validity of 3,650 days
for: CN=jwt-bearer-client, O=openam.example.com
[Storing keystore.jks]

$ keytool \
 -list \
 -alias self-signed \
 -rfc \
 -keystore keystore.jks \
 -keypass changeit \
 -storepass changeit
Alias name: self-signed
Creation date: Oct 27, 2014
Entry type: PrivateKeyEntry
Certificate chain length: 1
Certificate[1]:
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
Default Max Age

Specify the maximum time in seconds that a user can be authenticated. If the user last authenticated earlier than this value, then the user must be authenticated again. If specified, the request parameter max_age overrides this setting.

Minimum value: 1.

Default: 600

Default Max Age Enabled

Enable the default max age feature.

Public key selector

Select the public key for this client, which comes from either the JWKs_URI, manual JWKs, or X.509 field.

Authorization Code Lifetime (seconds)

Specify the time in seconds for an authorization code to be valid. If this field is set to zero, the authorization code lifetime of the OAuth2 provider is used.

Default: 0

Refresh Token Lifetime (seconds)

Specify the time in seconds for a refresh token to be valid. If this field is set to zero, the refresh token lifetime of the OAuth2 provider is used. If the field is set to -1, the token will never expire.

Default: 0

Access Token Lifetime (seconds)

Specify the time in seconds for an access token to be valid. If this field is set to zero, the access token lifetime of the OAuth2 provider is used.

Default: 0

OpenID Connect JWT Token Lifetime (seconds)

Specify the time in seconds for a JWT to be valid. If this field is set to zero, the JWT token lifetime of the OAuth2 provider is used.

Default: 0

Implied Consent

Enable the implied consent feature. When enabled, the resource owner will not be asked for consent during authorization flows. The OAuth2 Provider must also be configured to allow clients to skip consent.

JWKs URI content cache timeout in ms

Specify the maximum amount of time, in milliseconds, that the content of the JWKS URI can be cached before being refreshed. This avoids fetching the JWKS URI content for every token encryption.

Default: 3600000

JWKs URI content cache miss cache time

Specify the minimum amount of time, in milliseconds, that the content of the JWKS URI is cached. This avoids fetching the JWKS URI content for every token signature verification, for example if the key ID (kid) is not in the JWKS content already cached.

Default: 60000

User info signed response algorithm

Specify the JSON Web Signature (JWS) algorithm for signing UserInfo Responses. If specified, the response will be JSON Web Token (JWT) serialized, and signed using JWS.

The default, if omitted, is for the UserInfo Response to return the claims as a UTF-8-encoded JSON object using the application/json content type.

User info encrypted response algorithm

Specify the JSON Web Encryption (JWE) algorithm for encrypting UserInfo Responses.

If both signing and encryption are requested, the response will be signed then encrypted, with the result being a nested JWT.

The default, if omitted, is that no encryption is performed.

User info encrypted response encryption algorithm

Specify the JWE encryption method for encrypting UserInfo Responses. If specified, you must also specify an encryption algorithm in the User info encrypted response algorithm property.

AM supports the following encryption methods:

  • A128GCM, A192GCM, and A256GCM - AES in Galois Counter Mode (GCM) authenticated encryption mode.

  • A128CBC-HS256, A192CBC-HS384, and A256CBC-HS512 - AES encryption in CBC mode, with HMAC-SHA-2 for integrity.

Default: A128CBC-HS256

User info response format

Specify the output format from the UserInfo endpoint.

The supported output formats are as follows:

  • User info JSON response format.

  • User info encrypted JWT response format.

  • User info signed JWT response format.

  • User info signed then encrypted response format.

For more information on the output format of the UserInfo Response, see Successful UserInfo Response in the OpenID Connect Core 1.0 incorporating errata set 1 specification.

Default: User info JSON response format.

Token Endpoint Authentication Signing Algorithm

Specify the JWS algorithm that must be used for signing JWTs used to authenticate the client at the Token Endpoint.

JWTs that are not signed with the selected algorithm in token requests from the client using the private_key_jwt or client_secret_jwt authentication methods will be rejected.

Default: RS256

OAuth 2.0 Mix-Up Mitigation enabled

Enable OAuth 2.0 mix-up mitigation on the authorization server side.

Enable this setting only if this OAuth 2.0 client supports the OAuth 2.0 Mix-Up Mitigation draft, otherwise AM will fail to validate access token requests received from this client.

Request parameter signing algorithm

Specify the JWS algorithm for signing the request parameter.

Must match one of the values configured in the Request parameter Signing Algorithms supported property of the OAuth2 Provider service. See Section 5.2.5, "Advanced OpenID Connect".

Request parameter encryption algorithm

Specify the JWE algorithm for encrypting the request parameter.

Must match one of the values configured in the Request parameter Encryption Algorithms supported property of the OAuth2 Provider service. See Section 5.2.5, "Advanced OpenID Connect".

Request parameter encryption method

Specify the JWE method for encrypting the request parameter.

Must match one of the values configured in the Request parameter Encryption Methods supported property of the OAuth2 Provider service. See Section 5.2.5, "Advanced OpenID Connect".

Default: A128CBC-HS256

Request uris

Specify request_uri values that a dynamic client would pre-register.

Only required if the Require request URI supported property is enabled in the OAuth2 Provider service. See Section 5.2.5, "Advanced OpenID Connect"

Appendix A. About the REST API

This appendix shows how to use the RESTful interfaces for direct integration between web client applications and ForgeRock Access Management.

A.1. Introducing REST

Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style that sets certain constraints for designing and building large-scale distributed hypermedia systems.

As an architectural style, REST has very broad applications. The designs of both HTTP 1.1 and URIs follow RESTful principles. The World Wide Web is no doubt the largest and best known REST application. Many other web services also follow the REST architectural style. Examples include OAuth 2.0, OpenID Connect 1.0, and User-Managed Access (UMA).

The ForgeRock Common REST (CREST) API applies RESTful principles to define common verbs for HTTP-based APIs that access web resources and collections of web resources.

Interface Stability: Evolving

Most native AM REST APIs use the CREST verbs. (In contrast, OAuth 2.0, OpenID Connect 1.0 and UMA APIs follow their respective standards.)

A.2. About ForgeRock Common REST

ForgeRock® Common REST is a common REST API framework. It works across the ForgeRock platform to provide common ways to access web resources and collections of resources. Adapt the examples in this section to your resources and deployment.

A.2.1. Common REST Resources

Servers generally return JSON-format resources, though resource formats can depend on the implementation.

Resources in collections can be found by their unique identifiers (IDs). IDs are exposed in the resource URIs. For example, if a server has a user collection under /users, then you can access a user at /users/user-id. The ID is also the value of the _id field of the resource.

Resources are versioned using revision numbers. A revision is specified in the resource's _rev field. Revisions make it possible to figure out whether to apply changes without resource locking and without distributed transactions.

A.2.2. Common REST Verbs

The Common REST APIs use the following verbs, sometimes referred to collectively as CRUDPAQ. For details and HTTP-based examples of each, follow the links to the sections for each verb.

Create

Add a new resource.

This verb maps to HTTP PUT or HTTP POST.

For details, see Section A.2.6, "Create".

Read

Retrieve a single resource.

This verb maps to HTTP GET.

For details, see Section A.2.7, "Read".

Update

Replace an existing resource.

This verb maps to HTTP PUT.

For details, see Section A.2.8, "Update".

Delete

Remove an existing resource.

This verb maps to HTTP DELETE.

For details, see Section A.2.9, "Delete".

Patch

Modify part of an existing resource.

This verb maps to HTTP PATCH.

For details, see Section A.2.10, "Patch".

Action

Perform a predefined action.

This verb maps to HTTP POST.

For details, see Section A.2.11, "Action".

Query

Search a collection of resources.

This verb maps to HTTP GET.

For details, see Section A.2.12, "Query".

A.2.3. Common REST Parameters

Common REST reserved query string parameter names start with an underscore, _.

Reserved query string parameters include, but are not limited to, the following names:

_action
_api
_crestapi
_fields
_mimeType
_pageSize
_pagedResultsCookie
_pagedResultsOffset
_prettyPrint
_queryExpression
_queryFilter
_queryId
_sortKeys
_totalPagedResultsPolicy

Note

Some parameter values are not safe for URLs, so URL-encode parameter values as necessary.

Continue reading for details about how to use each parameter.

A.2.4. Common REST Extension Points

The action verb is the main vehicle for extensions. For example, to create a new user with HTTP POST rather than HTTP PUT, you might use /users?_action=create. A server can define additional actions. For example, /tasks/1?_action=cancel.

A server can define stored queries to call by ID. For example, /groups?_queryId=hasDeletedMembers. Stored queries can call for additional parameters. The parameters are also passed in the query string. Which parameters are valid depends on the stored query.

A.2.5. Common REST API Documentation

Common REST APIs often depend at least in part on runtime configuration. Many Common REST endpoints therefore serve API descriptors at runtime. An API descriptor documents the actual API as it is configured.

Use the following query string parameters to retrieve API descriptors:

_api

Serves an API descriptor that complies with the OpenAPI specification.

This API descriptor represents the API accessible over HTTP. It is suitable for use with popular tools such as Swagger UI.

_crestapi

Serves a native Common REST API descriptor.

This API descriptor provides a compact representation that is not dependent on the transport protocol. It requires a client that understands Common REST, as it omits many Common REST defaults.

Note

Consider limiting access to API descriptors in production environments in order to avoid unnecessary traffic.

To provide documentation in production environments, see Procedure A.1, "To Publish OpenAPI Documentation" instead.

Procedure A.1. To Publish OpenAPI Documentation

In production systems, developers expect stable, well-documented APIs. Rather than retrieving API descriptors at runtime through Common REST, prepare final versions, and publish them alongside the software in production.

Use the OpenAPI-compliant descriptors to provide API reference documentation for your developers as described in the following steps:

  1. Configure the software to produce production-ready APIs.

    In other words, the software should be configured as in production so that the APIs are identical to what developers see in production.

  2. Retrieve the OpenAPI-compliant descriptor.

    The following command saves the descriptor to a file, myapi.json:

    $ curl -o myapi.json endpoint?_api
        
  3. (Optional) If necessary, edit the descriptor.

    For example, you might want to add security definitions to describe how the API is protected.

    If you make any changes, then also consider using a source control system to manage your versions of the API descriptor.

  4. Publish the descriptor using a tool such as Swagger UI.

    You can customize Swagger UI for your organization as described in the documentation for the tool.

A.2.6. Create

There are two ways to create a resource, either with an HTTP POST or with an HTTP PUT.

To create a resource using POST, perform an HTTP POST with the query string parameter _action=create and the JSON resource as a payload. Accept a JSON response. The server creates the identifier if not specified:

POST /users?_action=create HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/json
Content-Length: ...
Content-Type: application/json
{ JSON resource }
  

To create a resource using PUT, perform an HTTP PUT including the case-sensitive identifier for the resource in the URL path, and the JSON resource as a payload. Use the If-None-Match: * header. Accept a JSON response:

PUT /users/some-id HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/json
Content-Length: ...
Content-Type: application/json
If-None-Match: *
{ JSON resource }
  

The _id and content of the resource depend on the server implementation. The server is not required to use the _id that the client provides. The server response to the create request indicates the resource location as the value of the Location header.

If you include the If-None-Match header, its value must be *. In this case, the request creates the object if it does not exist, and fails if the object does exist. If you include the If-None-Match header with any value other than *, the server returns an HTTP 400 Bad Request error. For example, creating an object with If-None-Match: revision returns a bad request error. If you do not include If-None-Match: *, the request creates the object if it does not exist, and updates the object if it does exist.

Parameters

You can use the following parameters:

_prettyPrint=true

Format the body of the response.

_fields=field[,field...]

Return only the specified fields in the body of the response.

The field values are JSON pointers. For example if the resource is {"parent":{"child":"value"}}, parent/child refers to the "child":"value".

A.2.7. Read

To retrieve a single resource, perform an HTTP GET on the resource by its case-sensitive identifier (_id) and accept a JSON response:

GET /users/some-id HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/json
  
Parameters

You can use the following parameters:

_prettyPrint=true

Format the body of the response.

_fields=field[,field...]

Return only the specified fields in the body of the response.

The field values are JSON pointers. For example if the resource is {"parent":{"child":"value"}}, parent/child refers to the "child":"value".

_mimeType=mime-type

Some resources have fields whose values are multi-media resources such as a profile photo for example.

By specifying both a single field and also the mime-type for the response content, you can read a single field value that is a multi-media resource.

In this case, the content type of the field value returned matches the mime-type that you specify, and the body of the response is the multi-media resource.

The Accept header is not used in this case. For example, Accept: image/png does not work. Use the _mimeType query string parameter instead.

A.2.8. Update

To update a resource, perform an HTTP PUT including the case-sensitive identifier (_id) as the final element of the path to the resource, and the JSON resource as the payload. Use the If-Match: _rev header to check that you are actually updating the version you modified. Use If-Match: * if the version does not matter. Accept a JSON response:

PUT /users/some-id HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/json
Content-Length: ...
Content-Type: application/json
If-Match: _rev
{ JSON resource }
  

When updating a resource, include all the attributes to be retained. Omitting an attribute in the resource amounts to deleting the attribute unless it is not under the control of your application. Attributes not under the control of your application include private and read-only attributes. In addition, virtual attributes and relationship references might not be under the control of your application.

Parameters

You can use the following parameters:

_prettyPrint=true

Format the body of the response.

_fields=field[,field...]

Return only the specified fields in the body of the response.

The field values are JSON pointers. For example if the resource is {"parent":{"child":"value"}}, parent/child refers to the "child":"value".

A.2.9. Delete

To delete a single resource, perform an HTTP DELETE by its case-sensitive identifier (_id) and accept a JSON response:

DELETE /users/some-id HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/json
  
Parameters

You can use the following parameters:

_prettyPrint=true

Format the body of the response.

_fields=field[,field...]

Return only the specified fields in the body of the response.

The field values are JSON pointers. For example if the resource is {"parent":{"child":"value"}}, parent/child refers to the "child":"value".

A.2.10. Patch

To patch a resource, send an HTTP PATCH request with the following parameters:

  • operation

  • field

  • value

  • from (optional with copy and move operations)

You can include these parameters in the payload for a PATCH request, or in a JSON PATCH file. If successful, you'll see a JSON response similar to:

PATCH /users/some-id HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/json
Content-Length: ...
Content-Type: application/json
If-Match: _rev
{ JSON array of patch operations }
  

PATCH operations apply to three types of targets:

  • single-valued, such as an object, string, boolean, or number.

  • list semantics array, where the elements are ordered, and duplicates are allowed.

  • set semantics array, where the elements are not ordered, and duplicates are not allowed.

ForgeRock PATCH supports several different operations. The following sections show each of these operations, along with options for the field and value:

A.2.10.1. Patch Operation: Add

The add operation ensures that the target field contains the value provided, creating parent fields as necessary.

If the target field is single-valued, then the value you include in the PATCH replaces the value of the target. Examples of a single-valued field include: object, string, boolean, or number.

An add operation has different results on two standard types of arrays:

  • List semantic arrays: you can run any of these add operations on that type of array:

    • If you add an array of values, the PATCH operation appends it to the existing list of values.

    • If you add a single value, specify an ordinal element in the target array, or use the {-} special index to add that value to the end of the list.

  • Set semantic arrays: The list of values included in a patch are merged with the existing set of values. Any duplicates within the array are removed.

As an example, start with the following list semantic array resource:

{
    "fruits" : [ "orange", "apple" ]
}

The following add operation includes the pineapple to the end of the list of fruits, as indicated by the - at the end of the fruits array.

{
    "operation" : "add",
    "field" : "/fruits/-",
    "value" : "pineapple"
}

The following is the resulting resource:

{
    "fruits" : [ "orange", "apple", "pineapple" ]
}

A.2.10.2. Patch Operation: Copy

The copy operation takes one or more existing values from the source field. It then adds those same values on the target field. Once the values are known, it is equivalent to performing an add operation on the target field.

The following copy operation takes the value from a field named mail, and then runs a replace operation on the target field, another_mail.

[
  {
     "operation":"copy",
     "from":"mail",
     "field":"another_mail"
  }
]

If the source field value and the target field value are configured as arrays, the result depends on whether the array has list semantics or set semantics, as described in Section A.2.10.1, "Patch Operation: Add".

A.2.10.3. Patch Operation: Increment

The increment operation changes the value or values of the target field by the amount you specify. The value that you include must be one number, and may be positive or negative. The value of the target field must accept numbers. The following increment operation adds 1000 to the target value of /user/payment.

[
  {
    "operation" : "increment",
    "field" : "/user/payment",
    "value" : "1000"
  }
]

Since the value of the increment is a single number, arrays do not apply.

A.2.10.4. Patch Operation: Move

The move operation removes existing values on the source field. It then adds those same values on the target field. It is equivalent to performing a remove operation on the source, followed by an add operation with the same values, on the target.

The following move operation is equivalent to a remove operation on the source field, surname, followed by a replace operation on the target field value, lastName. If the target field does not exist, it is created.

[
  {
     "operation":"move",
     "from":"surname",
     "field":"lastName"
  }
]

To apply a move operation on an array, you need a compatible single-value, list semantic array, or set semantic array on both the source and the target. For details, see the criteria described in Section A.2.10.1, "Patch Operation: Add".

A.2.10.5. Patch Operation: Remove

The remove operation ensures that the target field no longer contains the value provided. If the remove operation does not include a value, the operation removes the field. The following remove deletes the value of the phoneNumber, along with the field.

[
  {
    "operation" : "remove",
    "field" : "phoneNumber"
  }
]

If the object has more than one phoneNumber, those values are stored as an array.

A remove operation has different results on two standard types of arrays:

  • List semantic arrays: A remove operation deletes the specified element in the array. For example, the following operation removes the first phone number, based on its array index (zero-based):

    [
       {
          "operation" : "remove",
          "field" : "/phoneNumber/0"
       }
    ]
  • Set semantic arrays: The list of values included in a patch are removed from the existing array.

A.2.10.6. Patch Operation: Replace

The replace operation removes any existing value(s) of the targeted field, and replaces them with the provided value(s). It is essentially equivalent to a remove followed by a add operation. If the arrays are used, the criteria is based on Section A.2.10.1, "Patch Operation: Add". However, indexed updates are not allowed, even when the target is an array.

The following replace operation removes the existing telephoneNumber value for the user, and then adds the new value of +1 408 555 9999.

[
  {
    "operation" : "replace",
    "field" : "/telephoneNumber",
    "value" : "+1 408 555 9999"
  }
]

A PATCH replace operation on a list semantic array works in the same fashion as a PATCH remove operation. The following example demonstrates how the effect of both operations. Start with the following resource:

{
    "fruits" : [ "apple", "orange", "kiwi", "lime" ],
}

Apply the following operations on that resource:

[
  {
    "operation" : "remove",
    "field" : "/fruits/0",
    "value" : ""
  },
  {
    "operation" : "replace",
    "field" : "/fruits/1",
    "value" : "pineapple"
  }
]

The PATCH operations are applied sequentially. The remove operation removes the first member of that resource, based on its array index, (fruits/0), with the following result:

[
  {
    "fruits" : [ "orange", "kiwi", "lime" ],
  }
]

The second PATCH operation, a replace, is applied on the second member (fruits/1) of the intermediate resource, with the following result:

[
  {
    "fruits" : [ "orange", "pineapple", "lime" ],
  }
]

A.2.10.7. Patch Operation: Transform

The transform operation changes the value of a field based on a script or some other data transformation command. The following transform operation takes the value from the field named /objects, and applies the something.js script as shown:

[
  {
    "operation" : "transform",
    "field" : "/objects",
    "value" : {
      "script" : {
        "type" : "text/javascript",
        "file" : "something.js"
      }
    }
  }
]

A.2.10.8. Patch Operation Limitations

Some HTTP client libraries do not support the HTTP PATCH operation. Make sure that the library you use supports HTTP PATCH before using this REST operation.

For example, the Java Development Kit HTTP client does not support PATCH as a valid HTTP method. Instead, the method HttpURLConnection.setRequestMethod("PATCH") throws ProtocolException.

Parameters

You can use the following parameters. Other parameters might depend on the specific action implementation:

_prettyPrint=true

Format the body of the response.

_fields=field[,field...]

Return only the specified fields in the body of the response.

The field values are JSON pointers. For example if the resource is {"parent":{"child":"value"}}, parent/child refers to the "child":"value".

A.2.11. Action

Actions are a means of extending Common REST APIs and are defined by the resource provider, so the actions you can use depend on the implementation.

The standard action indicated by _action=create is described in Section A.2.6, "Create".

Parameters

You can use the following parameters. Other parameters might depend on the specific action implementation:

_prettyPrint=true

Format the body of the response.

_fields=field[,field...]

Return only the specified fields in the body of the response.

The field values are JSON pointers. For example if the resource is {"parent":{"child":"value"}}, parent/child refers to the "child":"value".

A.2.12. Query

To query a resource collection (or resource container if you prefer to think of it that way), perform an HTTP GET and accept a JSON response, including at least a _queryExpression, _queryFilter, or _queryId parameter. These parameters cannot be used together:

GET /users?_queryFilter=true HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com
Accept: application/json
  

The server returns the result as a JSON object including a "results" array and other fields related to the query string parameters that you specify.

Parameters

You can use the following parameters:

_queryFilter=filter-expression

Query filters request that the server return entries that match the filter expression. You must URL-escape the filter expression.

The string representation is summarized as follows. Continue reading for additional explanation:

Expr           = OrExpr
OrExpr         = AndExpr ( 'or' AndExpr ) *
AndExpr        = NotExpr ( 'and' NotExpr ) *
NotExpr        = '!' PrimaryExpr | PrimaryExpr
PrimaryExpr    = '(' Expr ')' | ComparisonExpr | PresenceExpr | LiteralExpr
ComparisonExpr = Pointer OpName JsonValue
PresenceExpr   = Pointer 'pr'
LiteralExpr    = 'true' | 'false'
Pointer        = JSON pointer
OpName         = 'eq' |  # equal to
                 'co' |  # contains
                 'sw' |  # starts with
                 'lt' |  # less than
                 'le' |  # less than or equal to
                 'gt' |  # greater than
                 'ge' |  # greater than or equal to
                 STRING  # extended operator
JsonValue      = NUMBER | BOOLEAN | '"' UTF8STRING '"'
STRING         = ASCII string not containing white-space
UTF8STRING     = UTF-8 string possibly containing white-space
     

JsonValue components of filter expressions follow RFC 7159: The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format. In particular, as described in section 7 of the RFC, the escape character in strings is the backslash character. For example, to match the identifier test\, use _id eq 'test\\'. In the JSON resource, the \ is escaped the same way: "_id":"test\\".

When using a query filter in a URL, be aware that the filter expression is part of a query string parameter. A query string parameter must be URL encoded as described in RFC 3986: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax For example, white space, double quotes ("), parentheses, and exclamation characters need URL encoding in HTTP query strings. The following rules apply to URL query components:

query       = *( pchar / "/" / "?" )
pchar       = unreserved / pct-encoded / sub-delims / ":" / "@"
unreserved  = ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "." / "_" / "~"
pct-encoded = "%" HEXDIG HEXDIG
sub-delims  = "!" / "$" / "&" / "'" / "(" / ")"
                  / "*" / "+" / "," / ";" / "="
     

ALPHA, DIGIT, and HEXDIG are core rules of RFC 5234: Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications:

ALPHA       =  %x41-5A / %x61-7A   ; A-Z / a-z
DIGIT       =  %x30-39             ; 0-9
HEXDIG      =  DIGIT / "A" / "B" / "C" / "D" / "E" / "F"
     

As a result, a backslash escape character in a JsonValue component is percent-encoded in the URL query string parameter as %5C. To encode the query filter expression _id eq 'test\\', use _id+eq+'test%5C%5C', for example.

A simple filter expression can represent a comparison, presence, or a literal value.

For comparison expressions use json-pointer comparator json-value, where the comparator is one of the following:

eq (equals)
co (contains)
sw (starts with)
lt (less than)
le (less than or equal to)
gt (greater than)
ge (greater than or equal to)

For presence, use json-pointer pr to match resources where the JSON pointer is present.

Literal values include true (match anything) and false (match nothing).

Complex expressions employ and, or, and ! (not), with parentheses, (expression), to group expressions.

_queryId=identifier

Specify a query by its identifier.

Specific queries can take their own query string parameter arguments, which depend on the implementation.

_pagedResultsCookie=string

The string is an opaque cookie used by the server to keep track of the position in the search results. The server returns the cookie in the JSON response as the value of pagedResultsCookie.

In the request _pageSize must also be set and non-zero. You receive the cookie value from the provider on the first request, and then supply the cookie value in subsequent requests until the server returns a null cookie, meaning that the final page of results has been returned.

The _pagedResultsCookie parameter is supported when used with the _queryFilter parameter. The _pagedResultsCookie parameter is not guaranteed to work when used with the _queryExpression and _queryId parameters.

The _pagedResultsCookie and _pagedResultsOffset parameters are mutually exclusive, and not to be used together.

_pagedResultsOffset=integer

When _pageSize is non-zero, use this as an index in the result set indicating the first page to return.

The _pagedResultsCookie and _pagedResultsOffset parameters are mutually exclusive, and not to be used together.

_pageSize=integer

Return query results in pages of this size. After the initial request, use _pagedResultsCookie or _pageResultsOffset to page through the results.

_totalPagedResultsPolicy=string

When a _pageSize is specified, and non-zero, the server calculates the "totalPagedResults", in accordance with the totalPagedResultsPolicy, and provides the value as part of the response. The "totalPagedResults" is either an estimate of the total number of paged results (_totalPagedResultsPolicy=ESTIMATE), or the exact total result count (_totalPagedResultsPolicy=EXACT). If no count policy is specified in the query, or if _totalPagedResultsPolicy=NONE, result counting is disabled, and the server returns value of -1 for "totalPagedResults".

_sortKeys=[+-]field[,[+-]field...]

Sort the resources returned based on the specified field(s), either in + (ascending, default) order, or in - (descending) order.

The _sortKeys parameter is not supported for predefined queries (_queryId).

_prettyPrint=true

Format the body of the response.

_fields=field[,field...]

Return only the specified fields in each element of the "results" array in the response.

The field values are JSON pointers. For example if the resource is {"parent":{"child":"value"}}, parent/child refers to the "child":"value".

A.2.13. HTTP Status Codes

When working with a Common REST API over HTTP, client applications should expect at least the following HTTP status codes. Not all servers necessarily return all status codes identified here:

200 OK

The request was successful and a resource returned, depending on the request.

201 Created

The request succeeded and the resource was created.

204 No Content

The action request succeeded, and there was no content to return.

304 Not Modified

The read request included an If-None-Match header, and the value of the header matched the revision value of the resource.

400 Bad Request

The request was malformed.

401 Unauthorized

The request requires user authentication.

403 Forbidden

Access was forbidden during an operation on a resource.

404 Not Found

The specified resource could not be found, perhaps because it does not exist.

405 Method Not Allowed

The HTTP method is not allowed for the requested resource.

406 Not Acceptable

The request contains parameters that are not acceptable, such as a resource or protocol version that is not available.

409 Conflict

The request would have resulted in a conflict with the current state of the resource.

410 Gone

The requested resource is no longer available, and will not become available again. This can happen when resources expire for example.

412 Precondition Failed

The resource's current version does not match the version provided.

415 Unsupported Media Type

The request is in a format not supported by the requested resource for the requested method.

428 Precondition Required

The resource requires a version, but no version was supplied in the request.

500 Internal Server Error

The server encountered an unexpected condition that prevented it from fulfilling the request.

501 Not Implemented

The resource does not support the functionality required to fulfill the request.

503 Service Unavailable

The requested resource was temporarily unavailable. The service may have been disabled, for example.

A.3. REST API Versioning

In OpenAM 12.0.0 and later, REST API features are assigned version numbers.

Providing version numbers in the REST API helps ensure compatibility between releases. The version number of a feature increases when AM introduces a non-backwards-compatible change that affects clients making use of the feature.

AM provides versions for the following aspects of the REST API.

resource

Any changes to the structure or syntax of a returned response will incur a resource version change. For example changing errorMessage to message in a JSON response.

protocol

Any changes to the methods used to make REST API calls will incur a protocol version change. For example changing _action to $action in the required parameters of an API feature.

A.3.1. Supported REST API Versions

The REST API version numbers supported in AM 5.1 are as follows:

Supported protocol versions

The protocol versions supported in AM 5.1 are:

1.0
Supported resource versions

The resource versions supported in AM 5.1 are shown in the following table.

Table A.1. Supported resource Versions
BaseEnd PointSupported Versions
/json/authenticate1.1, 2.0
/users1.1, 1.2, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0
/groups1.1, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0
/agents1.1, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0
/realms1.0
/dashboard1.0
/sessions1.1
/serverinfo/*1.1
/users/{user}/devices/trusted1.0
/users/{user}/uma/policies1.0
/applications1.0, 2.0
/resourcetypes1.0
/policies1.0, 2.0
/applicationtypes1.0
/conditiontypes1.0
/subjecttypes1.0
/subjectattributes1.0
/decisioncombiners1.0
/subjectattributes1.0
/xacml/policies1.0
/frrest/token1.0
/client1.0

The AM Release Notes section, Chapter 4, "Changes and Deprecated Functionality" in the Release Notes describes the differences between API versions.

A.3.2. Specifying an Explicit REST API Version

You can specify which version of the REST API to use by adding an Accept-API-Version header to the request, as in the following example, which is requesting resource version 2.0 and protocol version 1.0:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header "X-OpenAM-Username: demo" \
 --header "X-OpenAM-Password: changeit" \
 --header "Accept-API-Version: resource=2.0, protocol=1.0" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate

You can configure the default behavior AM will take when a REST call does not specify explicit version information. For more information, see Section A.3.3, "Configuring the Default REST API Version for a Deployment".

A.3.3. Configuring the Default REST API Version for a Deployment

You can configure the default behavior AM will take when a REST call does not specify explicit version information using either of the following procedures:

The available options for default behavior are as follows:

Latest

The latest available supported version of the API is used.

This is the preset default for new installations of AM.

Oldest

The oldest available supported version of the API is used.

This is the preset default for upgraded AM instances.

Note

The oldest supported version may not be the first that was released, as APIs versions become deprecated or unsupported. See Section 4.2, "Deprecated Functionality" in the Release Notes.

None

No version will be used. When a REST client application calls a REST API without specifying the version, AM returns an error and the request fails.

Procedure A.2. Configure Versioning Behavior by using the AM Console
  1. Log in as AM administrator, amadmin.

  2. Click Configure > Global Services, and then click REST APIs.

  3. In Default Version, select the required response to a REST API request that does not specify an explicit version: Latest, Oldest, or None.

  4. (Optional) Optionally, enable Warning Header to include warning messages in the headers of responses to requests.

  5. Save your work.

Procedure A.3. Configure Versioning Behavior by using the ssoadm
  • Use the ssoadm set-attr-defs command with the openam-rest-apis-default-version attribute set to either LATEST, OLDEST or NONE, as in the following example:

    $ ssh openam.example.com
    $ cd /path/to/openam-tools/admin/openam/bin
    $ ./ssoadm \
     set-attr-defs \
     --adminid amadmin \
     --password-file /tmp/pwd.txt \
     --servicename RestApisService \
     --schematype Global \
     --attributevalues openam-rest-apis-default-version=NONE
    
    Schema attribute defaults were set.

A.3.4. REST API Versioning Messages

AM provides REST API version messages in the JSON response to a REST API call. You can also configure AM to return version messages in the response headers.

Messages include:

  • Details of the REST API versions used to service a REST API call.

  • Warning messages if REST API version information is not specified or is incorrect in a REST API call.

The resource and protocol version used to service a REST API call are returned in the Content-API-Version header, as shown below:

$ curl \
 -i \
 --request POST \
 --header "X-OpenAM-Username: demo" \
 --header "X-OpenAM-Password: changeit" \
 --header "Accept-API-Version: resource=2.0, protocol=1.0" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-API-Version: protocol=1.0,resource=2.0
Server: Restlet-Framework/2.1.7
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8

{
 "tokenId":"AQIC5wM...TU3OQ*",
 "successUrl":"/openam/console"
}

If the default REST API version behavior is set to None, and a REST API call does not include the Accept-API-Version header, or does not specify a resource version, then a 400 Bad Request status code is returned, as shown below:

$ curl \
 --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
 --header "Accept-API-Version: protocol=1.0" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/serverinfo/*

{
 "code":400,
 "reason":"Bad Request",
 "message":"No requested version specified and behavior set to NONE."
}

If a REST API call does include the Accept-API-Version header, but the specified resource or protocol version does not exist in AM, then a 404 Not Found status code is returned, as shown below:

$ curl \
 --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
 --header "Accept-API-Version: protocol=1.0, resource=999.0" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/serverinfo/*

{
 "code":404,
 "reason":"Not Found",
 "message":"Accept-API-Version: Requested version \"999.0\" does not match any routes."
}

Tip

For more information on setting the default REST API version behavior, see Section A.3.2, "Specifying an Explicit REST API Version".

A.4. Specifying Realms in REST API Calls

This section describes how to work with realms when making REST API calls to AM.

Realms can be specified in the following ways when making a REST API call to AM:

DNS Alias

When making a REST API call, the DNS alias of a realm can be specified in the subdomain and domain name components of the REST endpoint.

To list all users in the top-level realm use the DNS alias of the AM instance, for example the REST endpoint would be:

https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/users?_queryId=*

To list all users in a realm with DNS alias suppliers.example.com the REST endpoint would be:

https://suppliers.example.com:8443/openam/json/users?_queryId=*

Path

When making a REST API call, specify the realm in the path component of the endpoint. You must specify the entire hierarchy of the realm, starting at the top-level realm. Prefix each realm in the hierarchy with the realms/ keyword. For example /realms/root/realms/customers/realms/europe.

To authenticate a user in the top-level realm, use the root keyword. For example:

https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate

To authenticate a user in a subrealm named customers within the top-level realm, the REST endpoint would be:

https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/customers/authenticate

If realms are specified using both the DNS alias and path methods, the path is used to determine the realm.

For example, the following REST endpoint returns users in a subrealm of the top-level realm named europe, not the realm with DNS alias suppliers.example.com:

https://suppliers.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/europe/users?_queryId=*

A.5. Authentication and Logout

You can use REST-like APIs under /json/authenticate and /json/sessions for authentication and for logout.

The /json/authenticate endpoint does not support the CRUDPAQ verbs and therefore does not technically satisfy REST architectural requirements. The term REST-like describes this endpoint better than REST.

The simplest user name/password authentication returns a tokenId that applications can present as a cookie value for other operations that require authentication. The type of tokenId returned varies depending on whether stateless sessions are enabled in the realm to which the user authenticates:

  • If stateless sessions are not enabled, the tokenId is an AM SSO token.

  • If stateless sessions are enabled, the tokenId is an AM SSO token that includes an encoded AM session.

Developers should be aware that the size of the tokenId for stateless sessions—2000 bytes or greater—is considerably longer than for stateful sessions—approximately 100 bytes. For more information about stateful and stateless session tokens, see Section 1.8.1.6, "Session Cookies" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide.

When authenticating with a user name and password, use HTTP POST to prevent the web container from logging the credentials. Pass the user name in an X-OpenAM-Username header, and the password in an X-OpenAM-Password header:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
 --header "X-OpenAM-Username: demo" \
 --header "X-OpenAM-Password: changeit" \
 --data "{}" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate
{
 "tokenId": "AQIC5w...NTcy*",
 "successUrl": "/openam/console"
}

To use UTF-8 user names and passwords in calls to the /json/authenticate endpoint, base64-encode the string, and then wrap the string as described in RFC 2047:

encoded-word = "=?" charset "?" encoding "?" encoded-text "?="

For example, to authenticate using a UTF-8 username, such as ɗëɱø, perform the following steps:

  1. Encode the string in base64 format: yZfDq8mxw7g=.

  2. Wrap the base64-encoded string as per RFC 2047: =?UTF-8?B?yZfDq8mxw7g=?=.

  3. Use the result in the X-OpenAM-Username header passed to the authentication endpoint as follows:

    $ curl \
     --request POST \
     --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
     --header "X-OpenAM-Username: =?UTF-8?B?yZfDq8mxw7g=?=" \
     --header "X-OpenAM-Password: changeit" \
     --data "{}" \
     https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate
    {
     "tokenId": "AQIC5w...NTcy*",
     "successUrl": "/openam/console"
    }

This zero page login mechanism works only for name/password authentication. If you include a POST body with the request, it must be an empty JSON string as shown in the example. Alternatively, you can leave the POST body empty. Otherwise, AM interprets the body as a continuation of an existing authentication attempt, one that uses a supported callback mechanism.

The authentication service at /json/authenticate supports callback mechanisms that make it possible to perform other types of authentication in addition to simple user name/password login.

Callbacks that are not completed based on the content of the client HTTP request are returned in JSON as a response to the request. Each callback has an array of output suitable for displaying to the end user, and input which is what the client must complete and send back to AM. The default is still user name/password authentication:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate
{
    "authId": "...jwt-value...",
    "template": "",
    "stage": "DataStore1",
    "callbacks": [
        {
            "type": "NameCallback",
            "output": [
                {
                    "name": "prompt",
                    "value": " User Name: "
                }
            ],
            "input": [
                {
                    "name": "IDToken1",
                    "value": ""
                }
            ]
        },
        {
            "type": "PasswordCallback",
            "output": [
                {
                    "name": "prompt",
                    "value": " Password: "
                }
            ],
            "input": [
                {
                    "name": "IDToken2",
                    "value": ""
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}

The authID value is a JSON Web Token (JWT) that uniquely identifies the authentication context to AM, and so must also be sent back with the requests.

To respond to the callback, send back the JSON object with the missing values filled, as in this case where the user name is demo and the password is changeit:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
 --data '{ "authId": "...jwt-value...", "template": "", "stage": "DataStore1",
   "callbacks": [ { "type": "NameCallback", "output": [ { "name": "prompt",
   "value": " User Name: " } ], "input": [ { "name": "IDToken1", "value": "demo" } ] },
   { "type": "PasswordCallback", "output": [ { "name": "prompt", "value": " Password: " } ],
   "input": [ { "name": "IDToken2", "value": "changeit" } ] } ] }' \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate

{ "tokenId": "AQIC5wM2...U3MTE4NA..*", "successUrl": "/openam/console" }

The response is a token ID holding the SSO token value.

Alternatively, you can authenticate without requesting a session using the noSession query string parameter:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
 --data '{ "authId": "...jwt-value...", "template": "", "stage": "DataStore1",
   "callbacks": [ { "type": "NameCallback", "output": [ { "name": "prompt",
   "value": " User Name: " } ], "input": [ { "name": "IDToken1", "value": "demo" } ] },
   { "type": "PasswordCallback", "output": [ { "name": "prompt", "value": " Password: " } ],
   "input": [ { "name": "IDToken2", "value": "changeit" } ] } ] }' \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate?noSession=true

{ "message": "Authentication Successful", "successUrl": "/openam/console" }

AM can be configured to return a failure URL value when authentication fails. No failure URL is configured by default. The Default Failure Login URL can be set per realm; see Section 11.1.7, "Post Authentication Processing" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide for details. Alternatively, failure URLs can be configured per authentication chain, which your client can specify using the service parameter described below. On failure AM then returns HTTP status code 401 Unauthorized, and the JSON in the reply indicates the failure URL:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header "X-OpenAM-Username: demo" \
 --header "X-OpenAM-Password: badpassword" \
 https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate
{
  "code":401,
  "reason":"Unauthorized",
  "message":"Invalid Password!!",
  "failureUrl": "http://www.example.com/401.html"
}

When making a REST API call, specify the realm in the path component of the endpoint. You must specify the entire hierarchy of the realm, starting at the top-level realm. Prefix each realm in the hierarchy with the realms/ keyword. For example /realms/root/realms/customers/realms/europe.

For example, to authenticate to a subrealm customers within the top-level realm, then the authentication endpoint URL is as follows: https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/customers/authenticate

The following additional parameters are supported:

You can use the authIndexType and authIndexValue query string parameters as a pair to provide additional information about how you are authenticating. The authIndexType can be one of the following types:

composite

Set the value to a composite advice string.

level

Set the value to the authentication level.

module

Set the value to the name of an authentication module.

resource

Set the value to a URL protected by an AM policy.

role

Set the value to an AM role.

service

Set the value to the name of an authentication chain.

user

Set the value to an AM user ID.

You can use the query string parameter, sessionUpgradeSSOTokenId=tokenId, to request session upgrade. Before the tokenId is searched for in the query string for session upgrade, the token is grabbed from the cookie. For an explanation of session upgrade, see Section 1.8.2, "Session Upgrade" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide.

AM uses the following callback types depending on the authentication module in use:

  • ChoiceCallback: Used to display a list of choices and retrieve the selected choice.

  • ConfirmationCallback: Used to ask for a confirmation such as Yes, No, or Cancel and retrieve the selection.

  • HiddenValueCallback: Used to return form values that are not visually rendered to the end user.

  • HttpCallback: Used for HTTP handshake negotiations.

  • LanguageCallback: Used to retrieve the locale for localizing text presented to the end user.

  • NameCallback: Used to retrieve a name string.

  • PasswordCallback: Used to retrieve a password value.

  • RedirectCallback: Used to redirect the client user-agent.

  • ScriptTextOutputCallback: Used to insert a script into the page presented to the end user. The script can, for example, collect data about the user's environment.

  • TextInputCallback: Used to retrieve text input from the end user.

  • TextOutputCallback: Used to display a message to the end user.

  • X509CertificateCallback: Used to retrieve the content of an x.509 certificate.

A.5.1. Logout

Authenticated users can log out with the token cookie value and an HTTP POST to /json/sessions/?_action=logout:

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
 --header "Cache-Control: no-cache" \
 --header "iplanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5wM2...U3MTE4NA..*" \
https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/sessions/?_action=logout
   
    {"result":"Successfully logged out"}

A.5.2. logoutByHandle

To log out a session using a session handle, first perform an HTTP GET to the resource URL, /json/sessions/, using the queryFilter action to get the session handle:

$ curl \
 --request GET \
 --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
 --header "Cache-Control: no-cache" \
 --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQICS...NzEz*" \
http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/json/realms/root/sessions?_queryFilter=username%20eq%20%22demo%22%20and%20realm%20eq%20%22%2F%22
{
  "result": [
   {
    "username": "demo",
    "universalId": "id=demo,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
    "realm": "\/",
    "sessionHandle": "shandle:AQIC5w...MTY3*",
    "latestAccessTime": "2016-11-09T14:14:11Z",
    "maxIdleExpirationTime": "2016-11-09T14:44:11Z",
    "maxSessionExpirationTime": "2016-11-09T16:14:11Z"
   }
  ],
   "resultCount": 1,
   "pagedResultsCookie": null,
   "totalPagedResultsPolicy": "NONE",
   "totalPagedResults": -1,
   "remainingPagedResults": -1
}

To log out a session using a session handle, perform an HTTP POST to the resource URL, /json/sessions/, using the logoutByHandle action.

$ curl \
 --request POST \
 --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
 --header "Cache-Control: no-cache" \
 --header "iplanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5w...NTcy*" \
 --data '{"sessionHandles": ["shandle:AQIC5w...MTY3*","shandle:AQIC5w...NDcx*"]}' \
http://openam.example.com:8080/openam/json/realms/root/sessions/?_action=logoutByHandle
{
  "result": {
    "shandle:AQIC5w...NDcx*": true,
    "shandle:AQIC5w...MTY3*": true
  }
}

A.5.3. Load Balancer and Proxy Layer Requirements

When authentication depends on the client IP address and AM lies behind a load balancer or proxy layer, configure the load balancer or proxy to send the address by using the X-Forwarded-For header, and configure AM to consume and forward the header as necessary. For details, see Section 2.2.4, "Handling HTTP Request Headers" in the Installation Guide.

A.5.4. Windows Desktop SSO Requirements

When authenticating with Windows Desktop SSO, add an Authorization header containing the string Basic , followed by a base64-encoded string of the username, a colon character, and the password. In the following example, the credentials demo:changeit are base64-encoded into the string ZGVtbzpjaGFuZ2VpdA==:

$ curl \
--request POST \
--header "Content-Type: application/json" \
--header "X-OpenAM-Username: demo" \
--header "X-OpenAM-Password: changeit" \
--header "Authorization: Basic ZGVtbzpjaGFuZ2VpdA==" \
--data "{}" \
https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate

{ "tokenId": "AQIC5w...NTcy*", "successUrl": "/openam/console" }

A.6. Using the Session Token After Authentication

The following is a common scenario when accessing AM by using REST API calls:

  • First, call the /json/authenticate endpoint to log a user in to AM. This REST API call returns a tokenID value, which is used in subsequent REST API calls to identify the user:

    $ curl \
     --request POST \
     --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
     --header "X-OpenAM-Username: demo" \
     --header "X-OpenAM-Password: changeit" \
     --data "{}" \
     https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/authenticate
    
    { "tokenId": "AQIC5w...NTcy*", "successUrl": "/openam/console" }

    The returned tokenID is known as a session token (also referred to as an SSO token). REST API calls made after successful authentication to AM must present the session token in the HTTP header as proof of authentication.

  • Next, call one or more additional REST APIs on behalf of the logged-in user. Each REST API call passes the user's tokenID back to AM in the HTTP header as proof of previous authentication.

    The following is a partial example of a curl command that inserts the token ID returned from a prior successful AM authentication attempt into the HTTP header:

    $ curl \
    --request POST \
    --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
    --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5w...NTcy*" \
    --data '{
      ...
    

    Observe that the session token is inserted into a header field named iPlanetDirectoryPro. This header field name must correspond to the name of the AM session cookie—by default, iPlanetDirectoryPro. You can find the cookie name in the AM console by navigating to Deployment > Servers > Server Name > Security > Cookie, in the Cookie Name field of the AM console.

    Once a user has authenticated, it is not necessary to insert login credentials in the HTTP header in subsequent REST API calls. Note the absence of X-OpenAM-Username and X-OpenAM-Password headers in the preceding example.

    Users are required to have appropriate privileges in order to access AM functionality using the REST API. For example, users who lack administrative privileges cannot create AM realms. For more information on the AM privilege model, see Section 2.4.1, "Delegating Realm Administration Privileges" in the Setup and Maintenance Guide.

  • Finally, call the REST API to log the user out of AM as described in Section A.5, "Authentication and Logout". As with other REST API calls made after a user has authenticated, the REST API call to log out of AM requires the user's tokenID in the HTTP header.

A.7. Server Information

You can retrieve AM server information by using HTTP GET on /json/serverinfo/* as follows:

$ curl https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/serverinfo/*
{
    "domains": [
        ".example.com"
    ],
    "protectedUserAttributes": [],
    "cookieName": "iPlanetDirectoryPro",
    "secureCookie": false,
    "forgotPassword": "false",
    "forgotUsername": "false",
    "kbaEnabled": "false",
    "selfRegistration": "false",
    "lang": "en-US",
    "successfulUserRegistrationDestination": "default",
    "socialImplementations": [
        {
            "iconPath": "XUI/images/logos/facebook.png",
            "authnChain": "FacebookSocialAuthenticationService",
            "displayName": "Facebook",
            "valid": true
        }
    ],
    "referralsEnabled": "false",
    "zeroPageLogin": {
        "enabled": false,
        "refererWhitelist": [
            ""
        ],
        "allowedWithoutReferer": true
    },
    "realm": "/",
    "xuiUserSessionValidationEnabled": true,
    "FQDN": "openam.example.com"
}

A.8. Token Encoding

Valid tokens in AM requires configuration either in percent encoding or in C66Encode format. C66Encode format is encouraged. It is the default token format for AM, and is used in this section. The following is an example token that has not been encoded:

AQIC5wM2LY4SfczntBbXvEAOuECbqMY3J4NW3byH6xwgkGE=@AAJTSQACMDE=#

This token includes reserved characters such as +, /, and = (The @, #, and * are not reserved characters per se, but substitutions are still required). To c66encode this token, you would substitute certain characters for others, as follows:

+ is replaced with -
/ is replaced with _
= is replaced with .
@ is replaced with *
# is replaced with *
* (first instance) is replaced with @
* (subsequent instances) is replaced with #

In this case, the translated token would appear as shown here:

AQIC5wM2LY4SfczntBbXvEAOuECbqMY3J4NW3byH6xwgkGE.*AAJTSQACMDE.*

A.9. Logging

AM 5.1 supports two Audit Logging Services: a new common REST-based Audit Logging Service, and the legacy Logging Service, which is based on a Java SDK and is available in AM versions prior to OpenAM 13. The legacy Logging Service is deprecated.

Both audit facilities log AM REST API calls.

A.9.1. Common Audit Logging of REST API Calls

AM logs information about all REST API calls to the access topic. For more information about AM audit topics, see Section 6.1.2, "Audit Log Topics" in the Setup and Maintenance Guide.

Locate specific REST endpoints in the http.path log file property.

A.9.2. Legacy Logging of REST API Calls

AM logs information about REST API calls to two files:

  • amRest.access. Records accesses to a CREST endpoint, regardless of whether the request successfully reached the endpoint through policy authorization.

    An amRest.access example is as follows:

    $ cat openam/openam/log/amRest.access
    
    #Version: 1.0
    #Fields: time  Data  LoginID  ContextID  IPAddr  LogLevel  Domain  LoggedBy  MessageID  ModuleName
    NameID  HostName
    "2011-09-14 16:38:17"   /home/user/openam/openam/log/ "cn=dsameuser,ou=DSAME Users,o=openam"
    aa307b2dcb721d4201 "Not Available" INFO  o=openam   "cn=dsameuser,ou=DSAME Users,o=openam"
    LOG-1  amRest.access  "Not Available"  192.168.56.2
    "2011-09-14 16:38:17"  "Hello World"  id=bjensen,ou=user,o=openam 8a4025a2b3af291d01  "Not Available"
    INFO  o=openam id=amadmin,ou=user,o=openam "Not Available" amRest.access "Not Available"
    192.168.56.2
  • amRest.authz. Records all CREST authorization results regardless of success. If a request has an entry in the amRest.access log, but no corresponding entry in amRest.authz, then that endpoint was not protected by an authorization filter and therefore the request was granted access to the resource.

    The amRest.authz file contains the Data field, which specifies the authorization decision, resource, and type of action performed on that resource. The Data field has the following syntax:

    ("GRANT"||"DENY") > "RESOURCE | ACTION"
    
    where
      "GRANT > " is prepended to the entry if the request was allowed
      "DENY  > " is prepended to the entry if the request was not allowed
      "RESOURCE" is "ResourceLocation | ResourceParameter"
         where
           "ResourceLocation" is the endpoint location (e.g., subrealm/applicationtypes)
           "ResourceParameter" is the ID of the resource being touched
            (e.g., myApplicationType) if applicable. Otherwise, this field is empty
            if touching the resource itself, such as in a query.
    
      "ACTION" is "ActionType | ActionParameter"
         where
           "ActionType" is "CREATE||READ||UPDATE||DELETE||PATCH||ACTION||QUERY"
           "ActionParameter" is one of the following depending on the ActionType:
              For CREATE: the new resource ID
              For READ: empty
              For UPDATE: the revision of the resource to update
              For DELETE: the revision of the resource to delete
              For PATCH: the revision of the resource to patch
              For ACTION: the actual action performed (e.g., "forgotPassword")
              For QUERY: the query ID if any
    $ cat openam/openam/log/amRest.authz
    
    #Version: 1.0
    #Fields: time   Data  ContextID  LoginID  IPAddr  LogLevel  Domain  MessageID  LoggedBy  NameID
    ModuleName    HostName
    "2014-09-16 14:17:28"   /var/root/openam/openam/log/   7d3af9e799b6393301
    "cn=dsameuser,ou=DSAME Users,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org" "Not Available" INFO
    dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org  LOG-1  "cn=dsameuser,ou=DSAME Users,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org"
    "Not Available" amRest.authz    10.0.1.5
    "2014-09-16 15:56:12"  "GRANT > sessions|ACTION|logout|AdminOnlyFilter"  d3977a55a2ee18c201
    id=amadmin,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org "Not Available" INFO  dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org
    OAuth2Provider-2  "cn=dsameuser,ou=DSAME Users,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org"  "Not Available"
    amRest.authz    127.0.0.1
    "2014-09-16 15:56:40"   "GRANT > sessions|ACTION|logout|AdminOnlyFilter"  eedbc205bf51780001
    id=amadmin,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org  "Not Available" INFO dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org
    OAuth2Provider-2  "cn=dsameuser,ou=DSAME Users,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org"  "Not Available"
    amRest.authz    127.0.0.1

AM also provides additional information in its debug notifications for accesses to any endpoint, depending on the message type (error, warning or message) including realm, user, and result of the operation.

A.10. Reference

This reference section covers return codes and system settings relating to REST API support in AM.

A.10.1. REST APIs

amster type ID: rest

The following settings are available in this service:

Default Resource Version

The API resource version to use when the REST request does not specify an explicit version. Choose from:

  • Latest. If an explicit version is not specified, the latest resource version of an API is used.

  • Oldest. If an explicit version is not specified, the oldest supported resource version of an API is used. Note that since APIs may be deprecated and fall out of support, the oldest supported version may not be the first version.

  • None. If an explicit version is not specified, the request will not be handled and an error status is returned.

The possible values for this property are:

Latest
Oldest
None

Default value: Latest

amster data attribute: defaultVersion

Warning Header

Whether to include a warning header in the response to a request which fails to include the Accept-API-Version header.

Default value: false

amster data attribute: warningHeader

API Descriptions

Whether API Explorer and API Docs are enabled in OpenAM and how the documentation for them is generated. Dynamic generation includes descriptions from any custom services and authentication modules you may have added. Static generation only includes services and authentication modules that were present when OpenAM was built. Note that dynamic documentation generation may not work in some application containers.

The possible values for this property are:

DYNAMIC
STATIC
DISABLED

Default value: STATIC

amster data attribute: descriptionsState

Default Protocol Version

The API protocol version to use when a REST request does not specify an explicit version. Choose from:

  • Oldest. If an explicit version is not specified, the oldest protocol version is used.

  • Latest. If an explicit version is not specified, the latest protocol version is used.

  • None. If an explicit version is not specified, the request will not be handled and an error status is returned.

The possible values for this property are:

Oldest
Latest
None

Default value: Latest

amster data attribute: defaultProtocolVersion

Appendix B. About Scripting

You can use scripts for client-side and server-side authentication, policy conditions, and handling OpenID Connect claims.

B.1. The Scripting Environment

This section introduces how AM executes scripts, and covers thread pools and security configuration.

You can use scripts to modify default AM behavior in the following situations, also known as contexts:

Client-side Authentication

Scripts that are executed on the client during authentication. Client-side scripts must be in JavaScript.

Server-side Authentication

Scripts are included in an authentication module and are executed on the server during authentication.

Policy Condition

Scripts used as conditions within policies.

OIDC Claims

Scripts that gather and populate the claims in a request when issuing an ID token or making a request to the userinfo endpoint.

AM implements a configurable scripting engine for each of the context types that are executed on the server.

The scripting engines in AM have two main components: security settings, and the thread pool.

Diagram of the scripting environment within AM.

B.1.1. Security

AM scripting engines provide security features for ensuring that malicious Java classes are not directly called. The engines validate scripts by checking all directly-called Java classes against a configurable blacklist and whitelist, and, optionally, against the JVM SecurityManager, if it is configured.

Whitelists and blacklists contain class names that are allowed or denied execution respectively. Specify classes in whitelists and blacklists by name or by using regular expressions.

Classes called by the script are checked against the whitelist first, and must match at least one pattern in the list. The blacklist is applied after the whitelist, and classes matching any pattern are disallowed.

You can also configure the scripting engine to make an additional call to the JVM security manager for each class that is accessed. The security manager throws an exception if a class being called is not allowed to execute.

For more information on configuring script engine security, see Section B.4, "Scripting".

Important Points About Script Engine Security

The following points should be considered when configuring the security settings within each script engine:

The scripting engine only validates directly accessible classes.

The security settings only apply to classes that the script directly accesses. If the script calls Foo.a() and then that method calls Bar.b(), the scripting engine will be unable to prevent it. You must consider the whole chain of accessible classes.

Note

Access includes actions such as:

  • Importing or loading a class.

  • Accessing any instance of that class. For example, passed as a parameter to the script.

  • Calling a static method on that class.

  • Calling a method on an instance of that class.

  • Accessing a method or field that returns an instance of that class.

Potentially dangerous Java classes are blacklisted by default.

All Java reflection classes (java.lang.Class, java.lang.reflect.*) are blacklisted by default to avoid bypassing the security settings.

The java.security.AccessController class is also blacklisted by default to prevent access to the doPrivileged() methods.

Caution

You should not remove potentially dangerous Java classes from the blacklist.

The whitelists and blacklists match class or package names only.

The whitelist and blacklist patterns apply only to the exact class or package names involved. The script engine does not know anything about inheritance, so it is best to whitelist known, specific classes.

B.1.2. Thread Pools

Each script is executed in an individual thread. Each scripting engine starts with an initial number of threads available for executing scripts. If no threads are available for execution, AM creates a new thread to execute the script, until the configured maximum number of threads is reached.

If the maximum number of threads is reached, pending script executions are queued in a number of buffer threads, until a thread becomes available for execution. If a created thread has completed script execution and has remained idle for a configured amount of time, AM terminates the thread, shrinking the pool.

For more information on configuring script engine thread pools, see Section B.4, "Scripting".

B.2. Global Scripting API Functionality

This section covers functionality available to each of the server-side script types.

Global API functionality includes:

B.2.1. Accessing HTTP Services

AM passes an HTTP client object, httpClient, to server-side scripts. Server-side scripts can call HTTP services with the httpClient.send method. The method returns an HttpClientResponse object.

Configure the parameters for the HTTP client object by using the org.forgerock.http.protocol package. This package contains the Request class, which has methods for setting the URI and type of request.

The following example, taken from the default server-side Scripted authentication module script, uses these methods to call an online API to determine the longitude and latitude of a user based on their postal address:

function getLongitudeLatitudeFromUserPostalAddress() {

    var request = new org.forgerock.http.protocol.Request();

    request.setUri("http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=" + encodeURIComponent(userPostalAddress));
    request.setMethod("GET");

    var response = httpClient.send(request).get();
    logResponse(response);

    var geocode = JSON.parse(response.getEntity());
    var i;

    for (i = 0; i < geocode.results.length; i++) {
        var result = geocode.results[i];
        latitude = result.geometry.location.lat;
        longitude = result.geometry.location.lng;

        logger.message("latitude:" + latitude + " longitude:" + longitude);
    }
}

HTTP client requests are synchronous and blocking until they return. You can, however, set a global timeout for server-side scripts. For details, see Section 11.2.25, "Scripted Authentication Module Properties" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide.

Server-side scripts can access response data by using the methods listed in the table below.

Table B.1. HTTP Client Response Methods
MethodParametersReturn TypeDescription

HttpClientResponse.getCookies

Void

Map<String, String>

Get the cookies for the returned response, if any exist.

HttpClientResponse.getEntity

Void

String

Get the entity of the returned response.

HttpClientResponse.getHeaders

Void

Map<String, String>

Get the headers for the returned response, if any exist.

HttpClientResponse.getReasonPhrase

Void

String

Get the reason phrase of the returned response.

HttpClientResponse.getStatusCode

Void

Integer

Get the status code of the returned response.

HttpClientResponse.hasCookies

Void

Boolean

Indicate whether the returned response had any cookies.

HttpClientResponse.hasHeaders

Void

Boolean

Indicate whether the returned response had any headers.


B.2.2. Debug Logging

Server-side scripts can write messages to AM debug logs by using the logger object.

AM does not log debug messages from scripts by default. You can configure AM to log such messages by setting the debug log level for the amScript service. For details, see Section 9.2.3, "Debug Logging By Service" in the Setup and Maintenance Guide.

The following table lists the logger methods.

Table B.2. Logger Methods
MethodParametersReturn TypeDescription

logger.error

Error Message (type: String)

Void

Write Error Message to AM debug logs if ERROR level logging is enabled.

logger.errorEnabled

Void

Boolean

Return true when ERROR level debug messages are enabled.

logger.message

Message (type: String)

Void

Write Message to AM debug logs if MESSAGE level logging is enabled.

logger.messageEnabled

Void

Boolean

Return true when MESSAGE level debug messages are enabled.

logger.warning

Warning Message (type: String)

Void

Write Warning Message to AM debug logs if WARNING level logging is enabled.

logger.warningEnabled

Void

Boolean

Return true when WARNING level debug messages are enabled.


B.3. Managing Scripts

This section shows you how to manage scripts used for client-side and server-side scripted authentication, custom policy conditions, and handling OpenID Connect claims using the AM console, the ssoadm command, and the REST API.

B.3.1. Managing Scripts With the AM Console

The following procedures describe how to create, modify, and delete scripts using the AM console:

Procedure B.1. To Create Scripts by Using the AM Console
  1. Log in to the AM console as an AM administrator, for example, amadmin.

  2. Navigate to Realms > Realm Name > Scripts.

  3. Click New Script.

    The New Script page appears:

    Creating a script by using the AM console.
  4. Specify a name for the script.

  5. Select the type of script from the Script Type drop-down list.

  6. Click Create.

    The Script Name page appears:

    Creating a Script Using the AM console.
  7. Enter values on the Script Name page as follows:

    1. Enter a description of the script.

    2. Choose the script language, either JavaScript or Groovy. Note that not every script type supports both languages.

    3. Enter the source code in the Script field.

      On supported browsers, you can click Upload, navigate to the script file, and then click Open to upload the contents to the Script field.

    4. Click Validate to check for compilation errors in the script.

      Correct any compilation errors, and revalidate the script until all errors have been fixed.

    5. Save your changes.

Procedure B.2. To Modify Scripts by Using the AM Console
  1. Log in to the AM console as an AM administrator, for example, amadmin.

  2. Navigate to Realms > Realm Name > Scripts.

  3. Select the script you want to modify from the list of scripts.

    The Script Name page appears.

  4. Modify values on the Script Name page as needed. Note that if you change the Script Type, existing code in the script is replaced.

  5. If you modified the code in the script, click Validate to check for compilation errors.

    Correct any compilation errors, and revalidate the script until all errors have been fixed.

  6. Save your changes.

Procedure B.3. To Delete Scripts by Using the AM Console
  1. Log in to the AM console as an AM administrator, for example, amadmin.

  2. Navigate to Realms > Realm Name > Scripts.

  3. Choose one or more scripts to delete by activating the checkboxes in the relevant rows. Note that you can only delete user-created scripts—you cannot delete the global sample scripts provided with AM.

  4. Click Delete.

B.3.2. Managing Scripts With the ssoadm Command

Use the ssoadm command's create-sub-cfg, get-sub-cfg, and delete-sub-cfg subcommands to manage AM scripts.

Create an AM script as follows:

  1. Create a script configuration file as follows:

    script-file=/path/to/script-file
    language=JAVASCRIPT|GROOVY
    name=myScript
    context=AUTHENTICATION_SERVER_SIDE|AUTHENTICATION_CLIENT_SIDE|POLICY_CONDITION|OIDC_CLAIMS
  2. Run the ssoadm create-sub-cfg command. The --datafile argument references the script configuration file you created in the previous step:

    $ ssoadm \
     create-sub-cfg \
     --realm /myRealm \
     --adminid amadmin \
     --password-file /tmp/pwd.txt \
     --servicename ScriptingService \
     --subconfigname scriptConfigurations/scriptConfiguration \
     --subconfigid myScript \
     --datafile /path/to/myScriptConfigurationFile
    Sub Configuration scriptConfigurations/scriptConfiguration was added to realm /myRealm

To list the properties of a script, run the ssoadm get-sub-cfg command:

$ ssoadm \
  get-sub-cfg \
  --realm /myRealm \
  --adminid amadmin \
  --password-file /tmp/pwd.txt \
  --servicename ScriptingService \
  --subconfigname scriptConfigurations/myScript
createdBy=
lastModifiedDate=
lastModifiedBy=
name=myScript
context=POLICY_CONDITION
description=
language=JAVASCRIPT
creationDate=
script=...Script output follows...

To delete a script, run the ssoadm delete-sub-cfg command:

$ ssoadm \
  delete-sub-cfg \
  --realm /myRealm \
  --adminid amadmin \
  --password-file /tmp/pwd.txt \
  --servicename ScriptingService \
  --subconfigname scriptConfigurations/myScript
Sub Configuration scriptConfigurations/myScript was deleted from realm /myRealm

B.3.3. Managing Scripts With the REST API

This section shows you how to manage scripts used for client-side and server-side scripted authentication, custom policy conditions, and handling OpenID Connect claims by using the REST API.

User-created scripts are realm-specific, hence the URI for the scripts' API can contain a realm component, such as /json{/realm}/scripts. If the realm is not specified in the URI, the top level realm is used.

Tip

AM includes some global example scripts that can be used in any realm.

Scripts are represented in JSON and take the following form. Scripts are built from standard JSON objects and values (strings, numbers, objects, sets, arrays, true, false, and null). Each script has a system-generated universally unique identifier (UUID), which must be used when modifying existing scripts. Renaming a script will not affect the UUID:

{
  "_id": "7e3d7067-d50f-4674-8c76-a3e13a810c33",
  "name": "Scripted Module - Server Side",
  "description": "Default global script for server side Scripted Authentication Module",
  "script": "dmFyIFNUQVJUX1RJ...",
  "language": "JAVASCRIPT",
  "context": "AUTHENTICATION_SERVER_SIDE",
  "createdBy": "id=dsameuser,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
  "creationDate": 1433147666269,
  "lastModifiedBy": "id=dsameuser,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
  "lastModifiedDate": 1433147666269
}

The values for the fields shown in the example above are explained below:

_id

The UUID that AM generates for the script.

name

The name provided for the script.

description

An optional text string to help identify the script.

script

The source code of the script. The source code is in UTF-8 format and encoded into Base64.

For example, a script such as the following:

var a = 123;
var b = 456;

When encoded into Base64 becomes:

dmFyIGEgPSAxMjM7IA0KdmFyIGIgPSA0NTY7
language

The language the script is written in - JAVASCRIPT or GROOVY.

Table B.3. Language Support per Context
Script ContextSupported Languages
POLICY_CONDITIONJAVASCRIPT, GROOVY
AUTHENTICATION_SERVER_SIDEJAVASCRIPT, GROOVY
AUTHENTICATION_CLIENT_SIDEJAVASCRIPT
OIDC_CLAIMSJAVASCRIPT, GROOVY

context

The context type of the script.

Supported values are:

POLICY_CONDITION

Policy Condition

AUTHENTICATION_SERVER_SIDE

Server-side Authentication

AUTHENTICATION_CLIENT_SIDE

Client-side Authentication

Note

Client-side scripts must be written in JavaScript.

OIDC_CLAIMS

OIDC Claims

createdBy

A string containing the universal identifier DN of the subject that created the script.

creationDate

An integer containing the creation date and time, in ISO 8601 format.

lastModifiedBy

A string containing the universal identifier DN of the subject that most recently updated the resource type.

If the script has not been modified since it was created, this property will have the same value as createdBy.

lastModifiedDate

A string containing the last modified date and time, in ISO 8601 format.

If the script has not been modified since it was created, this property will have the same value as creationDate.

B.3.4. Querying Scripts

To list all the scripts in a realm, as well as any global scripts, perform an HTTP GET to the /json{/realm}/scripts endpoint with a _queryFilter parameter set to true.

Note

If the realm is not specified in the URL, AM returns scripts in the top level realm, as well as any global scripts.

The iPlanetDirectoryPro header is required and should contain the SSO token of an administrative user, such as amAdmin, who has access to perform the operation.

$ curl \
  --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5..." \
  https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/myrealm/scripts?_queryFilter
 =true
{
  "result": [
    {
      "_id": "9de3eb62-f131-4fac-a294-7bd170fd4acb",
      "name": "Scripted Policy Condition",
      "description": "Default global script for Scripted Policy Conditions",
      "script": "LyoqCiAqIFRoaXMg...",
      "language": "JAVASCRIPT",
      "context": "POLICY_CONDITION",
      "createdBy": "id=dsameuser,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
      "creationDate": 1433147666269,
      "lastModifiedBy": "id=dsameuser,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
      "lastModifiedDate": 1433147666269
    },
    {
      "_id": "7e3d7067-d50f-4674-8c76-a3e13a810c33",
      "name": "Scripted Module - Server Side",
      "description": "Default global script for server side Scripted Authentication Module",
      "script": "dmFyIFNUQVJUX1RJ...",
      "language": "JAVASCRIPT",
      "context": "AUTHENTICATION_SERVER_SIDE",
      "createdBy": "id=dsameuser,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
      "creationDate": 1433147666269,
      "lastModifiedBy": "id=dsameuser,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
      "lastModifiedDate": 1433147666269
    }
  ],
  "resultCount": 2,
  "pagedResultsCookie": null,
  "remainingPagedResults": -1
}
Table B.4. Supported _queryFilter Fields and Operators
FieldSupported Operators
_id Equals (eq), Contains (co), Starts with (sw)
name Equals (eq), Contains (co), Starts with (sw)
description Equals (eq), Contains (co), Starts with (sw)
script Equals (eq), Contains (co), Starts with (sw)
language Equals (eq), Contains (co), Starts with (sw)
context Equals (eq), Contains (co), Starts with (sw)

B.3.5. Reading a Script

To read an individual script in a realm, perform an HTTP GET using the /json{/realm}/scripts endpoint, specifying the UUID in the URL.

Tip

To read a script in the top-level realm, or to read a built-in global script, do not specify a realm in the URL.

The iPlanetDirectoryPro header is required and should contain the SSO token of an administrative user, such as amAdmin, who has access to perform the operation.

$ curl \
  --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5..." \
  https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/myrealm/scripts/9de3eb62-f131-4fac-a294-7bd170fd4acb
{
  "_id": "9de3eb62-f131-4fac-a294-7bd170fd4acb",
  "name": "Scripted Policy Condition",
  "description": "Default global script for Scripted Policy Conditions",
  "script": "LyoqCiAqIFRoaXMg...",
  "language": "JAVASCRIPT",
  "context": "POLICY_CONDITION",
  "createdBy": "id=dsameuser,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
  "creationDate": 1433147666269,
  "lastModifiedBy": "id=dsameuser,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
  "lastModifiedDate": 1433147666269
}

B.3.6. Validating a Script

To validate a script, perform an HTTP POST using the /json{/realm}/scripts endpoint, with an _action parameter set to validate. Include a JSON representation of the script and the script language, JAVASCRIPT or GROOVY, in the POST data.

The value for script must be in UTF-8 format and then encoded into Base64.

The iPlanetDirectoryPro header is required and should contain the SSO token of an administrative user, such as amAdmin, who has access to perform the operation.

$ curl \
  --request POST \
  --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
  --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5..." \
  --data '{
     "script": "dmFyIGEgPSAxMjM7dmFyIGIgPSA0NTY7Cg==",
     "language": "JAVASCRIPT"
  }' \
  https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/myrealm/scripts/?_action=validate
{
  "success": true
}

If the script is valid the JSON response contains a success key with a value of true.

If the script is invalid the JSON response contains a success key with a value of false, and an indication of the problem and where it occurs, as shown below:

$ curl \
  --request POST \
  --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
  --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5..." \
  --data '{
    "script": "dmFyIGEgPSAxMjM7dmFyIGIgPSA0NTY7ID1WQUxJREFUSU9OIFNIT1VMRCBGQUlMPQo=",
    "language": "JAVASCRIPT"
  }' \
  https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/myrealm/scripts/?_action=validate
{
  "success": false,
  "errors": [
    {
      "line": 1,
      "column": 27,
      "message": "syntax error"
    }
  ]
}

B.3.7. Creating a Script

To create a script in a realm, perform an HTTP POST using the /json{/realm}/scripts endpoint, with an _action parameter set to create. Include a JSON representation of the script in the POST data.

The value for script must be in UTF-8 format and then encoded into Base64.

Note

If the realm is not specified in the URL, AM creates the script in the top level realm.

The iPlanetDirectoryPro header is required and should contain the SSO token of an administrative user, such as amAdmin, who has access to perform the operation.

$ curl \
  --request POST \
  --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
  --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5..." \
  --data '{
     "name": "MyJavaScript",
     "script": "dmFyIGEgPSAxMjM7CnZhciBiID0gNDU2Ow==",
     "language": "JAVASCRIPT",
     "context": "POLICY_CONDITION",
     "description": "An example script"
  }' \
  https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/myrealm/scripts/?_action
 =create
{
   "_id": "0168d494-015a-420f-ae5a-6a2a5c1126af",
   "name": "MyJavaScript",
   "description": "An example script",
   "script": "dmFyIGEgPSAxMjM7CnZhciBiID0gNDU2Ow==",
   "language": "JAVASCRIPT",
   "context": "POLICY_CONDITION",
   "createdBy": "id=amadmin,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
   "creationDate": 1436807766258,
   "lastModifiedBy": "id=amadmin,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
   "lastModifiedDate": 1436807766258
}

B.3.8. Updating a Script

To update an individual script in a realm, perform an HTTP PUT using the /json{/realm}/scripts endpoint, specifying the UUID in both the URL and the PUT body. Include a JSON representation of the updated script in the PUT data, alongside the UUID.

Note

If the realm is not specified in the URL, AM uses the top level realm.

The iPlanetDirectoryPro header is required and should contain the SSO token of an administrative user, such as amAdmin, who has access to perform the operation.

$ curl \
  --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5..." \
  --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
  --request PUT \
  --data '{
    "name": "MyUpdatedJavaScript",
    "script": "dmFyIGEgPSAxMjM7CnZhciBiID0gNDU2Ow==",
    "language": "JAVASCRIPT",
    "context": "POLICY_CONDITION",
    "description": "An updated example script configuration"
  }' \
  https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/myrealm/scripts/0168d494-015a-420f-ae5a-6a2a5c1126af
{
   "_id": "0168d494-015a-420f-ae5a-6a2a5c1126af",
   "name": "MyUpdatedJavaScript",
   "description": "An updated example script configuration",
   "script": "dmFyIGEgPSAxMjM7CnZhciBiID0gNDU2Ow==",
   "language": "JAVASCRIPT",
   "context": "POLICY_CONDITION",
   "createdBy": "id=amadmin,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
   "creationDate": 1436807766258,
   "lastModifiedBy": "id=amadmin,ou=user,dc=openam,dc=forgerock,dc=org",
   "lastModifiedDate": 1436808364681
}

B.3.9. Deleting a Script

To delete an individual script in a realm, perform an HTTP DELETE using the /json{/realm}/scripts endpoint, specifying the UUID in the URL.

Note

If the realm is not specified in the URL, AM uses the top level realm.

The iPlanetDirectoryPro header is required and should contain the SSO token of an administrative user, such as amAdmin, who has access to perform the operation.

$ curl \
  --request DELETE \
  --header "iPlanetDirectoryPro: AQIC5..." \
  https://openam.example.com:8443/openam/json/realms/root/realms/myrealm/scripts/0168d494-015a-420f-ae5a-6a2a5c1126af
{}

B.4. Scripting

amster type ID: scripting

B.4.1. Configuration

The following settings appear on the Configuration tab:

Default Script Type

The default script context type when creating a new script.

The possible values for this property are:

POLICY_CONDITION
AUTHENTICATION_SERVER_SIDE
AUTHENTICATION_CLIENT_SIDE
OIDC_CLAIMS

Default value: POLICY_CONDITION

amster data attribute: defaultContext

B.4.2. Secondary Configurations

This service has the following Secondary Configurations.

B.4.2.1. Engine Configuration

The following properties are available for Scripting Service secondary configuration instances:

Engine Configuration

Configure script engine parameters for running a particular script type in OpenAM.

amster data attribute: engineConfiguration

To access a secondary configuration instance using the ssoadm command, use: --subconfigname [primary configuration]/[secondary configuration] For example:

$ ssoadm set-sub-cfg \
  --adminid amAdmin \
  --password-file admin_pwd_file \
  --servicename ScriptingService \
  --subconfigname OIDC_CLAIMS/engineConfiguration \
  --operation set \
  --attributevalues maxThreads=300 queueSize=-1

Note

Supports server-side scripts only. OpenAM cannot configure engine settings for client-side scripts.

The configurable engine settings are as follows:

Server-side Script Timeout

The maximum execution time any individual script should take on the server (in seconds). OpenAM terminates scripts which take longer to run than this value.

amster data attribute: serverTimeout

Core thread pool size

The initial number of threads in the thread pool from which scripts operate. OpenAM will ensure the pool contains at least this many threads.

amster data attribute: coreThreads

Maximum thread pool size

The maximum number of threads in the thread pool from which scripts operate. If no free thread is available in the pool, OpenAM creates new threads in the pool for script execution up to the configured maximum.

amster data attribute: maxThreads

Thread pool queue size

The number of threads to use for buffering script execution requests when the maximum thread pool size is reached.

amster data attribute: queueSize

Thread idle timeout (seconds)

Length of time (in seconds) for a thread to be idle before OpenAM terminates created threads. If the current pool size contains the number of threads set in Core thread pool size idle threads will not be terminated, to maintain the initial pool size.

amster data attribute: idleTimeout

Java class whitelist

Specifies the list of class-name patterns allowed to be invoked by the script. Every class accessed by the script must match at least one of these patterns.

You can specify the class name as-is or use a regular expression.

amster data attribute: whiteList

Java class blacklist

Specifies the list of class-name patterns that are NOT allowed to be invoked by the script. The blacklist is applied AFTER the whitelist to exclude those classes - access to a class specified in both the whitelist and the blacklist will be denied.

You can specify the class name to exclude as-is or use a regular expression.

amster data attribute: blackList

Use system SecurityManager

If enabled, OpenAM will make a call to System.getSecurityManager().checkPackageAccess(...) for each class that is accessed. The method throws SecurityException if the calling thread is not allowed to access the package.

Note

This feature only takes effect if the security manager is enabled for the JVM.

amster data attribute: useSecurityManager

Scripting languages

Select the languages available for scripts on the chosen type. Either GROOVY or JAVASCRIPT.

amster data attribute: languages

Default Script

The source code that is presented as the default when creating a new script of this type.

amster data attribute: defaultScript

Appendix C. Getting Support

For more information or resources about AM and ForgeRock Support, see the following sections:

C.1. Accessing Documentation Online

ForgeRock publishes comprehensive documentation online:

  • The ForgeRock Knowledge Base offers a large and increasing number of up-to-date, practical articles that help you deploy and manage ForgeRock software.

    While many articles are visible to community members, ForgeRock customers have access to much more, including advanced information for customers using ForgeRock software in a mission-critical capacity.

  • ForgeRock product documentation, such as this document, aims to be technically accurate and complete with respect to the software documented. It is visible to everyone and covers all product features and examples of how to use them.

C.2. Using the ForgeRock.org Site

The ForgeRock.org site has links to source code for ForgeRock open source software, as well as links to the ForgeRock forums and technical blogs.

If you are a ForgeRock customer, raise a support ticket instead of using the forums. ForgeRock support professionals will get in touch to help you.

C.3. Getting Support and Contacting ForgeRock

ForgeRock provides support services, professional services, classes through ForgeRock University, and partner services to assist you in setting up and maintaining your deployments. For a general overview of these services, see https://www.forgerock.com.

ForgeRock has staff members around the globe who support our international customers and partners. For details, visit https://www.forgerock.com, or send an email to ForgeRock at info@forgerock.com.

Glossary

Access control

Control to grant or to deny access to a resource.

Account lockout

The act of making an account temporarily or permanently inactive after successive authentication failures.

Actions

Defined as part of policies, these verbs indicate what authorized subjects can do to resources.

Advice

In the context of a policy decision denying access, a hint to the policy enforcement point about remedial action to take that could result in a decision allowing access.

Agent administrator

User having privileges only to read and write policy agent profile configuration information, typically created to delegate policy agent profile creation to the user installing a policy agent.

Agent authenticator

Entity with read-only access to multiple agent profiles defined in the same realm; allows an agent to read web service profiles.

Application

In general terms, a service exposing protected resources.

In the context of AM policies, the application is a template that constrains the policies that govern access to protected resources. An application can have zero or more policies.

Application type

Application types act as templates for creating policy applications.

Application types define a preset list of actions and functional logic, such as policy lookup and resource comparator logic.

Application types also define the internal normalization, indexing logic, and comparator logic for applications.

Attribute-based access control (ABAC)

Access control that is based on attributes of a user, such as how old a user is or whether the user is a paying customer.

Authentication

The act of confirming the identity of a principal.

Authentication chaining

A series of authentication modules configured together which a principal must negotiate as configured in order to authenticate successfully.

Authentication level

Positive integer associated with an authentication module, usually used to require success with more stringent authentication measures when requesting resources requiring special protection.

Authentication module

AM authentication unit that handles one way of obtaining and verifying credentials.

Authorization

The act of determining whether to grant or to deny a principal access to a resource.

Authorization Server

In OAuth 2.0, issues access tokens to the client after authenticating a resource owner and confirming that the owner authorizes the client to access the protected resource. AM can play this role in the OAuth 2.0 authorization framework.

Auto-federation

Arrangement to federate a principal's identity automatically based on a common attribute value shared across the principal's profiles at different providers.

Bulk federation

Batch job permanently federating user profiles between a service provider and an identity provider based on a list of matched user identifiers that exist on both providers.

Circle of trust

Group of providers, including at least one identity provider, who have agreed to trust each other to participate in a SAML v2.0 provider federation.

Client

In OAuth 2.0, requests protected web resources on behalf of the resource owner given the owner's authorization. AM can play this role in the OAuth 2.0 authorization framework.

Conditions

Defined as part of policies, these determine the circumstances under which which a policy applies.

Environmental conditions reflect circumstances like the client IP address, time of day, how the subject authenticated, or the authentication level achieved.

Subject conditions reflect characteristics of the subject like whether the subject authenticated, the identity of the subject, or claims in the subject's JWT.

Configuration datastore

LDAP directory service holding AM configuration data.

Cross-domain single sign-on (CDSSO)

AM capability allowing single sign-on across different DNS domains.

Delegation

Granting users administrative privileges with AM.

Entitlement

Decision that defines which resource names can and cannot be accessed for a given subject in the context of a particular application, which actions are allowed and which are denied, and any related advice and attributes.

Extended metadata

Federation configuration information specific to AM.

Extensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML)

Standard, XML-based access control policy language, including a processing model for making authorization decisions based on policies.

Federation

Standardized means for aggregating identities, sharing authentication and authorization data information between trusted providers, and allowing principals to access services across different providers without authenticating repeatedly.

Fedlet

Service provider application capable of participating in a circle of trust and allowing federation without installing all of AM on the service provider side; AM lets you create Java Fedlets.

Hot swappable

Refers to configuration properties for which changes can take effect without restarting the container where AM runs.

Identity

Set of data that uniquely describes a person or a thing such as a device or an application.

Identity federation

Linking of a principal's identity across multiple providers.

Identity provider (IdP)

Entity that produces assertions about a principal (such as how and when a principal authenticated, or that the principal's profile has a specified attribute value).

Identity repository

Data store holding user profiles and group information; different identity repositories can be defined for different realms.

Java EE policy agent

Java web application installed in a web container that acts as a policy agent, filtering requests to other applications in the container with policies based on application resource URLs.

Metadata

Federation configuration information for a provider.

Policy

Set of rules that define who is granted access to a protected resource when, how, and under what conditions.

Policy Agent

Agent that intercepts requests for resources, directs principals to AM for authentication, and enforces policy decisions from AM.

Policy Administration Point (PAP)

Entity that manages and stores policy definitions.

Policy Decision Point (PDP)

Entity that evaluates access rights and then issues authorization decisions.

Policy Enforcement Point (PEP)

Entity that intercepts a request for a resource and then enforces policy decisions from a PDP.

Policy Information Point (PIP)

Entity that provides extra information, such as user profile attributes that a PDP needs in order to make a decision.

Principal

Represents an entity that has been authenticated (such as a user, a device, or an application), and thus is distinguished from other entities.

When a Subject successfully authenticates, AM associates the Subject with the Principal.

Privilege

In the context of delegated administration, a set of administrative tasks that can be performed by specified subjects in a given realm.

Provider federation

Agreement among providers to participate in a circle of trust.

Realm

AM unit for organizing configuration and identity information.

Realms can be used for example when different parts of an organization have different applications and user data stores, and when different organizations use the same AM deployment.

Administrators can delegate realm administration. The administrator assigns administrative privileges to users, allowing them to perform administrative tasks within the realm.

Resource

Something a user can access over the network such as a web page.

Defined as part of policies, these can include wildcards in order to match multiple actual resources.

Resource owner

In OAuth 2.0, entity who can authorize access to protected web resources, such as an end user.

Resource server

In OAuth 2.0, server hosting protected web resources, capable of handling access tokens to respond to requests for such resources.

Response attributes

Defined as part of policies, these allow AM to return additional information in the form of "attributes" with the response to a policy decision.

Role based access control (RBAC)

Access control that is based on whether a user has been granted a set of permissions (a role).

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)

Standard, XML-based language for exchanging authentication and authorization data between identity providers and service providers.

Service provider (SP)

Entity that consumes assertions about a principal (and provides a service that the principal is trying to access).

Session

The interval that starts with the user authenticating through AM and ends when the user logs out, or when their session is terminated. For browser-based clients, AM manages user sessions across one or more applications by setting a session cookie. See also Stateful session and Stateless session.

Session high availability

Capability that lets any AM server in a clustered deployment access shared, persistent information about users' sessions from the CTS token store. The user does not need to log in again unless the entire deployment goes down.

Session token

Unique identifier issued by AM after successful authentication. For a Stateful session, the session token is used to track a principal's session.

Single log out (SLO)

Capability allowing a principal to end a session once, thereby ending her session across multiple applications.

Single sign-on (SSO)

Capability allowing a principal to authenticate once and gain access to multiple applications without authenticating again.

Site

Group of AM servers configured the same way, accessed through a load balancer layer.

The load balancer handles failover to provide service-level availability. Use sticky load balancing based on amlbcookie values to improve site performance.

The load balancer can also be used to protect AM services.

Standard metadata

Standard federation configuration information that you can share with other access management software.

Stateful session

An AM session that resides in the Core Token Service's token store. Stateful sessions might also be cached in memory on one or more AM servers. AM tracks stateful sessions in order to handle events like logout and timeout, to permit session constraints, and to notify applications involved in SSO when a session ends.

Stateless session

An AM session for which state information is encoded in AM and stored on the client. The information from the session is not retained in the CTS token store. For browser-based clients, AM sets a cookie in the browser that contains the session information.

Subject

Entity that requests access to a resource

When a subject successfully authenticates, AM associates the subject with the Principal that distinguishes it from other subjects. A subject can be associated with multiple principals.

User data store

Data storage service holding principals' profiles; underlying storage can be an LDAP directory service, a relational database, or a custom IdRepo implementation.

Web policy agent

Native library installed in a web server that acts as a policy agent with policies based on web page URLs.

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