Guide to installing ForgeRock® Directory Services software.

Preface

ForgeRock Identity Platform™ is the only offering for access management, identity management, user-managed access, directory services, and an identity gateway, designed and built as a single, unified platform.

The platform includes the following components that extend what is available in open source projects to provide fully featured, enterprise-ready software:

  • ForgeRock Access Management (AM)

  • ForgeRock Identity Management (IDM)

  • ForgeRock Directory Services (DS)

  • ForgeRock Identity Gateway (IG)

The ForgeRock Common REST API works across the platform to provide common ways to access web resources and collections of resources.

This guide shows you how to install, upgrade, and remove Directory Services software components listed in Table 1, "Directory Services Software Components".

Read the Release Notes before you get started.

Table 1. Directory Services Software Components
ComponentDescription

Directory Server and Tools

Pure Java, high-performance server that can be configured as:

  • An LDAPv3 directory server with the additional capability to serve directory data to REST applications over HTTP.

  • An LDAPv3 directory proxy server providing a single point of access to underlying directory servers.

  • A replication server handling replication traffic with directory servers and with other replication servers, receiving, sending, and storing changes to directory data.

Server distributions include command-line tools for installing, configuring, and managing servers. The tools make it possible to script all operations.

DSML Gateway

DSML support is available through the gateway, which is a Java web application that you install in a web container.

REST to LDAP Gateway

In addition to the native server support for REST over HTTP, the REST to LDAP gateway is a Java web application that lets you configure REST access to any LDAPv3 directory server.

Client Toolkit

LDAP command-line client toolkit for scripting LDAP operations.

The client toolkit includes LDAP command-line tools, and command-line tools for load testing.

Java APIs

Java server-side APIs for applications that embed and server plugins that extend directory services.

Java LDAP client-side APIs used internally, and for building client applications.

All Java APIs are fully supported, and have Interface Stability: Evolving. In other words, when you write applications or plugins using the APIs, be prepared to adapt to incompatible changes in both major and minor releases.


For a list of available downloads, see Chapter 1, "Before You Install".

1. Who Should Read this Guide

This guide is written for anyone installing Directory Services software who plans to maintain directory services for client applications. Basic installation can be simple and straightforward, particularly if you are already acquainted with directory services. Upgrading a running directory service without a single point of failure that can cause downtime requires significant planning.

This guide covers the install, upgrade, and removal (uninstall) procedures that you need perform only once per version. This guide aims to provide you with an understanding of what happens when you perform the steps.

2. Accessing Documentation Online

ForgeRock publishes comprehensive documentation online:

  • The ForgeRock Knowledge Base offers a large and increasing number of up-to-date, practical articles that help you deploy and manage ForgeRock software.

    While many articles are visible to community members, ForgeRock customers have access to much more, including advanced information for customers using ForgeRock software in a mission-critical capacity.

  • ForgeRock product documentation, such as this document, aims to be technically accurate and complete with respect to the software documented. It is visible to everyone and covers all product features and examples of how to use them.

3. Using the ForgeRock.org Site

The ForgeRock.org site has links to source code for ForgeRock open source software, as well as links to the ForgeRock forums and technical blogs.

If you are a ForgeRock customer, raise a support ticket instead of using the forums. ForgeRock support professionals will get in touch to help you.

Chapter 1. Before You Install

This chapter covers requirements for running Directory Services software in production. It covers the following topics:

  • Downloading Directory Services software

  • Choosing hardware

  • Choosing an operating system

  • Preparing the Java environment

  • Choosing an application server when using the DSML or REST to LDAP gateway

  • Assigning FQDNs when using replication

  • Using appropriately signed digital certificates

1.1. Downloading Directory Services Software

The ForgeRock BackStage site provides access to ForgeRock releases. ForgeRock releases are thoroughly validated for ForgeRock customers who run the software in production deployments, and for those who want to try or test a given release.

Table 1.1, "Directory Services Software" describes the available software.

Table 1.1. Directory Services Software
FileDescription

DS-5.5.0.zip

Cross-platform distribution of the server software.

Pure Java, high-performance server that can be configured as:

  • An LDAPv3 directory server with the additional capability to serve directory data to REST applications over HTTP.

  • An LDAPv3 directory proxy server providing a single point of access to underlying directory servers.

  • A replication server handling replication traffic with directory servers and with other replication servers, receiving and sending changes to directory data.

Server distributions include command-line tools for installing, configuring, and managing servers. The tools make it possible to script all operations.

By default, this file unpacks into an opendj/ directory.

DS-5.5.0.msi

Microsoft Windows native installer for the server software.

By default, this installs files into a C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenDJ\ directory.

DS-5.5.0-1_all.deb

Server software native packages for Debian and related Linux distributions.

By default, this installs files into an /opt/opendj/ directory.

DS-5.5.0-1.noarch.rpm

Server software native packages for Red Hat and related Linux distributions.

By default, this installs files into an /opt/opendj/ directory.

DS-dsml-servlet-5.5.0.war

Cross-platform DSML gateway web archive.

DS-rest2ldap-servlet-5.5.0.war

Cross-platform REST to LDAP gateway web archive.


1.2. Choosing Hardware

Thanks to the underlying Java platform, Directory Services software runs well on a variety of processor architectures. Many directory service deployments meet their service-level agreements without the very latest or very fastest hardware.

1.2.1. Fulfilling Memory Requirements

When installing a directory server for evaluation, you need 256 MB memory (32-bit) or 1 GB memory (64-bit) available, with 150 MB free disk space for the software and a small set of sample data.

For installation in production, read the rest of this section. You need at least 2 GB memory for a directory server and four times the disk space needed for initial production data in LDIF format. A replicated directory server stores data, indexes for the data, operational attribute data, and historical information for replication. The server configuration trades disk space for performance and resilience, compacting and purging data for good performance and for protection against temporary outages. In addition, leave space for growth in database size as client applications modify and add entries over time.

For a more accurate estimate of the disk space needed, import a known fraction of the initial LDIF with the server configured for production. Run tests to estimate change and growth in directory data, and extrapolate from the actual space occupied in testing to estimate the disk space required in production.

Directory servers almost always benefit from caching all directory database files in system memory. Reading from and writing to memory is much faster than reading from and writing to disk storage.

For large directories with millions of user directory entries, there might not be room to install enough memory to cache everything. To improve performance in such cases, use quality solid state drives either for all directory data, or as an intermediate cache between memory and disk storage.

1.2.2. Choosing a Processor Architecture

Processor architectures that provide fast single thread execution tend to help Directory Services software deliver the lowest response times. For top-end performance in terms of sub-millisecond response times and of throughput ranging from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of operations per second, the latest x86/x64 architecture chips tend to perform better than others.

Chip multi-threading (CMT) processors can work well for directory servers providing pure search throughput, though response times are higher. However, CMT processors are slow to absorb hundreds or thousands of write operations per second. Their slower threads get blocked waiting on resources, and thus are not optimal for deployments with high write throughput requirements.

1.2.3. Fulfilling Network Requirements

On systems with fast processors and enough memory to cache directory data completely, the network can become a bottleneck. Even if a single 1 Gbit Ethernet interface offers plenty of bandwidth to handle your average traffic load, it can be too small for peak traffic loads. Consider using separate interfaces for administrative traffic and for application traffic.

To estimate the network hardware required, calculate the size of the data returned to applications during peak load. For example, if you expect to have a peak load of 100,000 searches per second, each returning a full 8 KB entry, you require a network that can handle 800 MB/sec (3.2 Gbit/sec) throughput, not counting other operations, such as replication traffic.

1.2.4. Fulfilling Storage Requirements

Note

The directory server does not currently support network file systems such as NFS for database storage. Provide sufficient disk space on local storage such as internal disk or an attached disk array.

For a directory server, storage hardware must house both directory data, including historical data for replication, and server logs. On a heavily used server, you might improve performance by putting access logs on dedicated storage.

Storage must keep pace with throughput for write operations. Write throughput can arise from modify, modify DN, add, and delete operations, and from bind operations when a login timestamp is recorded, and when account lockout is configured, for example.

In a replicated topology, a directory server writes entries to disk when they are changed, and a replication server writes changelog entries. The server also records historical information to resolve potential replication conflicts.

As for network throughput, base storage throughput required on peak loads rather than average loads.

1.3. Choosing an Operating System

Directory Services 5.5 software is supported on the following operating systems:

  • Linux 2.6 and later

  • Microsoft Windows Server 2008, 2008 R2, 2012, 2012 R2, and 2016

In order to avoid directory database file corruption after crashes or power failures on Linux systems, enable file system write barriers and make sure that the file system journaling mode is ordered. For details on how to enable write barriers and how to set the journaling mode for data, see the options for your file system in the mount command manual page.

1.3.1. Setting Maximum Open Files

An OpenDJ server needs to be able to open many file descriptors, especially when handling thousands of client connections. Linux systems in particular often set a limit of 1024 per user, which is too low to handle many client connections to an OpenDJ server.

When setting up an OpenDJ server for production use, make sure the server can use at least 64K (65536) file descriptors. For example, when running the server as user opendj on a Linux system that uses /etc/security/limits.conf to set user level limits, you can set soft and hard limits by adding these lines to the file:

opendj soft nofile 65536
opendj hard nofile 131072

The example above assumes the system has enough file descriptors available overall. You can check the Linux system overall maximum as follows:

$ cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
204252

1.3.2. Setting Maximum Inotify Watches

A directory server backend database monitors file events. On Linux systems, backend databases use the inotify API for this purpose. The kernel tunable fs.inotify.max_user_watches indicates the maximum number of files a user can watch with the inotify API. Make sure this tunable is set to at least 512K:

$ sysctl fs.inotify.max_user_watches
fs.inotify.max_user_watches = 524288

If this tunable is set lower than that, change it as shown in the following example:

$ sudo sysctl --write fs.inotify.max_user_watches=524288
[sudo] password for opendj:
fs.inotify.max_user_watches = 524288

1.3.3. Preventing Interference With Antivirus Software

Prevent antivirus and intrusion detection systems from interfering with directory services.

Antivirus and intrusion detection systems that do a deep inspection of database files are not compatible with OpenDJ server software. Disable antivirus and intrusion detection systems, or at least prevent them from operating on OpenDJ server files.

1.4. Preparing the Java Environment

Directory Services software consists of pure Java applications. Directory Services servers and clients run on any system with full Java support. Directory Services is tested on a variety of operating systems, and supported on those listed in Section 1.3, "Choosing an Operating System".

Directory Services software requires Java 8, specifically at least the Java Standard Edition runtime environment, or the corresponding Java Development Kit to compile Java plugins and applications.

Note

ForgeRock validates Directory Services software with OpenJDK and Oracle JDK, and does occasionally run sanity tests with other JDKs such as the IBM JDK and Azul's Zulu. Support for very specific Java and hardware combinations is best-effort. This means that if you encounter an issue when using a particular JVM/hardware combination, you must also demonstrate the problem on a system that is widespread and easily tested by any member of the community.

ForgeRock has tested this release and demonstrated that you can set up and run servers with Java 9. However, ForgeRock does not support running this release with Java 9.

ForgeRock recommends that you keep your Java installation up-to-date with the latest security fixes.

Make sure you have a required Java environment installed on the system. If your default Java environment is not appropriate, set OPENDJ_JAVA_HOME to the path to the correct Java environment, or set OPENDJ_JAVA_BIN to the absolute path of the java command. The OPENDJ_JAVA_BIN environment variable is useful if you have both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the Java environment installed, and want to make sure you use the 64-bit version.

1.5. Choosing an Application Server

OpenDJ servers run as standalone Java services, and do not depend on an application server.

The REST to LDAP and DSML gateway applications run on Apache Tomcat and Jetty.

ForgeRock supports only stable application container releases. See the Tomcat and Jetty documentation for details about the right container to use with your Java environment.

1.6. Assigning FQDNs For Replication

Directory Services replication requires use of fully qualified domain names, such as opendj.example.com.

Host names like my-laptop.local are acceptable for evaluation. In production, and when using replication across systems, you must either ensure DNS is set up correctly to provide fully qualified domain names, or update the hosts file (/etc/hosts or C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts) to supply unique, fully qualified domain names.

1.7. Getting Digital Certificates Signed

If you plan to configure SSL or TLS to secure network communications between the server and client applications, install a properly signed digital certificate that your client applications recognize, such as one that works with your organization's PKI or one signed by a recognized certificate authority.

To use the certificate during installation, the certificate must be located in a file-based keystore supported by the JVM (JKS, JCEKS, PKCS#12), or on a PKCS#11 token. To import a signed certificate into a keystore, use the Java keytool command.

For details, see Section 5.2, "Preparing For Secure Communications" in the Administration Guide.

1.8. Special Requests

If you have a special request regarding support for a combination not listed here, contact ForgeRock at info@forgerock.com.

Chapter 2. Installing Server Software Files

Procedure 2.1. To Unpack Server Software From the Cross-Platform Zip

You can use the .zip delivery on any supported operating system.

Installation is a multi-stage process. You unpack the server software with the unzip command. You set up the server with the setup command:

  1. Prepare for installation as described in Chapter 1, "Before You Install".

  2. Unpack the cross-platform .zip file in the file system directory where you want to install the server.

    The setup command, described in setup(1), uses the directory where you unzipped the files as the installation directory, and does not ask you where to install the server. If you want to install elsewhere on the file system, unzip the files in that location.

    Unzipping the .zip file creates a top-level opendj directory in the directory where you unzipped the file. On Windows systems if you unzip the file with Right-Click > Extract All, remove the trailing opendj-5.5.0 directory from the folder you specify.

  3. Run the setup command to set up the server.

Procedure 2.2. To Install Server Software From the Debian Package

On Debian and related Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, you can install server software from the Debian package.

Installation is a multi-stage process. You install the software using the system package manager. You set up the server with the setup command:

  1. Prepare for installation as described in Chapter 1, "Before You Install".

    In particular, install a Java runtime environment (JRE) if none is installed yet.

    OpenDJ software requires a supported Java environment listed in Section 1.4, "Preparing the Java Environment". The following example uses the default JRE on a system where the default version is recent enough:

    $ sudo apt-get install default-jre
      
  2. Install the server package:

    $ sudo dpkg -i DS*.deb
      

    The Debian package installs server files in the /opt/opendj directory, generates service management scripts, adds documentation files under /usr/share/doc/opendj, and adds man pages under /opt/opendj/share/man.

    The files are owned by root by default, making it easier to have the server listen on ports such as 389 and 636.

  3. Set up the server with the setup command, sudo /opt/opendj/setup.

Procedure 2.3. To Install Server Software From the RPM Package

On Red Hat and related Linux distributions such as Fedora and CentOS, you can install server software from the RPM package.

Installation is a multi-stage process. You install the software using the system package manager. You set up the server with the setup command:

  1. Prepare for installation as described in Chapter 1, "Before You Install".

    In particular, install a Java runtime environment (JRE) if none is installed yet.

    OpenDJ software requires a supported Java environment listed in Section 1.4, "Preparing the Java Environment". You might need to download an RPM to install the Java runtime environment, and then install the RPM by using the rpm command:

    $ su
    Password:
    # rpm -ivh jre-*.rpm
      
  2. Install the server package:

    # rpm -i DS*.rpm
      

    The RPM package installs server files in the /opt/opendj directory, generates service management scripts, and adds man pages under /opt/opendj/share/man.

    The files are owned by root by default, making it easier to have the server listen on ports such as 389 and 636.

  3. Set up the server with the setup command, /opt/opendj/setup.

    By default, the server starts in run levels 2, 3, 4, and 5.

Procedure 2.4. To Install Server Software With the Windows Installer Package

You can install server software on Windows using the .msi installer package.

Installation is a multi-stage process. You install the software with the Windows installer package wizard. You set up the server with the setup command:

  1. Prepare for installation as described in Chapter 1, "Before You Install".

    In particular, prevent antivirus and intrusion detection systems from interfering with the server software.

    Antivirus and intrusion detection systems that do a deep inspection of database files are not compatible with OpenDJ server software. Disable antivirus and intrusion detection systems, or at least prevent them from operating on OpenDJ server files.

  2. Install the server files in one of the following ways:

    • Install using the MSI package:

      1. Double-click the Windows installer package, DS-5.5.0.msi, to start the install wizard.

      2. In the Destination Folder screen, set the folder where the wizard installs the server files.

        The default location is under Program Files on the system drive. For example, if the system drive is C:, the default location is C:\Program Files (x86)\opendj\, as the native executable is a 32-bit application, though you can run the server in a 64-bit Java environment.

    • Use the Microsoft msiexec.exe command to install the files.

      The following example installs the server files under C:\opendj-5.5.0, writing an installation log file, install.log, in the current folder:

      C:\>msiexec /i DS-5.5.0.msi /l* install.log /q OPENDJ=C:\opendj-5.5.0
          
  3. Start the installation.

    When installation is finished, the server files are found in the location you specified as Destination Folder. You must still run the setup command before you can use the server.

  4. Run the setup command to set up the server.

Chapter 3. Installing a Directory Server

This chapter covers installation of directory servers. Directory servers store local copies of user data, and can be replicas of other directory servers.

Directory servers can be protected from directory client access by directory proxy servers. Directory proxy servers hide the implementation details of a directory server deployment from client applications. For details on installing a standalone directory proxy server, see Chapter 4, "Installing a Directory Proxy Server".

Directory server replicas send updates to and receive updates from replication servers, which are servers that do not store user data, but instead are dedicated to transmitting replication messages. A directory server can run a local replication server in the same process. Alternatively, it can connect to a replication server running in another process, either on the same system or on a remote system. For details on installing a standalone replication server, see Chapter 5, "Installing a Replication Server".

3.1. Setting Up a Directory Server

Use the setup(1) command-line tool. When used without subcommands or options, the command is interactive. For hints about setup choices, see Table 3.1, "Directory Server Setup Parameters".

When performing a non-interactive, silent installation, specify at least all mandatory options as part of the command.

The following options are mandatory.

If you use only these options, the command sets up a server listening only on an administration port. The administration port is protected by a key pair generated at setup time with a self-signed certificate:

  • --adminConnectorPort {port} (conventional port number: 4444)

  • --hostname {hostname}

  • --rootUserDN {rootUserDN} (default: cn=Directory Manager)

  • --rootUserPassword {rootUserPassword}

Procedure 3.1. To Set Up a Directory Server

After installing the server files as described in Chapter 2, "Installing Server Software Files", follow these steps:

  1. Run the setup directory-server command.

    The command is located where you installed the files, /path/to/opendj/setup.

    When setting up a directory server, you can optionally omit the directory-server subcommand.

    The following example shows non-interactive setup for evaluation. The example imports sample data from Example.ldif. The server listens for requests on the ports used in examples throughout the documentation. It uses a generated key pair and self-signed certificate when negotiating secure connections:

    # Set up a directory server for evaluation.
    $ /path/to/opendj/setup \
     directory-server \
     --rootUserDN "cn=Directory Manager" \
     --rootUserPassword password \
     --hostname opendj.example.com \
     --ldapPort 1389 \
     --ldapsPort 1636 \
     --httpPort 8080 \
     --httpsPort 8443 \
     --adminConnectorPort 4444 \
     --baseDN dc=example,dc=com \
     --ldifFile Example.ldif \
     --acceptLicense
        

    The following example shows non-interactive setup for production. This example creates a base DN but does not import LDIF at setup time. It activates only secure traffic for HTTPS. It uses an existing key pair, rather than a generated key pair with a self-signed certificate:

    # Set up a directory server for production.
    $ /path/to/opendj/setup \
     directory-server \
     --rootUserDN "cn=Directory Manager" \
     --rootUserPasswordFile /tmp/pwd.txt \
     --hostname opendj.example.com \
     --ldapPort 1389 \
     --certNickname server-cert \
     --usePkcs12keyStore /path/to/keystore.p12 \
     --keyStorePasswordFile /tmp/keystore.pin \
     --enableStartTLS \
     --ldapsPort 1636 \
     --httpsPort 8443 \
     --adminConnectorPort 4444 \
     --baseDN dc=example,dc=com \
     --addBaseEntry \
     --productionMode \
     --acceptLicense
        
  2. (Optional) Run the status command to review the configuration:

    $ /path/to/opendj/bin/status
        
Table 3.1. Directory Server Setup Parameters
ParameterDescriptionSubcommand or Option(s)

Type of server

A directory server holds user data.

A proxy server forwards requests to remote directory servers.

A replication server transmits replication messages.

directory-server

proxy-server

replication-server

Instance path

Server setup uses tools and templates installed with the software to generate the instance files required to run an instance of a server. By default, all the files are co-located.

This parameter lets you separate the files. Set the instance path to place generated files in a different location from the tools, templates, and libraries you installed.

Interactive setup suggests co-locating the software with the instance files.

You cannot use a single software installation for multiple servers. Tools for starting and stopping the server process, for example, work with a single configured server. They do not have a mechanism to specify an alternate server location.

If you want to set up another server, install another copy of the software, and run that copy's setup command.

--instancePath

Root user DN

The root user DN identifies a user who can perform all operations allowed for the server, called root user due to the similarity to the UNIX root user.

The name used in the documentation is the default name: cn=Directory Manager.

For additional security in production environments, use a different name.

-D, --rootUserDn

Root user password

The root user authenticates with simple, password-based authentication. Use a strong password here unless this server is only for evaluation.

-j, --rootUserPasswordFile

-w, --rootUserPassword

Harden for production use

By opting to harden the server configuration for production, you increase security. The primary cost of increased security is that evaluating the software and demonstrating features can require additional configuration. For that reason, examples in the documentation assume you do not use this option.

Setting up a server in hardened production mode leads to the following settings:

  • The default backend database for directory servers, userRoot, uses data confidentiality to encrypt potentially sensitive data on disk.

    As described in Section 4.7, "Encrypting Directory Data" in the Administration Guide, if you configure data confidentiality before replication, the destination server's keys disappear when you configure replication. The destination server can no longer decrypt any of its data. (When you initialize replication, a source server initializes a destination server. The dsreplication initialize command references the destination server with its --hostDestination and --portDestination options.)

    When you install multiple directory servers that you will configure as replicas, either import data after installation, or import data for only one replica that you then use to initialize other replicas. In the latter case, leave the database empty for all other replicas.

  • Global access control allows only the following access:

    • Anonymous users can request the StartTLS extended operation, and the Get Symmetric Key extended operation. The Get Symmetric Key extended operation is an OpenDJ-specific operation for internal use. An OpenDJ server requires Get Symmetric Key extended operation access to create and share secret keys for encryption.

    • Anonymous users can read the root DSE operational attributes that describe server capabilities, including among other information, what security protocols and cipher suites the server supports.

    • Authenticated users can read the LDAP directory schema.

    • Authenticated users can request the LDAP Password Modify extended operation, the Who am I? extended operation, and the Cancel extended operation.

    • Authenticated users can request the Pre-Read and Post-Read controls, the Subtree Delete control, and the Permissive Modify control. These controls are used by the REST to LDAP gateway.

      Authenticated users can also request the ForgeRock Transaction ID control. This is a ForgeRock-specific control for internal use that permits transmission of transaction IDs through platform components for use as a key to correlation of Common Audit events.

    For a longer explanation of these settings, see Section 6.5, "Reconsider Default Global Access Control" in the Security Guide.

  • The protocol version and cipher suites for securing connections are restricted to those using strong encryption.

    The protocol version is restricted to TLSv1.2.

    The cipher suites used when negotiating a secure connection call for a server certificate using an elliptic curve (EC) key algorithm or an RSA key algorithm. If you provide your own keystore when setting up the server in production mode, make sure that the certificate key algorithm is EC or RSA. Otherwise the server will not be able to negotiate secure connections. For details and examples, see Procedure 7.14, "To Restrict Protocols and Cipher Suites" in the Security Guide.

  • The Crypto Manager requires encrypted communication between servers.

    The Crypto Manager is described in Section 2.3, "Cryptographic Key Management" in the Security Guide.

  • The anonymous HTTP authorization mechanism for REST access is disabled.

    As a result, REST access does not permit anonymous requests.

  • OpenDJ native file-based access loggers and the replication error logger have UNIX/Linux file permissions set to 600 (only the server account has read-write access to log files). This setting does not affect Common Audit loggers, such as the JSON file-based audit loggers.

    Adjust system settings to ensure appropriate access to files. For additional information and recommendations on setting the UNIX/Linux umask appropriately and on setting ACLs on Windows systems, see Section 12.2, "Setting Appropriate File Permissions" in the Security Guide.

  • The random password generator generates 10-character alphanumeric passwords.

  • The default password policy for normal users requires passwords at least 8 characters in length, and prevents use of common passwords.

    The default password policy for root DN users requires passwords at least 8 characters in length, prevents use of common passwords, and requires that authentication be secure to avoid exposing credentials over the network.

  • The CRAM-MD5 and DIGEST-MD5 SASL mechanisms are disabled.

--productionMode

Fully qualified directory server host name

The server uses the fully qualified host name in self-signed certificates and for identification between replicated servers.

Interactive setup suggests the hostname of the local host.

If this server is only for evaluation, then you can use an FQDN such as laptop.local.

Otherwise, use an FQDN that other hosts can resolve to reach your server, and that matches the FQDN in the server certificate.

-h, --hostname

Administration port

This is the service port used to configure the server and to run tasks.

The port used in the documentation is 4444, which is the initial port suggested during interactive setup.

If the suggested port is not free, interactive setup adds 1000 to the port number and tries again, repeatedly adding 1000 until a free port is found.

--adminConnectorPort

Start the server

If you do not start the server during setup, use the /path/to/opendj/bin/start-ds command later.

-O, --doNotStart

Keystore for securing connections

Setup requires a keystore with the keys for securing connections to the administration port, and to any other secure ports you configure during setup.

You can choose to use an existing keystore supported by the JVM, which can be either a file-based keystore or a PKCS#11 token. The existing keystore must protect the keystore and all private keys with the same PIN or password. If you choose a PKCS#11 token, you must first configure access through the JVM, as the only input to the setup command is the PIN.

If you do not have an existing keystore, the setup command can generate a key pair in a new PKCS#12 keystore, and self-sign the public key certificate. This is the default choice during interactive setup. Other applications will not recognize self-signed certificates unless they have explicitly trusted the certificate. For example, you import the certificate into the application's truststore, or supply a copy at runtime as a CA certificate parameter.

Public key security is often misunderstood. Before making security choices for production systems, read Chapter 7, "Managing Certificates and Private Keys" in the Security Guide.

--useJavaKeyStore

--useJceks

--usePkcs11KeyStore

--usePkcs12KeyStore

-W, --keyStorePassword

-u, --keyStorePasswordFile

LDAP and LDAPS port

The reserved port for LDAP is 389. The reserved port for LDAPS is 636.

Examples in the documentation use 1389 and 1636, which are accessible to non-privileged users.

If you install the server with access to privileged ports (< 1024), and the reserved port is not yet in use, then interactive setup suggests the reserved port number. If the port is not free or cannot be used due to lack of privileges, interactive setup adds 1000 to the port number and tries again, repeatedly adding 1000 until a free port is found.

The LDAP StartTLS extended operation is a standard operation to negotiate a secure connection starting on the cleartext LDAP port.

-p, --ldapPort

-q, --enableStartTls

-Z, --ldapsPort

HTTP and HTTPS ports

The reserved port for HTTP is 80. The reserved port for HTTPS is 443. The interactive setup initially suggests 8080 and 8443 instead.

If the initially suggested port is not free or cannot be used due to lack of privileges, interactive setup adds 1000 to the port number and tries again, repeatedly adding 1000 until a free port is found.

Examples in the documentation use 8080 and 8443.

When you enable HTTP or HTTPS at setup time, only the administrative endpoints are enabled, /admin/config and /admin/monitor, allowing applications to configure and monitor the server.

For access to user data in a directory server, see Procedure 5.19, "To Set Up REST Access to User Data" in the Administration Guide.

--httpPort

--httpsPort

Prepare data storage

One of the choices when setting up a directory server is whether to prepare for and optionally add data during setup, or to handle data storage as a separate, post-setup step.

You have several options for adding directory data:

  • Leave the database empty if you want create backend databases and import directory data separately, after completing the setup process.

    For details, see Chapter 4, "Managing Directory Data" in the Administration Guide.

  • Create only the base DN entry if you want to prepare a backend database, but to load directory data separately, after completing the setup process.

    A base DN, such as dc=example,dc=com, is the DN suffix shared by all DNs in your directory data. If the concept of base DN is new to you, briefly read Section 1.2, "About Data In LDAP Directories" in the Administration Guide.

    Before adding directory data, you must create at least one base DN. If the directory data belongs in more than one suffix, use non-interactive mode to create multiple base DNs, or load some of the data after completing the setup process.

    When you choose to create a base DN entry, and therefore to create a data storage backend, interactive mode can present a choice of data storage types. If you are not sure which type to choose, briefly read Section 4.4, "About Database Backends" in the Administration Guide.

  • Import data from an LDIF file if you already have data in LDIF and you want to load directory data as part of the setup process.

    LDAP data interchange format (LDIF) is the standard text format for expressing LDAP data. The documentation mainly uses sample data from Example.ldif.

    If you have LDIF already, but the data uses attributes or object classes not defined in the default schema, choose to leave the database empty, or to create a base DN entry during setup. After setup, add schema definitions as described in Chapter 14, "Managing Schema" in the Administration Guide, and then import the data from LDIF.

    When you choose to import LDIF, and therefore to create a data storage backend, interactive mode can present a choice of data storage types. If you are not sure which type to choose, briefly read Section 4.4, "About Database Backends" in the Administration Guide.

  • Load automatically-generated sample data for testing or evaluation. This option lets you have the setup command generate an arbitrarily large number of similar user entries.

    Each user entry has a uid RDN like user.number. Each user entry's password is password.

    When you choose to load generated entries, and therefore to create a data storage backend, interactive mode can present a choice of data storage types. If you are not sure which type to choose, briefly read Section 4.4, "About Database Backends" in the Administration Guide.

-a, --addBaseEntry

-b, --baseDn

-d, --sampleData

-l, --ldifFile

-R, --rejectFile

--skipFile

-t, --backendType


Chapter 4. Installing a Directory Proxy Server

This chapter covers installation of standalone directory proxy servers. A standalone directory proxy server forwards LDAP requests for user data to remote directory servers. Directory proxy servers make it possible to provide a single point of access to a directory service, and to hide implementation details from client applications.

Unlike standalone directory proxy servers, directory servers store local copies of user data, and can replicate that data with other directory servers. For details on installing a directory server, see Chapter 3, "Installing a Directory Server".

4.1. Setting Up a Directory Proxy Server

Use the setup(1) command-line tool. When used without subcommands or options, the command is interactive. For hints about setup choices, see Table 4.1, "Directory Proxy Server Setup Parameters".

When performing a non-interactive, silent installation, specify at least all mandatory options as part of the command.

The following options are mandatory.

If you use only these options, the command sets up a server listening only on an administration port. The administration port is protected by a key pair generated at setup time with a self-signed certificate:

  • --adminConnectorPort {port} (conventional port number: 4444)

  • --hostname {hostname}

  • --rootUserDN {rootUserDN} (default: cn=Directory Manager)

  • --rootUserPassword {rootUserPassword}

Procedure 4.1. To Set Up a Directory Proxy Server

After installing the server files as described in Chapter 2, "Installing Server Software Files", follow these steps:

  1. If you have not already done so, create an account for the proxy in the remote directory service.

    This account is used to connect to the remote directory service. The directory proxy server binds with this account, and forwards LDAP requests on behalf of other users. The account must have the same bind DN and bind password on all remote directory servers.

    The account must have the right to perform proxied authorization on the remote directory service. When using OpenDJ directory services, see Section 4.8, "Configuring Proxied Authorization" in the Developer's Guide for details. Otherwise, read about how to set up proxied authorization in your directory server documentation.

    The examples in this procedure use the account with bind DN cn=Proxy,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com and bind password password.

  2. Run the setup proxy-server command.

    The command is located where you installed the files, /path/to/opendj/setup.

    The following example sets up a directory proxy server that discovers remote servers by connecting to a replication server. It forwards all requests to public naming contexts of remote servers. (Generally this means requests targeting user data, as opposed to the proxy's configuration, schema, or monitoring statistics.) It uses the least requests load balancing algorithm:

    $ /path/to/opendj/setup \
     proxy-server \
     --rootUserDN "cn=Directory Manager" \
     --rootUserPassword password \
     --hostname opendj.example.com \
     --ldapPort 1389 \
     --ldapsPort 1636 \
     --adminConnectorPort 4444 \
     --replicationServer rs.example.com:4444 \
     --replicationBindDN "uid=admin,cn=Administrators,cn=admin data" \
     --replicationBindPassword password \
     --proxyUserBindDN cn=Proxy,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com \
     --proxyUserBindPassword password \
     --proxyUsingStartTLS \
     --useJvmTrustStore \
     --acceptLicense
        

    If you are just trying out the software, you can use the --trustAll option. Do not use this option in production environments, however.

    The following example sets up a directory proxy server that has a static list of remote servers to connect to. It forwards only requests targeting dc=example,dc=com. It uses the default affinity load balancing algorithm:

    $ /path/to/opendj/setup \
     proxy-server \
     --rootUserDN "cn=Directory Manager" \
     --rootUserPassword password \
     --hostname opendj.example.com \
     --ldapPort 1389 \
     --ldapsPort 1636 \
     --adminConnectorPort 4444 \
     --staticPrimaryServer local-data-center-ldap1.example.com:636 \
     --staticPrimaryServer local-data-center-ldap2.example.com:636 \
     --staticSecondaryServer remote-data-center-ldap1.example.com:636 \
     --staticSecondaryServer remote-data-center-ldap2.example.com:636 \
     --baseDN dc=example,dc=com \
     --proxyUserBindDN cn=Proxy,ou=Apps,dc=example,dc=com \
     --proxyUserBindPassword password \
     --proxyUsingSSL \
     --useJvmTrustStore \
     --acceptLicense
        

    When you set up a directory proxy server, access control is implemented using global access control policy entries, rather than global ACIs. For more information about global access control policies, see Section 6.5, "About Global Access Control Policies" in the Administration Guide.

  3. (Optional) Run the status command to review the configuration:

    $ /path/to/opendj/bin/status
        
  4. If the LDAP schema differ on the directory servers and the proxy server, align the LDAP schema of the proxy server with the LDAP schema of the remote directory servers.

    For more information, see Chapter 14, "Managing Schema" in the Administration Guide.

For more information, see Chapter 15, "Configuring LDAP Proxy Services" in the Administration Guide.

Table 4.1. Directory Proxy Server Setup Parameters
ParameterDescriptionSubcommand or Option(s)

Type of server

A directory server holds user data.

A proxy server forwards requests to remote directory servers.

A replication server transmits replication messages.

directory-server

proxy-server

replication-server

Instance path

Server setup uses tools and templates installed with the software to generate the instance files required to run an instance of a server. By default, all the files are co-located.

This parameter lets you separate the files. Set the instance path to place generated files in a different location from the tools, templates, and libraries you installed.

Interactive setup suggests co-locating the software with the instance files.

You cannot use a single software installation for multiple servers. Tools for starting and stopping the server process, for example, work with a single configured server. They do not have a mechanism to specify an alternate server location.

If you want to set up another server, install another copy of the software, and run that copy's setup command.

--instancePath

Root user DN

The root user DN identifies a user who can perform all operations allowed for the server, called root user due to the similarity to the UNIX root user.

The name used in the documentation is the default name: cn=Directory Manager.

For additional security in production environments, use a different name.

-D, --rootUserDn

Root user password

The root user authenticates with simple, password-based authentication. Use a strong password here unless this server is only for evaluation.

-j, --rootUserPasswordFile

-w, --rootUserPassword

Harden for production use

By opting to harden the server configuration for production, you increase security. The primary cost of increased security is that evaluating the software and demonstrating features can require additional configuration. For that reason, examples in the documentation assume you do not use this option.

Setting up a server in hardened production mode leads to the following settings:

  • The default backend database for directory servers, userRoot, uses data confidentiality to encrypt potentially sensitive data on disk.

    As described in Section 4.7, "Encrypting Directory Data" in the Administration Guide, if you configure data confidentiality before replication, the destination server's keys disappear when you configure replication. The destination server can no longer decrypt any of its data. (When you initialize replication, a source server initializes a destination server. The dsreplication initialize command references the destination server with its --hostDestination and --portDestination options.)

    When you install multiple directory servers that you will configure as replicas, either import data after installation, or import data for only one replica that you then use to initialize other replicas. In the latter case, leave the database empty for all other replicas.

  • Global access control allows only the following access:

    • Anonymous users can request the StartTLS extended operation, and the Get Symmetric Key extended operation. The Get Symmetric Key extended operation is an OpenDJ-specific operation for internal use. An OpenDJ server requires Get Symmetric Key extended operation access to create and share secret keys for encryption.

    • Anonymous users can read the root DSE operational attributes that describe server capabilities, including among other information, what security protocols and cipher suites the server supports.

    • Authenticated users can read the LDAP directory schema.

    • Authenticated users can request the LDAP Password Modify extended operation, the Who am I? extended operation, and the Cancel extended operation.

    • Authenticated users can request the Pre-Read and Post-Read controls, the Subtree Delete control, and the Permissive Modify control. These controls are used by the REST to LDAP gateway.

      Authenticated users can also request the ForgeRock Transaction ID control. This is a ForgeRock-specific control for internal use that permits transmission of transaction IDs through platform components for use as a key to correlation of Common Audit events.

    For a longer explanation of these settings, see Section 6.5, "Reconsider Default Global Access Control" in the Security Guide.

  • The protocol version and cipher suites for securing connections are restricted to those using strong encryption.

    The protocol version is restricted to TLSv1.2.

    The cipher suites used when negotiating a secure connection call for a server certificate using an elliptic curve (EC) key algorithm or an RSA key algorithm. If you provide your own keystore when setting up the server in production mode, make sure that the certificate key algorithm is EC or RSA. Otherwise the server will not be able to negotiate secure connections. For details and examples, see Procedure 7.14, "To Restrict Protocols and Cipher Suites" in the Security Guide.

  • The Crypto Manager requires encrypted communication between servers.

    The Crypto Manager is described in Section 2.3, "Cryptographic Key Management" in the Security Guide.

  • The anonymous HTTP authorization mechanism for REST access is disabled.

    As a result, REST access does not permit anonymous requests.

  • OpenDJ native file-based access loggers and the replication error logger have UNIX/Linux file permissions set to 600 (only the server account has read-write access to log files). This setting does not affect Common Audit loggers, such as the JSON file-based audit loggers.

    Adjust system settings to ensure appropriate access to files. For additional information and recommendations on setting the UNIX/Linux umask appropriately and on setting ACLs on Windows systems, see Section 12.2, "Setting Appropriate File Permissions" in the Security Guide.

  • The random password generator generates 10-character alphanumeric passwords.

  • The default password policy for normal users requires passwords at least 8 characters in length, and prevents use of common passwords.

    The default password policy for root DN users requires passwords at least 8 characters in length, prevents use of common passwords, and requires that authentication be secure to avoid exposing credentials over the network.

  • The CRAM-MD5 and DIGEST-MD5 SASL mechanisms are disabled.

--productionMode

Fully qualified directory server host name

The server uses the fully qualified host name in self-signed certificates and for identification between replicated servers.

Interactive setup suggests the hostname of the local host.

If this server is only for evaluation, then you can use an FQDN such as laptop.local.

Otherwise, use an FQDN that other hosts can resolve to reach your server, and that matches the FQDN in the server certificate.

-h, --hostname

Administration port

This is the service port used to configure the server and to run tasks.

The port used in the documentation is 4444, which is the initial port suggested during interactive setup.

If the suggested port is not free, interactive setup adds 1000 to the port number and tries again, repeatedly adding 1000 until a free port is found.

--adminConnectorPort

Start the server

If you do not start the server during setup, use the /path/to/opendj/bin/start-ds command later.

-O, --doNotStart

Keystore for securing connections

Setup requires a keystore with the keys for securing connections to the administration port, and to any other secure ports you configure during setup.

You can choose to use an existing keystore supported by the JVM, which can be either a file-based keystore or a PKCS#11 token. The existing keystore must protect the keystore and all private keys with the same PIN or password. If you choose a PKCS#11 token, you must first configure access through the JVM, as the only input to the setup command is the PIN.

If you do not have an existing keystore, the setup command can generate a key pair in a new PKCS#12 keystore, and self-sign the public key certificate. This is the default choice during interactive setup. Other applications will not recognize self-signed certificates unless they have explicitly trusted the certificate. For example, you import the certificate into the application's truststore, or supply a copy at runtime as a CA certificate parameter.

Public key security is often misunderstood. Before making security choices for production systems, read Chapter 7, "Managing Certificates and Private Keys" in the Security Guide.

--useJavaKeyStore

--useJceks

--usePkcs11KeyStore

--usePkcs12KeyStore

-W, --keyStorePassword

-u, --keyStorePasswordFile

LDAP and LDAPS port

The reserved port for LDAP is 389. The reserved port for LDAPS is 636.

Examples in the documentation use 1389 and 1636, which are accessible to non-privileged users.

If you install the server with access to privileged ports (< 1024), and the reserved port is not yet in use, then interactive setup suggests the reserved port number. If the port is not free or cannot be used due to lack of privileges, interactive setup adds 1000 to the port number and tries again, repeatedly adding 1000 until a free port is found.

The LDAP StartTLS extended operation is a standard operation to negotiate a secure connection starting on the cleartext LDAP port.

-p, --ldapPort

-q, --enableStartTls

-Z, --ldapsPort

HTTP and HTTPS ports

The reserved port for HTTP is 80. The reserved port for HTTPS is 443. The interactive setup initially suggests 8080 and 8443 instead.

If the initially suggested port is not free or cannot be used due to lack of privileges, interactive setup adds 1000 to the port number and tries again, repeatedly adding 1000 until a free port is found.

Examples in the documentation use 8080 and 8443.

When you enable HTTP or HTTPS at setup time, only the administrative endpoints are enabled, /admin/config and /admin/monitor, allowing applications to configure and monitor the server.

For access to user data in a directory server, see Procedure 5.19, "To Set Up REST Access to User Data" in the Administration Guide.

--httpPort

--httpsPort

Directory server discovery

A directory proxy server uses a service discovery mechanism to discover and connect to remote LDAP directory servers.

A service discovery mechanism identifies a set of directory servers that the proxy can forward requests to.

When preparing to configure a service discovery mechanism, choose one of these alternatives:

Replication service discovery mechanism

This mechanism contacts OpenDJ replication servers to discover directory servers to forward LDAP requests to. Each replication server maintains information about the replication topology that allows the proxy server to discover directory server replicas.

This mechanism only works with replicated OpenDJ servers.

A replication service discovery mechanism configuration includes a bind DN and password to connect to replication servers. It uses this account to read configuration data under cn=admin data and cn=config. The account must have access and privileges to read that configuration data, and it must exist with the same credentials on all replication servers.

Static service discovery mechanism

This mechanism maintains a static list of directory server host:port combinations. You must enumerate the servers to forward LDAP requests to.

This mechanism is designed to work with all LDAPv3 directory servers that support proxied authorization.

All remote directory servers are expected to be equivalent replicas of each other.

In distributed deployments, nearby remote directory servers may be set as primary and others as secondary. The proxy attempts first to forward requests to primary servers. If no primary servers are available, then the proxy forwards requests to secondary servers until the primary servers become available again. This is useful, for example, to prevent a proxy from load balancing some requests over WAN links even though directory servers on the LAN are ready to receive requests. For a replication service discovery mechanism, you identify the primary server group by its replication group ID, as described in Section 8.2.6, "Replication Groups" in the Administration Guide. For a static service discovery mechanism, you enumerate primary and secondary servers.

The connection-level security (SSL, StartTLS) options for the service discover mechanism determine how the proxy secures connections to the remote directory services. Use secure connections in production deployments to avoid sending simple bind (bind DN/password) credentials in cleartext.

--replicationBindDn

--replicationBindPassword

--replicationBindPasswordFile

--replicationPreferredGroupId

--replicationServer

--staticPrimaryServer

--staticSecondaryServer

Proxy user credentials

A directory proxy server uses a proxy DN and password to connect to remote directory servers, and proxied authorization for forwarded LDAP requests. This proxy account must exist with the same credentials on all remote directory servers, and must be able to use the standard proxied authorization control.

For details on proxied authorization and how to configure OpenDJ directory servers to allow it, see Section 4.8, "Configuring Proxied Authorization" in the Developer's Guide.

--proxyUserBindDn

--proxyUserBindPassword

--proxyUserBindPasswordFile

--proxyUsingSsl

--proxyUsingStartTls

LDAP request forwarding

A proxy can forward LDAP requests for all public naming contexts supported by remote servers, or forward only requests targeting specified base DNs.

A public naming context is a subtree of user entries held by the directory server such as dc=example,dc=com. Public naming contexts generally include user data and exclude operational suffixes such as cn=config and cn=schema. Public naming contexts are published on a directory server's root DSE. The service discovery mechanism can therefore determine them dynamically.

--baseDn

Load balancing algorithm

When configuring a proxy backend, choose one of these load balancing alternatives:

affinity

This load balancing algorithm routes requests with the same target DN to the same server.

Affinity load balancing helps when applications update and then reread the same entry in quick succession. With an add or modify request on an entry that is quickly followed by a read of the entry, the request to replicate the update can take longer than the read request, depending on network latency. Affinity load balancing forwards the read request to the same server that processed the update, ensuring that the client obtains the expected result.

In terms of the CAP theorem, affinity load balancing provides consistency and availability, but not partition tolerance. As this algorithm lacks partition tolerance, only use it to load balance requests in environments where partitions are unlikely, such as a single data center with all remote directory servers on the same network.

least-requests

This load balancing algorithm routes requests to the LDAP server with the fewest active requests from the current directory proxy server.

Least requests load balancing helps to spread requests equitably across a pool of replicated servers.

In terms of the CAP theorem, least requests load balancing provides availability and partition tolerance, but not consistency. A write request followed by a read request of the same entry might be forwarded to different remote directory servers.

--loadBalancingAlgorithm

Chapter 5. Installing a Replication Server

This chapter covers installation of standalone replication servers. Replication servers do not serve user data, but instead are dedicated to transmitting replication messages.

Directory server replicas send updates to and receive updates from replication servers. As an alternative to having standalone replication servers, a directory server can run a local replication server in the same process. For details on installing a directory server, see Chapter 3, "Installing a Directory Server".

5.1. Setting Up Standalone Servers

As described in Chapter 8, "Managing Data Replication" in the Administration Guide, some deployments require that you separate directory servers and replication servers. A standalone directory server does not relay replication messages, but only stores data. A standalone replication server only relays replication messages, and does not store user data.

When you deploy with standalone replication servers and directory servers, first set up the replication service that your directory servers connect to. Then set up the directory servers and connect them to the replication service. Follow these procedures:

For hints about setup choices, see Table 5.1, "Replication Server Setup Parameters".

Procedure 5.1. To Set Up the First Standalone Replication Server

Follow these steps to set up a standalone replication server as the first server in your topology:

  1. Install the server files for the standalone server, as described in Chapter 2, "Installing Server Software Files".

  2. Set up the server as a standalone replication server:

    $ /path/to/opendj/setup \
     replication-server \
     --rootUserDN "cn=Directory Manager" \
     --rootUserPassword password \
     --hostname rs-only.example.com \
     --adminConnectorPort 4444 \
     --replicationPort 8989 \
     --acceptLicense
        

    When deploying into a production environment, secure replication traffic. Use the --secureReplication and appropriate keystore and truststore options.

Procedure 5.2. To Add a Standalone Replication Server

Follow these steps to set up a standalone replication server that connects to an existing replication server:

  1. Install the server files for the standalone server, as described in Chapter 2, "Installing Server Software Files".

  2. Add the server to the topology as a standalone replication server:

    $ /path/to/opendj/setup \
     replication-server \
     --rootUserDN "cn=Directory Manager" \
     --rootUserPassword password \
     --hostname rs2-only.example.com \
     --adminConnectorPort 4444 \
     --replicationPort 8989 \
     --replicationServer rs-only.example.com:4444 \
     --trustAll \
     --acceptLicense
        

    When deploying into a production environment, secure replication traffic. Use the --secureReplication and appropriate keystore and truststore options.

    Note

    When you add a replication server and use the setup command in interactive mode, the command prompts you to trust any unrecognized certificates that the remote server presents for secure communications.

    If you have not specified a truststore and you choose to trust the certificate permanently, the setup command stores the certificate in a file. The file is user.home/.opendj/keystore, where user.home is the Java system property. user.home is $HOME on Linux and UNIX, and %USERPROFILE% on Windows. The keystore password is OpenDJ. Neither the file name nor the password can be changed.

Procedure 5.3. To Add a Standalone Directory Server

Follow these steps to set up a standalone directory server that connects to an existing replication server:

  1. Install the server files for the standalone server, as described in Chapter 2, "Installing Server Software Files".

  2. Set up the server as a directory server.

    For details, see Chapter 3, "Installing a Directory Server".

  3. Configure replication between the standalone directory server and an existing standalone replication server.

    Notice in the following example that the standalone directory server is not a replication server (--noReplicationServer1), and has no replication port. Also notice that the replication server is standalone (--onlyReplicationServer2):

    $ /path/to/opendj/bin/dsreplication \
     configure \
     --adminUID admin \
     --adminPassword password \
     --baseDN dc=example,dc=com \
     --host1 ds-only.example.com \
     --port1 4444 \
     --bindDN1 "cn=Directory Manager" \
     --bindPassword1 password \
     --noReplicationServer1 \
     --host2 rs-only.example.com \
     --port2 4444 \
     --bindDN2 "cn=Directory Manager" \
     --bindPassword2 password \
     --replicationPort2 8989 \
     --onlyReplicationServer2 \
     --trustAll \
     --no-prompt
        
  4. Initialize replication.

    In order to initialize replication, you must first add at least one more directory server to the topology. Otherwise, there is nowhere to replicate the data. A standalone replication server has no user data backend.

    For details on configuring data replication, see Chapter 8, "Managing Data Replication" in the Administration Guide.

Table 5.1. Replication Server Setup Parameters
ParameterDescriptionSubcommand or Option(s)

Type of server

A directory server holds user data.

A proxy server forwards requests to remote directory servers.

A replication server transmits replication messages.

directory-server

proxy-server

replication-server

Instance path

Server setup uses tools and templates installed with the software to generate the instance files required to run an instance of a server. By default, all the files are co-located.

This parameter lets you separate the files. Set the instance path to place generated files in a different location from the tools, templates, and libraries you installed.

Interactive setup suggests co-locating the software with the instance files.

You cannot use a single software installation for multiple servers. Tools for starting and stopping the server process, for example, work with a single configured server. They do not have a mechanism to specify an alternate server location.

If you want to set up another server, install another copy of the software, and run that copy's setup command.

--instancePath

Root user DN

The root user DN identifies a user who can perform all operations allowed for the server, called root user due to the similarity to the UNIX root user.

The name used in the documentation is the default name: cn=Directory Manager.

For additional security in production environments, use a different name.

-D, --rootUserDn

Root user password

The root user authenticates with simple, password-based authentication. Use a strong password here unless this server is only for evaluation.

-j, --rootUserPasswordFile

-w, --rootUserPassword

Harden for production use

By opting to harden the server configuration for production, you increase security. The primary cost of increased security is that evaluating the software and demonstrating features can require additional configuration. For that reason, examples in the documentation assume you do not use this option.

Setting up a server in hardened production mode leads to the following settings:

  • The default backend database for directory servers, userRoot, uses data confidentiality to encrypt potentially sensitive data on disk.

    As described in Section 4.7, "Encrypting Directory Data" in the Administration Guide, if you configure data confidentiality before replication, the destination server's keys disappear when you configure replication. The destination server can no longer decrypt any of its data. (When you initialize replication, a source server initializes a destination server. The dsreplication initialize command references the destination server with its --hostDestination and --portDestination options.)

    When you install multiple directory servers that you will configure as replicas, either import data after installation, or import data for only one replica that you then use to initialize other replicas. In the latter case, leave the database empty for all other replicas.

  • Global access control allows only the following access:

    • Anonymous users can request the StartTLS extended operation, and the Get Symmetric Key extended operation. The Get Symmetric Key extended operation is an OpenDJ-specific operation for internal use. An OpenDJ server requires Get Symmetric Key extended operation access to create and share secret keys for encryption.

    • Anonymous users can read the root DSE operational attributes that describe server capabilities, including among other information, what security protocols and cipher suites the server supports.

    • Authenticated users can read the LDAP directory schema.

    • Authenticated users can request the LDAP Password Modify extended operation, the Who am I? extended operation, and the Cancel extended operation.

    • Authenticated users can request the Pre-Read and Post-Read controls, the Subtree Delete control, and the Permissive Modify control. These controls are used by the REST to LDAP gateway.

      Authenticated users can also request the ForgeRock Transaction ID control. This is a ForgeRock-specific control for internal use that permits transmission of transaction IDs through platform components for use as a key to correlation of Common Audit events.

    For a longer explanation of these settings, see Section 6.5, "Reconsider Default Global Access Control" in the Security Guide.

  • The protocol version and cipher suites for securing connections are restricted to those using strong encryption.

    The protocol version is restricted to TLSv1.2.

    The cipher suites used when negotiating a secure connection call for a server certificate using an elliptic curve (EC) key algorithm or an RSA key algorithm. If you provide your own keystore when setting up the server in production mode, make sure that the certificate key algorithm is EC or RSA. Otherwise the server will not be able to negotiate secure connections. For details and examples, see Procedure 7.14, "To Restrict Protocols and Cipher Suites" in the Security Guide.

  • The Crypto Manager requires encrypted communication between servers.

    The Crypto Manager is described in Section 2.3, "Cryptographic Key Management" in the Security Guide.

  • The anonymous HTTP authorization mechanism for REST access is disabled.

    As a result, REST access does not permit anonymous requests.

  • OpenDJ native file-based access loggers and the replication error logger have UNIX/Linux file permissions set to 600 (only the server account has read-write access to log files). This setting does not affect Common Audit loggers, such as the JSON file-based audit loggers.

    Adjust system settings to ensure appropriate access to files. For additional information and recommendations on setting the UNIX/Linux umask appropriately and on setting ACLs on Windows systems, see Section 12.2, "Setting Appropriate File Permissions" in the Security Guide.

  • The random password generator generates 10-character alphanumeric passwords.

  • The default password policy for normal users requires passwords at least 8 characters in length, and prevents use of common passwords.

    The default password policy for root DN users requires passwords at least 8 characters in length, prevents use of common passwords, and requires that authentication be secure to avoid exposing credentials over the network.

  • The CRAM-MD5 and DIGEST-MD5 SASL mechanisms are disabled.

--productionMode

Fully qualified directory server host name

The server uses the fully qualified host name in self-signed certificates and for identification between replicated servers.

Interactive setup suggests the hostname of the local host.

If this server is only for evaluation, then you can use an FQDN such as laptop.local.

Otherwise, use an FQDN that other hosts can resolve to reach your server, and that matches the FQDN in the server certificate.

-h, --hostname

Administration port

This is the service port used to configure the server and to run tasks.

The port used in the documentation is 4444, which is the initial port suggested during interactive setup.

If the suggested port is not free, interactive setup adds 1000 to the port number and tries again, repeatedly adding 1000 until a free port is found.

--adminConnectorPort

Start the server

If you do not start the server during setup, use the /path/to/opendj/bin/start-ds command later.

-O, --doNotStart

Keystore for securing connections

Setup requires a keystore with the keys for securing connections to the administration port, and to any other secure ports you configure during setup.

You can choose to use an existing keystore supported by the JVM, which can be either a file-based keystore or a PKCS#11 token. The existing keystore must protect the keystore and all private keys with the same PIN or password. If you choose a PKCS#11 token, you must first configure access through the JVM, as the only input to the setup command is the PIN.

If you do not have an existing keystore, the setup command can generate a key pair in a new PKCS#12 keystore, and self-sign the public key certificate. This is the default choice during interactive setup. Other applications will not recognize self-signed certificates unless they have explicitly trusted the certificate. For example, you import the certificate into the application's truststore, or supply a copy at runtime as a CA certificate parameter.

Public key security is often misunderstood. Before making security choices for production systems, read Chapter 7, "Managing Certificates and Private Keys" in the Security Guide.

--useJavaKeyStore

--useJceks

--usePkcs11KeyStore

--usePkcs12KeyStore

-W, --keyStorePassword

-u, --keyStorePasswordFile

HTTP and HTTPS ports

The reserved port for HTTP is 80. The reserved port for HTTPS is 443. The interactive setup initially suggests 8080 and 8443 instead.

If the initially suggested port is not free or cannot be used due to lack of privileges, interactive setup adds 1000 to the port number and tries again, repeatedly adding 1000 until a free port is found.

Examples in the documentation use 8080 and 8443.

When you enable HTTP or HTTPS at setup time, only the administrative endpoints are enabled, /admin/config and /admin/monitor, allowing applications to configure and monitor the server.

For access to user data in a directory server, see Procedure 5.19, "To Set Up REST Access to User Data" in the Administration Guide.

--httpPort

--httpsPort

Configure replication

You configure a port where this server listens for replication messages.

For production servers, secure replication communications. When you choose to secure replication communications during setup, the replication server negotiates TLS with the certificate and private key from the keystore that you selected during setup.

If another replication server already exists, specify the remote server's hostname and administration port number. This replication server must be able to connect to the existing replication server during setup. This step requires that you let the server start during setup. Notice that the remote server port is the administration port, not the replication port.

When connecting to a remote replication server, this server uses the global administrator account for the topology. The global administrator account must have ID admin, and must use the same password as the root user password for this server. If you have enabled secure replication communications on the remote server, this server must be able to trust the remote server's certificate. If necessary, make sure that this server's truststore enables it to trust the remote server's certificate. (You can manually trust the remote server certificate when setting up this server in interactive mode.)

You can restrict the user data domains that this server replicates. You do so by specifying the base DNs of each replication domain. If you do not specify any base DNs, this server replicates user data from all available domains. In addition to user data, this server also replicates administrative data: LDAP schema (cn=schema) and replication configuration (cn=admin data). You do not need to specify base DNs for LDAP schema and administrative data.

-b, --baseDn

--replicationPort

--replicationServer

--secureReplication

-T, --trustStorePassword

-U, --trustStorePasswordFile

--useJavaTrustStore

--useJceksTrustStore

--useJvmTrustStore

--usePkcs12TrustStore

-X, --trustAll


Chapter 6. Installing the REST to LDAP Gateway

This chapter explains how to install the REST to LDAP gateway web application.

Procedure 6.1. To Install the REST to LDAP Gateway

The REST to LDAP gateway functions as a web application in a web application container. The REST to LDAP gateway runs independently of the LDAPv3 directory service. As an alternative to the gateway, you can configure HTTP access to a directory server as described in Procedure 5.19, "To Set Up REST Access to User Data" in the Administration Guide.

You configure the gateway to access your directory service by editing configuration files in the deployed web application:

WEB-INF/classes/config.json

This file defines how the gateway connects to LDAP directory servers, and how user identities extracted from HTTP requests map to LDAP user identities.

For details, see Section 1.1, "Gateway Configuration File" in the Reference.

WEB-INF/classes/logging.properties

This file defines logging properties, and can be used when the gateway runs in Apache Tomcat.

WEB-INF/classes/rest2ldap/rest2ldap.json

This file defines which LDAP features the gateway uses.

For details, see Section 1.2, "Gateway REST2LDAP Configuration File" in the Reference.

WEB-INF/classes/rest2ldap/endpoints/api/example-v1.json

This file defines JSON resource to LDAP entry mappings.

You can edit this file, and define additional files for alternative APIs and versions of APIs. For details, see Section 1.3, "Mapping Configuration File" in the Reference.

Follow these steps to install the REST to LDAP gateway:

  1. Prepare for installation as described in Chapter 1, "Before You Install".

  2. Deploy the .war file according to the instructions for your application server.

  3. Edit the configuration files in the deployed gateway web application.

    At minimum adjust the following configuration settings in WEB-INF/classes/config.json:

    • primaryLDAPServers: Set the correct directory server host names and port numbers.

    • authentication: Set the correct simple bind credentials.

      The LDAP account used to authenticate needs to perform proxied authorization as described in Section 4.8, "Configuring Proxied Authorization" in the Developer's Guide.

    The default sample configuration works with generated example data or with the sample content in Example.ldif. If your data is different, then you must also change the JSON resource to LDAP entry mapping settings, described in Section 1.3, "Mapping Configuration File" in the Reference.

    For details regarding the configuration, see Chapter 1, "REST to LDAP Configuration" in the Reference.

    When connecting to a directory service over LDAPS or LDAP and StartTLS, you can configure the trust manager to use a file-based truststore for server certificates that the gateway should trust. This allows the gateway to validate server certificates signed, for example, by a certificate authority that is not recognized by the Java environment when setting up LDAPS or StartTLS connections. See Section 5.2, "Preparing For Secure Communications" in the Administration Guide for an example of how to use the Java keytool command to import a server certificate into a truststore file.

  4. (Optional) If necessary, adjust the log level.

    Log levels are defined in java.util.logging.Level.

    By default, the log level is set to INFO, and the gateway logs HTTP request-related messages. To have the gateway log LDAP request-related messages, set the log level to FINEST in one of the following ways:

    • If the REST to LDAP gateway runs in Apache Tomcat, edit WEB-INF/classes/logging.properties to set org.forgerock.opendj.rest2ldap.level = FINEST. For details on Tomcat's implementation of the logging API, see Logging in Tomcat.

      Messages are written to CATALINA_BASE/logs/rest2ldap.yyyy-MM-dd.log.

    • If the REST to LDAP gateway runs in Jetty, make sure you set the log level system property when starting Jetty: -Dorg.forgerock.opendj.rest2ldap.level=FINEST.

      Messages are written to the Jetty log.

  5. Restart the REST to LDAP gateway or the application server to make sure the configuration changes are taken into account.

  6. Make sure that the directory service is up, and then check that the gateway is connecting correctly.

    The following command reads Babs Jensen's entry through the gateway to a directory server holding data from Example.ldif. In this example, the gateway is deployed under /rest2ldap:

    $ curl \
     --user bjensen:hifalutin
     http://opendj.example.com:8080/rest2ldap/api/users/bjensen?_prettyPrint=true
    {
      "_id" : "bjensen",
      "_rev" : "<revision>",
      "_schema" : "frapi:opendj:rest2ldap:posixUser:1.0",
      "_meta" : { },
      "userName" : "bjensen@example.com",
      "displayName" : [ "Barbara Jensen", "Babs Jensen" ],
      "name" : {
        "givenName" : "Barbara",
        "familyName" : "Jensen"
      },
      "description" : "Original description",
      "contactInformation" : {
        "telephoneNumber" : "+1 408 555 1862",
        "emailAddress" : "bjensen@example.com"
      },
      "uidNumber" : "1076",
      "gidNumber" : "1000",
      "homeDirectory" : "/home/bjensen",
      "manager" : {
        "_id" : "trigden",
        "displayName" : "Torrey Rigden"
      }
    }
       

    If you generated example data, Babs Jensen's entry is not included. Instead, try a generated user such as http://user.0:password@opendj.example.com:8080/rest2ldap/api/users/user.0.

Chapter 7. Installing the DSML Gateway

This chapter explains how to install the DSML gateway web application.

Procedure 7.1. To Install the DSML gateway

The DSML gateway functions as a web application in a web application container. The DSML gateway runs independently of the directory service. You configure the gateway to access a directory service by editing parameters in the gateway configuration file, WEB-INF/web.xml:

  1. Prepare for installation as described in Chapter 1, "Before You Install".

  2. Deploy the .war file according to the instructions for your application server.

  3. Edit WEB-INF/web.xml to ensure the parameters are correct.

    At minimum, make sure the correct values are set for ldap.host and ldap.port.

  4. Restart the web application according to the instructions for your application server.

Chapter 8. Before You Upgrade

This chapter lists requirements to fulfill before upgrading Directory Services server software, especially before upgrading the software in a production environment, in addition to requirements listed in Chapter 1, "Before You Install". It covers the following topics:

  • Supported upgrade paths

  • Required credentials

  • Java upgrades

  • Backup files

  • Debug logging that you must disable

  • Servers that run as Windows services

8.1. Following a Supported Upgrade Path

Table 8.1, "Server Upgrade Paths" indicates what you can upgrade.

Table 8.1. Server Upgrade Paths
From...To...Important Notes

Official ForgeRock release, version 2.4 or 2.5

Official ForgeRock release, directory server or replication server

Not supported.

Workaround: First upgrade all servers in the deployment to use at least 2.6.0 before upgrading further. For details on upgrading to that version, see Upgrading to OpenDJ 2.6.0.

Official ForgeRock release, version 2.6.0 or later

Official ForgeRock release, same edition of directory server or replication server

Supported.

Official ForgeRock release, OEM edition, version 3.0.0 or later

Official ForgeRock release, directory server or replication server

Supported.

The OEM edition did not include Berkeley DB Java Edition, and did not support JE backends. Instead, it uses PDB backends for local data.

The upgrade process adds support for JE backends. The PDB backend type is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Change your PDB backends to JE backends as described in Procedure 9.4, "To Move a PDB Backend to a JE Backend".

Trial edition release, version 3.0.0 or later

Official ForgeRock release, directory server or replication server

Supported.

Unofficial build, version 2.6.0 or later

Official ForgeRock release, directory server

Not supported.

Workaround: Install the new directory server as a replica of other servers. Use replication to bring the new server up to date before retiring older servers.


8.2. Obtaining the Required Credentials

Perform the upgrade procedure as the user who owns the server files.

Make sure you have the credentials to run commands as this user.

8.3. Upgrading Java

The new server requires a supported Java environment listed in Section 1.4, "Preparing the Java Environment".

If the server uses an older version, install a newer Java version before upgrading. To enable the server to use the newer Java version, edit the default.java-home setting in the opendj/config/java.properties file.

8.4. Backing Up Server Files

Before upgrading, perform a full file system backup of the current server in order to revert if the upgrade fails.

Due to changes to the backup archive format, make sure you stop the directory server and back up the file system directory where the current server is installed rather than creating a backup archive with the backup command.

8.5. Disabling Debug Logging

Before upgrading a server from OpenDJ 2.6, remove all debug log targets and disable debug logging. Debug log configuration entries in version 2.6 are incompatible with later versions, and can prevent the server from starting after upgrade.

To list currently configured debug targets, use the dsconfig list-debug-targets command.

To remove a debug log target, use the dsconfig delete-debug-target command.

To disable debug logging, set the debug logger property enabled:false as in the following example that disables the default debug logger:

$ dsconfig \
 set-log-publisher-prop \
 --hostname opendj.example.com \
 --port 4444 \
 --bindDN "cn=Directory Manager" \
 --bindPassword password \
 --publisher-name "File-Based Debug Logger" \
 --set enabled:false \
 --trustAll \
 --no-prompt

8.6. Disabling the Server as a Windows Service

If you are upgrading the server on Windows, and it is registered as a Windows service, disable the server as a Windows service before upgrade, as in the following example:

C:\path\to\opendj\bat> windows-service.bat --disableService
  

After upgrade, you can enable the server as a Windows service again.

Chapter 9. Upgrading a Directory Server

Important

Failure to follow the upgrade instructions can result in the loss of all user data.

Procedure 9.1. To Upgrade a Directory Server

Follow these steps to upgrade a directory server:

  1. Prepare for upgrade as described in Chapter 8, "Before You Upgrade".

  2. Stop the server.

  3. Proceed to upgrade the server:

    • When upgrading a server installed from the cross-platform .zip:

      1. Unpack the new files over the old files as described in Chapter 2, "Installing Server Software Files".

      2. Run the upgrade command, described in upgrade(1), to bring the server configuration and, if possible, user data up to date with the new software delivery.

        By default, the upgrade command runs interactively, requesting confirmation before making important configuration changes. For some potentially long-duration tasks, such as rebuilding indexes, the default choice is to defer the tasks until after upgrade.

        You can use the --no-prompt option to run the command non-interactively. In this case, the --acceptLicense option lets you accept the license terms non-interactively.

        When using the --no-prompt option, if the upgrade command cannot complete because it requires confirmation for a potentially long or critical task, then it exits with an error and a message about how to finish making the changes. You can add the --force option to force a non-interactive upgrade to continue in this case, also performing long running and critical tasks.

    • When upgrading a server installed from native packages, use the system package management tools.

  4. Start the upgraded server.

    At this point the upgrade process is complete. See the resulting upgrade.log file for a full list of operations performed.

    Replication updates the upgraded server with changes that occurred during the upgrade process.

    When you upgrade from version 3.0 or earlier, the upgrade process leaves the HTTP connection handler disabled.

    The newer configuration is not compatible with the previous configuration. You must rewrite your configuration according to Chapter 1, "REST to LDAP Configuration" in the Reference, and then configure the server to use the new configuration. For details, see Section 5.8, "RESTful Client Access Over HTTP" in the Administration Guide.

  5. (Optional) If you disabled the server as a Windows service in order to upgrade, enable the server as a Windows service again as in the following example:

    C:\path\to\opendj\bat> windows-service.bat --enableService
       
Procedure 9.2. To Upgrade Replicated Servers

Important

The directory server upgrade process is designed to support a rolling (sequential) upgrade of replicated servers.

Do not upgrade all replicated servers at once in parallel, as this removes all replication changelog data simultaneously, breaking replication.

For each server in the replication topology, follow these steps:

  1. Direct client application traffic away from the server to upgrade.

  2. Upgrade the server.

  3. Direct client application traffic back to the upgraded server.

Procedure 9.3. To Add a New Replica to an Existing Topology

Newer directory servers have updates to LDAP schemas that enable support for new features. The newer schemas are not all compatible with older servers.

When adding a new server to a replication topology with older servers and following the instructions in Section 8.2, "Configuring Replication Settings" in the Administration Guide, also follow these recommendations:

  1. Configure replication using the dsreplication command delivered with the new server.

  2. Use the --noSchemaReplication or the --useSecondServerAsSchemaSource option to avoid copying the newer schema to the older server.

    It is acceptable to copy the older schema to the newer server, though it prevents use of new features that depend on newer schema.

  3. If applications depend on Internet-Draft change numbers, see Procedure 8.18, "To Align Draft Change Numbers" in the Administration Guide.

Procedure 9.4. To Move a PDB Backend to a JE Backend

Although the dsconfig command does not provide a way to change a database backend type, it is possible to make the change. The high-level steps are as follows:

  1. Stop the directory server.

  2. Export the data in the PDB backend to LDIF.

  3. Update the configuration to change the backend type.

    See the LDIF modifications shown in Example 9.1, "Example Script for Changing a PDB Backend to a JE Backend".

  4. Import the data from LDIF into the new JE backend.

  5. Start the directory server.

Example 9.1. Example Script for Changing a PDB Backend to a JE Backend

The following Bash script demonstrates how to change a PDB backend to a JE Backend:

#!/usr/bin/env bash
#
# The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the Common Development and
# Distribution License (the License). You may not use this file except in compliance with the
# License.
#
# You can obtain a copy of the License at legal-notices/CDDLv1.0.txt. See the License for the
# specific language governing permission and limitations under the License.
#
# When distributing Covered Software, include this CDDL Header Notice in each file and include
# the License file at legal-notices/CDDLv1.0.txt. If applicable, add the following below the CDDL
# Header, with the fields enclosed by brackets [] replaced by your own identifying
# information: "Portions Copyright [year] [name of copyright owner]".
#
# Copyright 2017 ForgeRock AS.
#

if test $# -ne 1
then
  echo "Usage: $0 backendID"
  echo "Migrate a PDB backend to a JE backend with all the data."
  echo "Run this script from the server base directory, such as /path/to/opendj."
  exit 1
fi

# Check that the server is stopped.
echo "Verifying that the server is stopped..."
./bin/status -n -s
if test $? -ne 0
then
  echo "The Directory Server must be stopped to migrate a backend."
  echo "Please stop the server and relaunch the script."
  exit 1
fi
echo ""

# Check for instance.loc.
LOC=.
if [ -f ./instance.loc ]
then
  LOC=`cat ./instance.loc`
elif [ -f /etc/opendj/instance.loc ]
then
  LOC=`cat /etc/opendj/instance.loc`
fi

# Check the backendID.
echo "Verifying the backend $1"
DN=`./bin/ldifsearch "$LOC"/config/config.ldif "(&(objectclass=ds-cfg-pdb-backend)(ds-cfg-backend-id=$1))" dn | grep "^dn:"`
if [ -z "$DN" ]
then
  echo "Could not find a PDB backend with this name. Exiting."
  exit 2
fi

echo "Exporting data to /tmp/data_$$"
# Export data from the PDB backend.
./bin/export-ldif --offline -n "$1" -l /tmp/data_$$
if test $? -ne 0
then
  echo
  exit 3
fi

echo "Updating configuration"
# Change the PDB backend configuration to a JE backend configuration.
./bin/ldifmodify -o "$LOC"/config/config.ldif.$$ "$LOC"/config/config.ldif << EOF
$DN
changetype: modify
delete: objectClass
objectClass: ds-cfg-pdb-backend
-
add: objectClass
objectClass: ds-cfg-je-backend
-
replace: ds-cfg-java-class
ds-cfg-java-class: org.opends.server.backends.jeb.JEBackend
EOF

if test $? -ne 0
then
  echo "Modifications failed. Restoring the original configuration"
  exit 4
fi

cp "$LOC"/config/config.ldif.$$ "$LOC"/config/config.ldif
echo "Configuration updates done."
echo "Importing data..."
# Import the data into the JE backend.
./bin/import-ldif --offline -n $1 -l /tmp/data_$$
if test $? -ne 0
then
  echo "Importing data failed."
  echo "The exported data file is /tmp/data_$$"
  exit 5
fi
echo "Backend $1 converted successfully from PDB to JE."
rm /tmp/data_$$
rm "$LOC"/config/config.ldif.$$

Chapter 10. Upgrading a Replication Server

This chapter shows how to upgrade a standalone replication server, meaning a replication server that has no user data backends.

Procedure 10.1. To Upgrade a Standalone Replication Server

If the server holds user data, consider it a directory server and see Chapter 9, "Upgrading a Directory Server" instead.

  1. Prepare for upgrade as described in Chapter 8, "Before You Upgrade".

  2. Stop the server.

  3. Unpack the new files over the old files as described in Chapter 2, "Installing Server Software Files".

  4. Run the upgrade command, described in upgrade(1), to bring the server configuration data up to date with the new software delivery.

    By default, the upgrade command runs interactively, requesting confirmation before making important configuration changes.

    You can use the --no-prompt option to run the command non-interactively. In this case, the --acceptLicense option lets you accept the license terms non-interactively.

    When using the --no-prompt option, if the upgrade command cannot complete because it requires confirmation for a potentially long or critical task, then it exits with an error and a message about how to finish making the changes. You can add the --force option to force a non-interactive upgrade to continue in this case, also performing long running and critical tasks.

  5. Start the upgraded server.

    At this point the upgrade process is complete. See the resulting upgrade.log file for a full list of operations performed.

  6. (Optional) If you disabled the server as a Windows service in order to upgrade, enable the server as a Windows service again as in the following example:

    C:\path\to\opendj\bat> windows-service.bat --enableService
       

Chapter 11. Upgrading the REST to LDAP Gateway

Replace the REST to LDAP gateway with the newer version, as for a fresh installation, and rewrite the configuration to work with the new version.

For details, see Chapter 6, "Installing the REST to LDAP Gateway".

Chapter 12. Upgrading the DSML Gateway

Replace the DSML gateway with the newer version, as for a fresh installation.

For details, see Chapter 7, "Installing the DSML Gateway".

Chapter 13. Removing Server Software

Procedure 13.1. To Uninstall Cross-Platform Server Software

Follow these steps to remove software installed from the cross-platform .zip:

  1. Log in as the user who installed and runs the server.

  2. Stop replication as described in Procedure 8.7, "To Stop Replication Permanently For a Replica" in the Administration Guide.

  3. Stop the server.

    $ /path/to/opendj/bin/stop-ds --quiet
       
  4. Delete the files manually:

    $ rm -rf /path/to/opendj
       
Procedure 13.2. To Uninstall the Debian Package

When you uninstall the Debian package from the command-line, the server is stopped if it is running:

  1. Stop replication as described in Procedure 8.7, "To Stop Replication Permanently For a Replica" in the Administration Guide.

  2. Purge the package from your system:

    $ sudo dpkg --purge opendj
       
  3. (Optional) Remove any remaining server configuration files and directory data:

    $ sudo rm -rf /opt/opendj
       
Procedure 13.3. To Uninstall the RPM Package

When you uninstall the RPM package from the command-line, the server is stopped if it is running:

  1. Stop replication as described in Procedure 8.7, "To Stop Replication Permanently For a Replica" in the Administration Guide.

  2. Remove the package from your system:

    # rpm -e opendj
       
  3. (Optional) Remove the server configuration files and any directory data:

    $ sudo rm -rf /opt/opendj
       
Procedure 13.4. To Uninstall the Windows Installer Package

When you uninstall the files installed from the Windows installer package, only the installed files are removed:

  1. Stop replication as described in Procedure 8.7, "To Stop Replication Permanently For a Replica" in the Administration Guide.

  2. Remove installed files in one of the following ways:

    • Use Windows Control Panel.

      1. Open Windows Control Panel and browse to the page to uninstall a program.

      2. Find ForgeRock OpenDJ in the list and uninstall it.

    • Use the msiexec command.

      The following command quietly removes installed files:

      C:\>msiexec /x DS-5.5.0.msi /q
           
  3. (Optional) Manually remove the server configuration files and any directory data.

Installation Reference


Name

setup — install OpenDJ server

Synopsis

setup {subcommand} {options}

Description

This utility can be used to install an OpenDJ instance either as a directory server, a replication server or a proxy server.

Options

The setup command takes the following options:

Command options:

--acceptLicense

Automatically accepts the product license (if present).

Default: false

--adminConnectorPort {port}

Port on which the Administration Connector should listen for communication.

-D | --rootUserDn {rootUserDN}

DN for the initial root user for the Directory Server.

Default: cn=Directory Manager

--instancePath {path}

Path were the instance should be set up.

Default: /tmp

-j | --rootUserPasswordFile {rootUserPasswordFile}

Path to a file containing the password for the initial root user for the Directory Server.

-N | --certNickname {nickname}

Nickname of a keystore entry containing a certificate that the server should use when negotiating secure connections using StartTLS or SSL. Multiple keystore entries may be provided by using this option multiple times.

-O | --doNotStart

Do not start the server when the configuration is completed.

Default: false

--productionMode

Harden default configuration for production use.

Default: false

-Q | --quiet

Use quiet mode.

Default: false

-S | --skipPortCheck

Skip the check to determine whether the specified ports are usable.

Default: false

-u | --keyStorePasswordFile {keyStorePasswordFile}

Path to a file containing the keystore password. The keystore password is required when you specify an existing file-based keystore (JKS, JCEKS, PKCS#12).

--useJavaKeyStore {keyStorePath}

Path of a JKS keystore containing the certificate(s) that the server should use when negotiating secure connections using StartTLS or SSL.

--useJceks {keyStorePath}

Path of a JCEKS keystore containing the certificate(s) that the server should use when negotiating secure connections using StartTLS or SSL.

--usePkcs11KeyStore

Use certificate(s) in a PKCS#11 token that the server should use when accepting SSL-based connections or performing StartTLS negotiation.

Default: false

--usePkcs12KeyStore {keyStorePath}

Path of a PKCS#12 keystore containing the certificate(s) that the server should use when negotiating secure connections using StartTLS or SSL.

-w | --rootUserPassword {rootUserPassword}

Password for the initial root user for the Directory Server.

-W | --keyStorePassword {keyStorePassword}

Keystore cleartext password. The keystore password is required when you specify an existing file-based keystore (JKS, JCEKS, PKCS#12).

General options:

-V | --version

Display Directory Server version information.

Default: false

-H | --help

Display this usage information.

Default: false

Subcommands

The setup command supports the following subcommands:

setup directory-server

Install an OpenDJ directory server instance. See "setup directory-server --help" for specific options.

Options

The setup directory-server command takes the following options:

-q | --enableStartTls

Enable StartTLS to allow secure communication with the server using the LDAP port.

Default: false

-p | --ldapPort {port}

Port on which the Directory Server should listen for LDAP communication.

-Z | --ldapsPort {port}

Port on which the Directory Server should listen for LDAPS communication. The LDAPS port will be configured and SSL will be enabled only if this argument is explicitly specified.

-a | --addBaseEntry

Indicates whether to create the base entry in the Directory Server database.

Default: false

-t | --backendType {backendType}

The type of the userRoot backend. Available backend type(s): je.

Default: je

-b | --baseDn {baseDN}

Base DN for user information in the Directory Server. Multiple base DNs may be provided by using this option multiple times.

-l | --ldifFile {ldifFile}

Path to an LDIF file containing data that should be added to the Directory Server database. Multiple LDIF files may be provided by using this option multiple times.

-R | --rejectFile {rejectFile}

Write rejected entries to the specified file.

-d | --sampleData {numEntries}

Specifies that the database should be populated with the specified number of sample entries.

--skipFile {skipFile}

Write skipped entries to the specified file.

-h | --hostname {host}

The fully-qualified directory server host name that will be used when generating self-signed certificates for LDAP SSL/StartTLS, the administration connector, and replication.

Default: localhost.localdomain

--httpPort {port}

Port on which the server should listen for HTTP communication.

--httpsPort {port}

Port on which the server should listen for HTTPS communication.

setup proxy-server

Install an OpenDJ proxy server instance. There are two ways to specify the servers to be contacted by the proxy. They can either be listed exhaustively or retrieved from an existing replication topology. See "setup proxy-server --help" for specific options.

Options

The setup proxy-server command takes the following options:

-q | --enableStartTls

Enable StartTLS to allow secure communication with the server using the LDAP port.

Default: false

-p | --ldapPort {port}

Port on which the Directory Server should listen for LDAP communication.

-Z | --ldapsPort {port}

Port on which the Directory Server should listen for LDAPS communication. The LDAPS port will be configured and SSL will be enabled only if this argument is explicitly specified.

--usePkcs12TrustStore {trustStorePath}

Use existing PKCS12 truststore file to trust the remote server certificates.

--useJceksTrustStore {trustStorePath}

Use existing JCEKS truststore file to trust the remote server certificates.

--useJavaTrustStore {trustStorePath}

Use existing JKS truststore file to trust the remote server certificates.

--useJvmTrustStore

Use the JVM truststore for validating remote server certificates.

Default: false

-X | --trustAll

Trust all server SSL certificates.

Default: false

-T | --trustStorePassword {trustStorePassword}

Truststore cleartext password.

-U | --trustStorePasswordFile {path}

Path to a file containing the truststore password.

--loadBalancingAlgorithm {algorithm}

Algorithm to use to load balance between servers. Available algorithms are 'affinity, least-requests'.

Default: affinity

--staticPrimaryServer {host:port}

Static server to contact when available before contacting secondary servers. Multiple servers may be provided by using this option multiple times.

--proxyUserBindDn {proxyBindDN}

The bind DN for forwarding LDAP requests to remote servers. This bind DN must be present on all the remote servers.

Default: cn=proxy

--proxyUserBindPassword {proxyBindPassword}

Password associated with the proxy bind DN. The bind password must be the same on all the remote servers.

--proxyUserBindPasswordFile {proxyBindPasswordFile}

Path to a file containing the password associated with the proxy bind DN. The bind password must be the same on all the remote servers.

--replicationBindDn {bindDN}

The bind DN for periodically reading replication server configurations. The bind DN must be present on all replication servers and directory servers, it must be able to read the server configuration.

--replicationBindPassword {bindPassword}

The bind password for periodically reading replication server configurations. The bind password must be the same on all replication and directory servers.

--replicationBindPasswordFile {bindPasswordFile}

Path to a file containing the bind password for periodically reading replication server configurations. The bind password must be the same on all replication and directory servers.

--replicationPreferredGroupId {domainGroupIDNumber}

Replication domain group ID number of directory server replicas to contact when available before contacting other replicas. If this option is not specified then all replicas will be treated the same.

--replicationServer {host:port}

Replication server to contact periodically in order to discover backend servers. Multiple replication servers may be provided by using this option multiple times.

--baseDn {baseDN}

Base DN for user information in the Proxy Server. Multiple base DNs may be provided by using this option multiple times. If no base DNs are defined then the proxy will forward requests to all public naming contexts of the remote servers.

--staticSecondaryServer {host:port}

Static server to contact when all primary servers are unavailable. Multiple servers may be provided by using this option multiple times.

--proxyUsingSsl

Use SSL to secure communications with remote servers.

Default: false

--proxyUsingStartTls

Use Start TLS to secure communication with remote servers.

Default: false

-h | --hostname {host}

The fully-qualified directory server host name that will be used when generating self-signed certificates for LDAP SSL/StartTLS, the administration connector, and replication.

Default: localhost.localdomain

--httpPort {port}

Port on which the server should listen for HTTP communication.

--httpsPort {port}

Port on which the server should listen for HTTPS communication.

setup replication-server

Install OpenDJ as a standalone replication server. The server can be the first of a new replication topology (default behavior) or it can join an existing topology. See "setup replication-server --help" for specific options.

Options

The setup replication-server command takes the following options:

--usePkcs12TrustStore {trustStorePath}

Use existing PKCS12 truststore file to trust certificates from other replication servers in the topology.

--useJceksTrustStore {trustStorePath}

Use existing JCEKS truststore file to trust certificates from other replication servers in the topology.

--useJavaTrustStore {trustStorePath}

Use existing JKS truststore file to trust certificates from other replication servers in the topology.

--useJvmTrustStore

Use the JVM truststore to trust certificates from other replication servers in the topology.

Default: false

-X | --trustAll

Trust all server SSL certificates.

Default: false

-T | --trustStorePassword {trustStorePassword}

Truststore cleartext password.

-U | --trustStorePasswordFile {path}

Path to a file containing the truststore password.

--replicationServer {host:port}

Replication server in the topology to be joined. This server must be online during setup. To bind to the remote server, this server uses the global administrator account for the topology. The global administrator account must have ID 'admin', and must use the same password as the root user password for this server.

--replicationPort {port}

Port used for replication protocol communications with other servers.

--secureReplication

Specifies whether the communication through the replication port should be secured. This option is enforced if the --productionMode option is used.

Default: false

-b | --baseDn {baseDN}

Base DN(s) of the data to be replicated. Multiple base DNs can be provided by using this option multiple times. Leave this option empty to replicate all available base DNs in the topology.

-h | --hostname {host}

The fully-qualified directory server host name that will be used when generating self-signed certificates for LDAP SSL/StartTLS, the administration connector, and replication.

Default: localhost.localdomain

--httpPort {port}

Port on which the server should listen for HTTP communication.

--httpsPort {port}

Port on which the server should listen for HTTPS communication.

Exit Codes

0

The command completed successfully.

> 0

An error occurred.

Examples

The following command installs OpenDJ directory server, enabling StartTLS and importing 100 example entries without interaction.

$ /path/to/opendj/setup directory-server --adminConnectorPort 4444 -t pdb -b dc=example,dc=com -d 100 \
 -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -h opendj.example.com -p 1389 \
 --enableStartTLS


Validating parameters..... Done
Configuring certificates..... Done
Configuring server..... Done
Importing automatically-generated data (100 entries)......... Done
Starting directory server............... Done

To see basic server status and configuration, you can launch
/path/to/opendj/bin/status

 

Name

upgrade — upgrade OpenDJ configuration and application data

Synopsis

upgrade {options}

Description

Upgrades OpenDJ configuration and application data so that it is compatible with the installed binaries.

This tool should be run immediately after upgrading the OpenDJ binaries and before restarting the server.

NOTE: this tool does not provide backup or restore capabilities. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the OpenDJ administrator to take necessary precautions before performing the upgrade.

This utility thus performs only part of the upgrade process, which includes the following phases for a single server.

  1. Get and unpack a newer version of OpenDJ directory server software.

  2. Stop the current OpenDJ directory server.

  3. Overwrite existing binary and script files with those of the newer version, and then run this utility before restarting OpenDJ.

  4. Start the upgraded OpenDJ directory server.

Important

This utility does not back up OpenDJ before you upgrade, nor does it restore OpenDJ if the utility fails. In order to revert a failed upgrade, make sure you back up OpenDJ directory server before you overwrite existing binary and script files.

By default this utility requests confirmation before making important configuration changes. You can use the --no-prompt option to run the command non-interactively.

When using the --no-prompt option, if this utility cannot complete because it requires confirmation for a potentially very long or critical task, then it exits with an error and a message about how to finish making the changes. You can add the --force option to force a non-interactive upgrade to continue in this case, also performing long running and critical tasks.

After upgrading, see the resulting upgrade.log file for a full list of operations performed.

Options

The upgrade command takes the following options:

Command options:

--acceptLicense

Automatically accepts the product license (if present).

Default: false

--force

Forces a non-interactive upgrade to continue even if it requires user interaction. In particular, long running or critical upgrade tasks, such as re-indexing, which require user confirmation will be skipped. This option may only be used with the 'no-prompt' option.

Default: false

--ignoreErrors

Ignores any errors which occur during the upgrade. This option should be used with caution and may be useful in automated deployments where potential errors are known in advance and resolved after the upgrade has completed.

Default: false

Utility input/output options:

-n | --no-prompt

Use non-interactive mode. If data in the command is missing, the user is not prompted and the tool will fail.

Default: false

-Q | --quiet

Use quiet mode.

Default: false

-v | --verbose

Use verbose mode.

Default: false

General options:

-V | --version

Display Directory Server version information.

Default: false

-H | --help

Display this usage information.

Default: false

Exit Codes

0

The command completed successfully.

2

The command was run in non-interactive mode, but could not complete because confirmation was required to run a long or critical task.

See the error message or the log for details.

other

An error occurred.

See the OpenDJ Installation Guide for an example upgrade process for OpenDJ directory server installed from the cross-platform (.zip) delivery.

Native packages (.deb, .rpm) perform more of the upgrade process, stopping OpenDJ if it is running, overwriting older files with newer files, running this utility, and starting OpenDJ if it was running when you upgraded the package(s).

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