Instructions for installing and configuring ForgeRock® Identity Gateway.

Preface

ForgeRock Identity Platform™ is the only offering for access management, identity management, user-managed access, directory services, and an identity gateway, designed and built as a single, unified platform.

The platform includes the following components that extend what is available in open source projects to provide fully featured, enterprise-ready software:

  • ForgeRock Access Management (AM)

  • ForgeRock Identity Management (IDM)

  • ForgeRock Directory Services (DS)

  • ForgeRock Identity Gateway (IG)

1. About This Guide

IG integrates web applications, APIs, and microservices with the ForgeRock Identity Platform, without modifying the application or the container where they run. Based on reverse proxy architecture, it enforces security and access control in conjunction with the Access Management modules.

This guide is for access management designers and administrators who develop, build, deploy, and maintain IG for their organizations. It helps you to get started quickly, and learn more as you progress through the guide.

This guide assumes basic familiarity with the following topics:

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), including how clients and servers exchange messages, and the role that a reverse proxy (gateway) plays

  • JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), which is the format for IG configuration files

  • Managing services on operating systems and application servers

  • Configuring network connections on operating systems

  • Managing Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) used to establish HTTPS connections

  • Access management for web applications

Depending on the features you use, you should also have basic familiarity with the following topics:

  • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) if you use IG with LDAP directory services

  • Structured Query Language (SQL) if you use IG with relational databases

  • Configuring AM if you use password capture and replay, or if you plan to follow the OAuth 2.0 or SAML 2.0 tutorials

  • The Groovy programming language if you plan to extend IG with scripts

  • The Java programming language if you plan to extend IG with plugins, and Apache Maven for building plugins

2. Formatting Conventions

Most examples in the documentation are created in GNU/Linux or Mac OS X operating environments. If distinctions are necessary between operating environments, examples are labeled with the operating environment name in parentheses. To avoid repetition file system directory names are often given only in UNIX format as in /path/to/server, even if the text applies to C:\path\to\server as well.

Absolute path names usually begin with the placeholder /path/to/. This path might translate to /opt/, C:\Program Files\, or somewhere else on your system.

Command-line, terminal sessions are formatted as follows:

$ echo $JAVA_HOME
/path/to/jdk

Command output is sometimes formatted for narrower, more readable output even though formatting parameters are not shown in the command.

Program listings are formatted as follows:

class Test {
    public static void main(String [] args)  {
        System.out.println("This is a program listing.");
    }
}

3. Accessing Documentation Online

ForgeRock publishes comprehensive documentation online:

  • The ForgeRock Knowledge Base offers a large and increasing number of up-to-date, practical articles that help you deploy and manage ForgeRock software.

    While many articles are visible to community members, ForgeRock customers have access to much more, including advanced information for customers using ForgeRock software in a mission-critical capacity.

  • ForgeRock product documentation, such as this document, aims to be technically accurate and complete with respect to the software documented. It is visible to everyone and covers all product features and examples of how to use them.

4. Using the ForgeRock.org Site

The ForgeRock.org site has links to source code for ForgeRock open source software, as well as links to the ForgeRock forums and technical blogs.

If you are a ForgeRock customer, raise a support ticket instead of using the forums. ForgeRock support professionals will get in touch to help you.

5. Getting Support and Contacting ForgeRock

ForgeRock provides support services, professional services, classes through ForgeRock University, and partner services to assist you in setting up and maintaining your deployments. For a general overview of these services, see https://www.forgerock.com.

ForgeRock has staff members around the globe who support our international customers and partners. For details, visit https://www.forgerock.com, or send an email to ForgeRock at info@forgerock.com.

Chapter 1. About Identity Gateway

This chapter sets out the essentials of using IG, including:

  • What problems IG solves and where it fits in your deployment

  • How IG acts on HTTP requests and responses

  • How the configuration files for IG are organized

  • The roles played by routes, filters, handlers, and chains, which are the building blocks of an IG configuration

1.1. About IG

Most organizations have valuable existing services that are not easily integrated into newer architectures. These existing services cannot often be changed. Many client applications cannot communicate as they lack a gateway to bridge the gap. Figure 1.1, "Missing Gateway" illustrates one example of a missing gateway.

Figure 1.1. Missing Gateway
Missing Gateway

IG works as an HTTP gateway, based on reverse proxy architecture. IG is deployed on a network so it can intercept both client requests and server responses. Figure 1.2, "IG Deployed" illustrates a IG deployment.

Figure 1.2. IG Deployed
IG Deployed

Clients interact with protected servers through IG. IG can be configured to add new capabilities to existing services without affecting current clients or servers.

The list that follows features you can add to your solution by using IG:

  • Access management integration

  • Application and API security

  • Credential replay

  • OAuth 2.0 support

  • OpenID Connect 1.0 support

  • Network traffic control

  • Proxy with request and response capture

  • Request and response rewriting

  • SAML 2.0 federation support

  • Single sign-on (SSO)

IG supports these capabilities as out of the box configuration options. Once you understand the essential concepts covered in this chapter, try the additional instructions in this guide to use IG to add other features.

1.2. IG Object Model

IG handles HTTP requests and responses in user-defined chains, making it possible to manage and to monitor processing at any point in a chain. The IG object model provides both access to the requests and responses that pass through each chain, and also context information associated with each request.

Contexts provide information about the client making the request, the session, the authentication or authorization identity of the principal, and any other state information associated with the request. Contexts provide a means to access state information throughout the duration of the HTTP session between the client and protected application, including when this involves interaction with additional services.

1.3. Configuration Directories and Files

By default, IG configuration files are located under $HOME/.openig on Linux, macOS, and UNIX systems, and %appdata%\OpenIG on Windows systems. For information about how to change the default locations , see Section 2.4, "Changing the Default Location of the Configuration Folders".

IG uses the following configuration directories:

1.4. Routing and Routes

Routers are handlers that perform the following tasks:

  • Define the routes directory and loads routes into the IG configuration.

  • Depending on the scanning interval, periodically scan the routes directory and updates the IG configuration when routes are added, removed, or changed.

  • Route requests to the first route in the IG configuration whose condition is satisfied.

Routes are configuration files that you add to IG to manage requests. They are flat files in JSON format. You can add routes in the following ways:

Every route must call a handler to process the request and produce a response to a request.

When a route has a condition, it can handle only requests that meet the condition. When a route has no condition, it can handle any request.

Routes inherit settings from their parent configurations. This means that you can configure global objects in the config.json heap, for example, and then reference the objects by name in any other IG configuration.

For examples of route configurations see Chapter 11, "Configuring Routers and Routes". For information about the parameters for routers and routes, see Router(5) in the Configuration Reference and Route(5) in the Configuration Reference.

1.5. Handlers, Filters, and Chains

Handlers and filters are chained together to modify a request, the response, or the context:

  • Handler: Either delegates to another handler, or produces a response.

    One way to produce a response is to send a request to and receive a response from an external service. In this case, IG acts as a client of the service, often on behalf of the client whose request initiated the request.

    Another way to produce a response is to build a response either statically or based on something in the context. In this case, IG plays the role of server, generating a response to return to the client.

    For more information, see Handlers in the Configuration Reference.

  • Filter: Either transforms data in the request, response, or context, or performs an action when the request or response passes through the filter.

    A filter can leave the request, response, and contexts unchanged. For example, it can log the context as it passes through the filter. Alternatively, it can change request or response. For example, it can generate a static request to replace the client request, add a header to the request, or remove a header from a response.

    For more information, see Filters in the Configuration Reference.

  • Chain: A type of handler that dispatches processing to an ordered list of filters, and then to the handler.

    A Chain can be placed anywhere in a configuration that a handler can be placed. Filters process the incoming request, pass it on to the next filter, and then to the handler. After the handler produces a response, the filters process the outgoing response as it makes its way to the client. Note that the same filter can process both the incoming request and the outgoing response but most filters do one or the other.

    For more information, see Chain(5) in the Configuration Reference.

  • Chain of Filters: A type of filter that dispatches processing to an ordered list of filters without then dispatching the request to a handler. Use this filter to assemble a list of filters into a single filter that you can then use in different places in the configuration.

    A ChainOfFilters can be placed anywhere in a configuration that a filter can be placed.

    For more information, see ChainOfFilters(5) in the Configuration Reference.

Figure 1.3, "Flow Inside a Chain" shows the flow inside a Chain, where a request filter transforms the request, a handler sends the request to a protected application, and then a response filter transforms the response. Notice how the flow traverses the filters in reverse order when the response comes back from the handler.

Figure 1.3. Flow Inside a Chain
Flow Inside a Chain

The route configuration in Example 1.1, "Chain to a Protected Application" demonstrates the flow through a chain to a protected application. With IG and the sample application set up as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide, access this route on http://openig.example.com:8080/home.

Example 1.1. Chain to a Protected Application
{
  "handler": {
    "type": "Chain",
    "comment": "Base configuration defines the capture decorator",
    "config": {
      "filters": [
        {
          "type": "HeaderFilter",
          "comment": "Add a header to all requests",
          "config": {
            "messageType": "REQUEST",
            "add": {
              "MyHeaderFilter_request": [
                "Added by HeaderFilter to request"
              ]
            }
          }
        },
        {
          "type": "HeaderFilter",
          "comment": "Add a header to all responses",
          "config": {
            "messageType": "RESPONSE",
            "add": {
              "MyHeaderFilter_response": [
                "Added by HeaderFilter to response"
              ]
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": {
        "type": "ClientHandler",
        "comment": "Log request, pass it to the sample app, log response",
        "capture": "all",
        "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081"
      }
    }
  }
}

The chain receives the request and context and processes it as follows:

  • The first HeaderFilter adds a header to the incoming request.

  • The second HeaderFilter manages responses not requests, so it simply passes the request and context to the handler.

  • The ClientHandler captures (logs) the request.

  • The ClientHandler passes the transformed request to the protected application.

  • The protected application passes a response to the ClientHandler.

  • The ClientHandler captures (logs) the response.

  • The second HeaderFilter adds a header added to the response.

  • The first HeaderFilter is configured to manage requests, not responses, so it simply passes the response back to IG.


Example 1.2, "Requests and Responses in a Chain" list some of the HTTP requests and responses captured as they flow through the chain. You can search the log files for MyHeaderFilter_request and MyHeaderFilter_response.

Example 1.2. Requests and Responses in a Chain
### Original request from user-agent
GET http://openig.example.com:8080/ HTTP/1.1
Accept: */*
Host: openig.example.com:8080

### Add a header to the request (inside IG) and direct it to the protected application
GET http://app.example.com:8081/ HTTP/1.1
Accept: */*
Host: openig.example.com:8080
MyHeaderFilter_request: Added by HeaderFilter to request

### Return the response to the user-agent
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 1809
Content-Type: text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1

### Add a header to the response (inside IG)
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 1809
MyHeaderFilter_response: Added by HeaderFilter to response

1.6. Configuration Objects

Configuration objects have the following parts:

  • Name: a unique string in the list of objects. When you declare inline objects, the name is not required.

  • Type: the type name of the configuration object. IG defines many object types for different purposes.

  • Config: additional configuration settings. The content of the configuration object depends on its type.

    If all of the configuration settings for the type are optional, the config field is also optional. The following configurations signify that the object uses default settings:

    • Omitting the config field

    • Setting the config field to an empty object, "config": {}

    • Setting "config": null

Filters, handlers, and other objects whose configuration settings are defined by strings, integers, or booleans, can alternatively be defined by expressions that match the expected type.

1.7. Decorators

Decorators are additional heap objects to extend what another object can do. For example, a CaptureDecorator extends the capability of filters and handlers to log requests and responses. A TimerDecorator logs processing times. Decorate configuration objects with decorator names as field names.

IG defines the following decorators: audit, baseURI, capture, and timer. You can use these decorators without configuring them explicitly.

You can log requests, responses, and processing times by adding decorations as shown in the following example:

{
  "handler": {
  "type": "Router",
  "capture": [ "request", "response" ],
  "timer": true
  }
}

For more information, see Decorators in the Configuration Reference.

1.8.  Configuration Parameters Declared as Property Variables

Configuration parameters, such as host names, port numbers, and directories, can be declared as property variables in the IG configuration or in an external JSON file. The variables can then be used in expressions in routes and in config.json to set the value of configuration parameters.

Properties can be inherited across the router, so a property defined in config.json can be used in any of the routes in the configuration.

Storing the configuration centrally and using variables for parameters that can be different for each installation makes it easier to deploy IG in different environments without changing a single line in your route configuration.

For more information, see Properties(5) in the Configuration Reference.

1.9. Using Comments in IG Configuration Files

The JSON format does not specify a notation for comments. If IG does not recognize a JSON field name, it ignores the field. As a result, it is possible to use comments in configuration files.

Use the following conventions when commenting to ensure your configuration files are easier to read:

  • Use comment fields to add text comments. Figure 1.4, "Using a Comment Field" illustrates a CaptureDecorator configuration that includes a text comment.

    Figure 1.4. Using a Comment Field
    {
        "name": "capture",
        "type": "CaptureDecorator",
        "comment": "Write request and response information to the logs",
        "config": {
            "captureEntity": true
        }
    }

  • Use an underscore (_) to comment a field temporarily. Figure 1.5, "Using an Underscore" illustrates a CaptureDecorator that has "captureEntity": true commented out. As a result, it uses the default setting ("captureEntity": false).

    Figure 1.5. Using an Underscore
    {
        "name": "capture",
        "type": "CaptureDecorator",
        "config": {
            "_captureEntity": true
        }
    }

1.10. Understanding IG APIs With API Descriptors

Common REST endpoints in IG serve API descriptors at runtime. When you retrieve an API descriptor for an endpoint, a JSON that describes the API for that endpoint is returned.

To help you discover and understand APIs, you can use the API descriptor with a tool such as Swagger UI to generate a web page that helps you to view and test the different endpoints.

When you start IG, or add or edit routes, registered endpoint locations for the routes hosted by the main router are written in $HOME/.openig/logs/route-system.log. Endpoint locations for subroutes are written to other log files. To retrieve the API descriptor for a specific endpoint, append one of the following query string parameters to the endpoint:

  • _api, to represent the API accessible over HTTP. This OpenAPI descriptor can be used with endpoints that are complete or partial URLs.

    The returned JSON respects the OpenAPI specification and can be consumed by Swagger tools, such as Swagger UI.

  • _crestapi, to provide a compact representation that is independent of the transport protocol. This CREST API descriptor cannot be used with partial URLs.

    The returned JSON respects a ForgeRock proprietary specification dedicated to describe CREST endpoints.

For more information about CREST API descriptors, see Section 5.5, "Common REST API Documentation" in the Configuration Reference.

Example 1.3. Retrieving API Descriptors for a Router

With IG running as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide, run the following query to generate a JSON that describes the router operations supported by the endpoint:

http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes?_api
{
     "swagger": "2.0",
     "info": {
     "version": "IG version",
     "title": "IG"
     },
     "host": "0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1",
     "basePath": "/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes",
     "tags": [{
     "name": "Routes Endpoint"
     }],
     . . . 

Alternatively, generate a CREST API descriptor by using the ?_crestapi query string.


Example 1.4. Retrieving API Descriptors for the UMA Service

With the UMA tutorial running as described in Chapter 10, "Supporting UMA Resource Servers", run the following query to generate a JSON that describes the UMA share API:

http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes/00-uma/objects/umaservice/share?_api
{
     "swagger": "2.0",
     "info": {
     "version": "IG version",
     "title": "IG"
     },
     "host": "0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1",
     "basePath": "/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes/00-uma/objects/umaservice/share",
     "tags": [{
     "name": "Manage UMA Share objects"
     }],
     . . . 

Alternatively, generate a CREST API descriptor by using the ?_crestapi query string.


Example 1.5. Retrieving API Descriptors for the Monitoring Endpoint of a Route

With monitoring enabled for a route, run a query to generate a JSON that exposes monitoring information for the route. For example:

http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes/00-uma/monitoring?_api
{
     "swagger": "2.0",
     "info": {
     "version": "IG version",
     "title": "IG"
     },
     "host": "openig.example.com:8080",
     "basePath": "/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes/00-uma/monitoring",
     "tags": [{
     "name": "Monitoring endpoint"
     }],
     . . .

Alternatively, generate a CREST API descriptor by using the ?_crestapi query string.

For information about how to set up monitoring for a route, see Procedure 14.1, "To Monitor a Route".


Example 1.6. Retrieving API Descriptors for the Main Router

Run a query to generate a JSON that describes the API for the main router and its subsequent endpoints. For example:

http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router?_api
{
     "swagger": "2.0",
     "info": {
     "version": "IG version",
     "title": "IG"
     },
     "host": "openig.example.com:8080",
     "basePath": "/openig/api/system/objects/_router",
     "tags": [{
     "name": "Monitoring endpoint"
     }, {
     "name": "Manage UMA Share objects"
     }, {
     "name": "Routes Endpoint"
     }],
     . . .

Because the above URL is a partial URL, you cannot use the ?_crestapi query string to generate a CREST API descriptor.


Example 1.7. Retrieving API Descriptors for an IG Instance

Run a query to generate a JSON that describes the APIs provided by the IG instance that is responding to a request. For example:

http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api?_api
{
     "swagger": "2.0",
     "info": {
     "version": "IG version",
     "title": "IG"
     },
     "host": "openig.example.com:8080",
     "basePath": "/openig/api",
     "tags": [{
     "name": "Internal Storage for UI Models"
     }, {
     "name": "Monitoring endpoint"
     }, {
     "name": "Manage UMA Share objects"
     }, {
     "name": "Routes Endpoint"
     }, {
     "name": "Server Info"
     }],
     . . .

If routes are added after the request is performed, they are not included in the returned JSON.

Because the above URL is a partial URL, you cannot use the ?_crestapi query string to generate a CREST API descriptor.


Chapter 2. Installation in Detail

For information about how to quickly install and configure IG, see Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide. This chapter contains information about how to do the following tasks:

Before you begin to install or configure IG, make sure that you are using a supported container and version of Java. For information about requirements for running IG, see Chapter 2, "Before You Install" in the Release Notes.

2.1. Configuring Deployment Containers

This section provides installation and configuration tips that you need to run IG in supported containers.

For the full list of supported containers see Section 2.3, "Web Application Containers" in the Release Notes.

For information about advanced configuration for a container, see the container documentation.

2.1.1. About Securing Connections

IG is often deployed to replay credentials or other security information. In a real world deployment, that information must be communicated over a secure connection using HTTPS, meaning in effect HTTP over encrypted Transport Layer Security (TLS). Never send real credentials, bearer tokens, or other security information unprotected over HTTP.

When IG is acting as a server, the web application container where IG runs is responsible for setting up TLS connections with client applications that connect to IG. For details, see Section 2.1.3.2, "Configuring Jetty For HTTPS (Server-Side)" or Section 2.1.2.2, "Configuring Tomcat For HTTPS (Server-Side)".

When IG is acting as a client, the ClientHandler configuration governs TLS connections from IG to other servers. For details, see Section 2.6, "Configuring IG For HTTPS (Client-Side)" and ClientHandler(5) in the Configuration Reference.

TLS depends on the use of digital certificates (public keys). In typical use of TLS, the client authenticates the server by its X.509 digital certificate as the first step to establishing communication. Once trust is established, then the client and server can set up a symmetric key to encrypt communications.

In order for the client to trust the server certificate, the client needs first to trust the certificate of the party who signed the server's certificate. This means that either the client has a trusted copy of the signer's certificate, or the client has a trusted copy of the certificate of the party who signed the signer's certificate.

Certificate Authorities (CAs) are trusted signers with well-known certificates. Browsers generally ship with many well-known CA certificates. Java distributions also ship with many well-known CA certificates. Getting a certificate signed by a well-known CA is often expensive.

It is also possible for you to self-sign certificates. The trade-off is that although there is no monetary expense, the certificate is not trusted by any clients until they have a copy. Whereas it is often enough to install a certificate signed by a well-known CA in the server keystore as the basis of trust for HTTPS connections, self-signed certificates must also be installed in all clients.

Like self-signed certificates, the signing certificates of less well-known CAs are also unlikely to be found in the default truststore. You might therefore need to install those signing certificates on the client side as well.

This guide describes how to install self-signed certificates, which are certainly fine for trying out the software and okay for deployments where you manage all clients that access IG. If you need a well-known CA-signed certificate instead, see the documentation for your container for details on requesting a CA signature and installing the CA-signed certificate.

Once certificates are properly installed to allow client-server trust, also consider the cipher suites configured for use. The cipher suite used determines the security settings for the communication. Initial TLS negotiations bring the client and server to agreement on which cipher suite to use. Basically the client and server share their preferred cipher suites to compare and to choose. If you therefore have a preference concerning the cipher suites to use, you must set up your container to use only your preferred cipher suites. Otherwise the container is likely to inherit the list of cipher suites from the underlying Java environment.

The Java Secure Socket Extension (JSSE), part of the Java environment, provides security services that IG uses to secure connections. You can set security and system properties to configure the JSSE. For a list of properties you can use to customize the JSSE in Oracle Java, see the Customization section of the JSSE Reference Guide.

2.1.2. Apache Tomcat For IG

This section describes essential Tomcat configuration that you need in order to run IG.

Download and install a supported version of Tomcat from http://tomcat.apache.org/.

Important

If you use startup scripts to bootstrap the IG web container, the scripts can start the container process with a different user. To prevent errors, make sure that the location of the IG configuration is correct. Alternatively, adapt the startup scripts to specify the OPENIG_BASE env variable or openig.base system properties, taking care to set file permissions correctly.

If you start and stop the IG web container yourself, the default location of the IG configuration files is correct. By default, IG configuration files are located under $HOME/.openig on Linux, Mac, and UNIX systems, and under %appdata%\OpenIG on Windows.

Configure Tomcat to use the same protocol as the application you are protecting with IG. If the protected application is on a remote system, configure Tomcat to use the same port as well. If your application listens on both an HTTP and an HTTPS port, then you must configure Tomcat to do so, too.

To configure Tomcat to use an HTTP port other than 8080, modify the defaults in /path/to/tomcat/conf/server.xml. Search for the default value of 8080 and replace it with the new port number.

2.1.2.2. Configuring Tomcat For HTTPS (Server-Side)

To get Tomcat up quickly on an SSL port, add an entry similar to the following in /path/to/tomcat/conf/server.xml:

<Connector
 port="8443"
 protocol="HTTP/1.1"
 SSLEnabled="true"
 maxThreads="150"
 scheme="https"
 secure="true"
 address="127.0.0.1"
 clientAuth="false"
 sslProtocol="TLS"
 keystoreFile="/path/to/tomcat/conf/keystore"
 keystorePass="password"
/>

Also create a keystore holding a self-signed certificate:

$ keytool \
 -genkey \
 -alias tomcat \
 -keyalg RSA \
 -keystore /path/to/tomcat/conf/keystore \
 -storepass password \
 -keypass password \
 -dname "CN=openig.example.com,O=Example Corp,C=FR"

Note

Because KeyStore converts all characters in its key aliases to lower case, use only lowercase in alias definitions of a KeyStore.

Notice the keystore file location and the keystore password both match the configuration. By default, Tomcat looks for a certificate with alias tomcat.

Restart Tomcat to read the configuration changes.

Browsers generally do not trust self-signed certificates. To work with a certificate signed instead by a trusted CA, see the Tomcat documentation on configuring HTTPS.

2.1.2.3. Configuring Tomcat to Access MySQL Over JNDI

If IG accesses an SQL database, then you must configure Tomcat to access the database using Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI). To do so, you must add the driver .jar for the database, set up a JNDI data source, and set up a reference to that data source.

The following steps are for MySQL Connector/J:

  1. Download the MySQL JDBC Driver Connector/J from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/connector/j.

  2. Copy the driver .jar to /path/to/tomcat/lib/ so that it is on Tomcat's class path.

  3. Add a JNDI data source for your MySQL server and database in /path/to/tomcat/conf/context.xml:

    <Resource
     name="jdbc/forgerock"
     auth="Container"
     type="javax.sql.DataSource"
     maxActive="100"
     maxIdle="30"
     maxWait="10000"
     username="mysqladmin"
     password="password"
     driverClassName="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"
     url="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/databasename"
    />
    
  4. Add a resource reference to the data source in /path/to/tomcat/conf/web.xml:

    <resource-ref>
        <description>MySQL Connection</description>
        <res-ref-name>jdbc/forgerock</res-ref-name>
        <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type>
        <res-auth>Container</res-auth>
    </resource-ref>
    
  5. Restart Tomcat to read the configuration changes.

2.1.3. Jetty For IG

This section describes essential Jetty configuration that you need in order to run IG.

Download and install a supported version of Jetty from https://www.eclipse.org/jetty/download.html.

Configure Jetty to use the same protocol as the application you are protecting with IG. If the protected application is on a remote system, configure Jetty to use the same port as well. If your application listens on both an HTTP and an HTTPS port, then you must configure Jetty to do so as well.

To configure Jetty to use an HTTP port other than 8080, modify the defaults in /path/to/jetty/etc/jetty.xml. Search for the default value of 8080 and replace it with the new port number.

2.1.3.2. Configuring Jetty For HTTPS (Server-Side)

This section describes how to set up Jetty to run IG over HTTPS.

These instructions are for Jetty 9.4.7, and are not compatible with earlier versions of Jetty. For more information about Jetty and HTTPS, see http://www.eclipse.org/jetty/documentation/current/configuring-ssl.html#configuring-sslcontextfactory.

Procedure 2.1. To Configure Jetty for HTTPS
  1. Remove the built-in keystore:

    $ rm /path/to/jetty/modules/ssl/keystore

  2. Generate a new key pair with self-signed certificate in the keystore:

    $ keytool \
    -genkey \
    -alias jetty \
    -keyalg RSA \
    -keystore /path/to/jetty/modules/ssl/keystore \
    -storepass password \
    -keypass password \
    -dname "CN=openig.example.com,O=Example Corp,C=FR"

    Note

    Because KeyStore converts all characters in its key aliases to lower case, use only lowercase in alias definitions of a KeyStore.

  3. From /path/to/jetty/, create the start.d folder and its scripts:

    $ java -jar start.jar --create-startd
    MKDIR : ${jetty.base}/start.d
    INFO  : Base directory was modified

    The file /path/to/jetty/start.d/start.ini is created.

  4. Enable the SSL module, and copy the keystore to etc:

    $ java -jar start.jar --add-to-start=ssl
    INFO  : ssl initialized in ${jetty.base}/start.d/ssl.ini
    COPY  : ${jetty.base}/modules/ssl/keystore to ${jetty.base}/etc/keystore
    INFO  : Base directory was modified

    The file /path/to/jetty/start.d/ssl.ini is created.

  5. Update the SSL module:

    1. Find the obfuscated form of the keystore password:

      $ java \
       -cp /path/to/jetty/lib/jetty-util-*.jar \
       org.eclipse.jetty.util.security.Password \
       password
      password
      OBF:1v2j1uum1xtv1zej1zer1xtn1uvk1v1v
      MD5:5f4dcc3b5aa765d61d8327deb882cf99
    2. In /path/to/jetty/start.d/ssl.ini, uncomment the following lines and update the passwords with the OBF password returned in the previous step:

      ## Connector port to listen on
      jetty.ssl.port=8443
      
      ## Keystore file path (relative to $jetty.base)
      jetty.sslContext.keyStorePath=etc/keystore
      
      ## Keystore password
      jetty.sslContext.keyStorePassword=OBF:1v2j1uum1xtv1zej1zer1xtn1uvk1v1v
      
      ## KeyManager password
      jetty.sslContext.keyManagerPassword=OBF:1v2j1uum1xtv1zej1zer1xtn1uvk1v1v
  6. Enable the HTTPS module:

    $ java -jar start.jar --add-to-start=https
    INFO  : https initialized in ${jetty.base}/start.d/https.ini
    INFO  : Base directory was modified

    The file /path/to/jetty/start.d/https.ini is created.

  7. Restart Jetty:

    $ java -jar start.jar
    . . .
    2017-09-26 16:13:22.783:INFO:oejs.Server:main: Started @3782ms
    

    Jetty starts up.

  8. Copy the IG .war file to /path/to/jetty/webapps/root.war, and make sure that you can access IG Studio on https://openig.example.com:8443/openig/studio.

    If you see warnings that the site is not secure, or that the self-signed certificate is not valid, respond to the warnings to access the site.

2.1.3.3. Configuring Jetty to Access MySQL Over JNDI

If IG accesses an SQL database, then you must configure Jetty to access the database over JNDI. To do so, you must add the driver .jar for the database, set up a JNDI data source, and set up a reference to that data source.

The following steps are for MySQL Connector/J:

  1. Download the MySQL JDBC Driver Connector/J from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/connector/j.

  2. Copy the driver .jar to /path/to/jetty/lib/jndi/ so that it is on Jetty's class path.

  3. Add a JNDI data source for your MySQL server and database in /path/to/jetty/etc/jetty.xml:

    <New id="jdbc/forgerock" class="org.eclipse.jetty.plus.jndi.Resource">
      <Arg></Arg>
      <Arg>jdbc/forgerock</Arg>
      <Arg>
        <New class="com.mysql.jdbc.jdbc2.optional.MysqlConnectionPoolDataSource">
          <Set name="Url">jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/databasename</Set>
          <Set name="User">mysqladmin</Set>
          <Set name="Password">password</Set>
        </New>
      </Arg>
    </New>
    
  4. Add a resource reference to the data source in /path/to/jetty/etc/webdefault.xml:

    <resource-ref>
        <description>MySQL Connection</description>
        <res-ref-name>jdbc/forgerock</res-ref-name>
        <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type>
        <res-auth>Container</res-auth>
    </resource-ref>
    
  5. Restart Jetty to read the configuration changes.

2.1.4. JBoss EAP For IG

This section describes a basic JBoss configuration to run IG.

Procedure 2.2. To Install IG in JBoss
  1. Download and install a supported version of JBoss from https://developers.redhat.com/products/eap/download/.

    For information about supported versions, see Chapter 2, "Before You Install" in the Release Notes.

  2. Delete the JBoss welcome-content handler in the JBoss configuration file /path/to/jboss/standalone/configuration/standalone.xml:

    <server name="default-server">
      <host name="default-host" alias="localhost">
        <location name="/" handler="welcome-content"/> <!-- Delete this line -->

  3. Download IG-5.5.0.war from the ForgeRock BackStage download site and move it to the JBoss deployment directory:

    $ cp IG-5.5.0.war /path/to/jboss/standalone/deployments/IG-5.5.0.war

  4. (Optional) Add IG configuration:

    • To configure IG in the filesystem, edit /path/to/jboss/bin/standalone.conf. For example, add the IG base to the file:

      export OPENIG_BASE="/path/to/openig"

    • To configure IG at startup, add the configuration to the startup command. For example, add the IG base to the startup command:

      $ /path/to/jboss/bin/standalone.sh -Dopenig.base=/path/to/openig

  5. Start JBoss as a standalone server:

    $ /path/to/jboss/bin/standalone.sh

    JBoss deploys IG in the root context.

  6. Make sure that IG is running:

2.1.4.2. Configuring JBoss For HTTPS (Server-Side)

Configure JBoss for HTTPS, depending on the requirements of application you are protecting with IG.

If the protected application listens on both an HTTP and an HTTPS port, configure JBoss to listen on both ports.

2.2. Preparing the Network

Because IG uses reverse proxy architecture, you must configure the network so that that traffic from the browser to the protected application goes through IG.

Modify DNS or host file settings so that the host name of the protected application resolves to the IP address of IG on the system where the browser runs.

Restart the browser after making this change.

2.3. Installing IG

This section describes a basic installation in Jetty or Tomcat. For information about installing in JBoss, see see Section 2.1.4, "JBoss EAP For IG".

Follow these steps to install IG:

  1. Download IG-5.5.0.war from the ForgeRock BackStage download site .

  2. Copy (or move) and rename the .war file to the root context of the web application container:

    • For Jetty, name the .war file root.war. Jetty automatically deploys IG in the root context on startup.

    • For Tomcat, name the .war file ROOT.war.

    • For JBoss, see Section 2.1.4, "JBoss EAP For IG".

    Important

    If you use startup scripts to bootstrap the IG web container, the scripts can start the container process with a different user. To prevent errors, make sure that the location of the IG configuration is correct. Alternatively, adapt the startup scripts to specify the OPENIG_BASE env variable or openig.base system properties, taking care to set file permissions correctly.

    If you start and stop the IG web container yourself, the default location of the IG configuration files is correct. By default, IG configuration files are located under $HOME/.openig on Linux, Mac, and UNIX systems, and under %appdata%\OpenIG on Windows.

  3. Prepare your IG configuration files.

    For information about configuration files, see Section 1.3, "Configuration Directories and Files". For information about how to change the default location of the configuration files, see Section 2.4, "Changing the Default Location of the Configuration Folders".

    If you have not yet prepared configuration files, then start with the configuration described in Section 2.5, "Trying IG With a Simple Configuration" in the Getting Started Guide.

    Copy the template to $HOME/.openig/config/config.json. Replace the baseURI of the DispatchHandler with that of the protected application.

    On Windows, copy the template to %appdata%\OpenIG\config\config.json. To locate the %appdata% folder for your version of Windows, open Windows Explorer, type %appdata% as the file path, and press Enter. You must create the %appdata%\OpenIG\config folder, and then add the configuration file.

  4. Start the web container where IG is deployed.

  5. Browse to the protected application.

    IG should now proxy all traffic to the application.

  6. Make sure the browser is going through IG.

    Verify this in one of the following ways:

    • Follow these steps:

      1. Stop the IG web container.

      2. Verify that you cannot browse to the protected application.

      3. Start the IG web container.

      4. Verify that you can now browse to the protected application again.

    • Check the logs to see that traffic is going through IG.

2.4. Changing the Default Location of the Configuration Folders

Change $HOME/.openig (or %appdata%\OpenIG) from the default location in the following ways:

  • Set the OPENIG_BASE environment variable to the full path to the base location for IG files:

    # On Linux, macOS, and UNIX using Bash
    $ export OPENIG_BASE=/path/to/openig
    
    # On Windows
    C:>set OPENIG_BASE=c:\path\to\openig
  • Set the openig.base Java system property to the full path to the base location for IG files when starting the web application container where IG runs, as in the following example that starts Jetty server in the foreground:

    $ java -Dopenig.base=/path/to/openig -jar start.jar

2.5. Preparing For Load Balancing and Failover

For a high scale or highly available deployment, you can prepare a pool of IG servers with nearly identical configurations, and then load balance requests across the pool, routing around any servers that become unavailable. Load balancing allows the service to handle more load.

Before you spread requests across multiple servers, however, you must determine what to do with state information that IG saves in the context, or retrieves locally from the IG server system. If information is retrieved locally, then consider setting up failover. If one server becomes unavailable, another server in the pool can take its place. The benefit of failover is that a server failure can be invisible to client applications.

IG can save state information in several ways:

  • Handlers including a SamlFederationHandler or a custom ScriptableHandler can store information in the context. Most handlers depend on information in the context, some of which is first stored by IG.

  • Some filters, such as AssignmentFilters, HeaderFilters, OAuth2ClientFilters, OAuth2ResourceServerFilters, ScriptableFilters, SqlAttributesFilters, and StaticRequestFilters, can store information in the context. Most filters depend on information in the request, response, or context, some of which is first stored by IG.

IG can also retrieve information locally in several ways:

  • Some filters and handlers, such as FileAttributesFilters, ScriptableFilters, ScriptableHandlers, and SqlAttributesFilters, can depend on local system files or container configuration.

By default, the context data resides in memory in the container where IG runs. This includes the default session implementation, which is backed by the HttpSession that the container handles. You can opt to store session data on the user-agent instead, however. For details and to consider whether your data fits, see JwtSession(5) in the Configuration Reference.

When you use the JwtSession implementation with a cookieDomain set, be sure to share the encryption keys and the sharedSecret across all IG configurations so that any server can read or update JWT cookies from any other server in the same cookieDomain.

If your data does not fit in an HTTP cookie, for example, because when encrypted it is larger than 4 KB, consider storing a reference in the cookie, and then retrieve the data by using another filter. IG logs warning messages if the JwtSession cookie is too large. Using a reference can also work when a server becomes unavailable, and the load balancer must fail requests over to another server in the pool.

If some data attached to a context must be stored on the server side, then you have additional configuration steps to perform for session stickiness and for session replication. Session stickiness means that the load balancer sends all requests from the same client session to the same server. Session stickiness helps to ensure that a client request goes to the server holding the original session data. Session replication involves writing session data either to other servers or to a data store, so that if one server goes down, other servers can read the session data and continue processing. Session replication helps when one server fails, allowing another server to take its place without having to start the session over again. If you set up session stickiness but not session replication, when a server crashes, the client session information for that server is lost, and the client must start again with a new session.

How you configure session stickiness and session replication depends on your load balancer and on your container.

Tomcat can help with session stickiness, and a Tomcat cluster can handle session replication:

  • If you choose to use the Tomcat connector (mod_jk) on your web server to perform load balancing, then see the LoadBalancer HowTo for details.

    In the HowTo, you configure the jvmRoute attribute in the Tomcat server configuration, /path/to/tomcat/conf/server.xml, to identify the server. The connector can use this identifier to achieve session stickiness.

  • A Tomcat cluster configuration can handle session replication. When setting up a cluster configuration, the ClusterManager defines the session replication implementation.

Jetty has provisions for session stickiness, and also for session replication through clustering:

  • Jetty's persistent session mechanism appends a node ID to the session ID in the same way Tomcat appends the jvmRoute value to the session cookie. This can be useful for session stickiness if your load balancer examines the session ID.

  • Session Clustering with a Database describes how to configure Jetty to persist sessions over JDBC, allowing session replication.

    Unless it is set up to be highly available, the database can be a single point of failure in this case.

  • Session Clustering with MongoDB describes how to configure Jetty to persist sessions in MongoDB, allowing session replication.

    The Jetty documentation recommends this implementation when session data is seldom written but often read.

2.6. Configuring IG For HTTPS (Client-Side)

For IG to connect to a server securely over HTTPS, IG must be able to trust the server. The default settings rely on the Java environment truststore to trust server certificates. The Java environment default truststore includes public key signing certificates from many well-known Certificate Authorities (CAs). If all servers present certificates signed by these CAs, then you have nothing to configure.

If, however, the server certificates are self-signed or signed by a CA whose certificate is not trusted out of the box, then you can configure a KeyStore and a TrustManager, and optionally, a KeyManager to reference when configuring an ClientHandler to enable IG to trust servers when acting as a client.

For details, see:

The KeyStore holds the servers' certificates or the CA's signing certificate. The TrustManager allows IG to handle the certificates in the KeyStore when deciding whether to trust a server certificate. The optional KeyManager allows IG to present its certificate from the keystore when the server must authenticate IG as client. The ClientHandler references whatever TrustManager and KeyManager you configure.

You can configure each of these either globally, for the IG server, or locally, for a particular ClientHandler configuration.

The Java KeyStore holds the peer servers' public key certificates (and optionally, the IG certificate and private key). For example, suppose you have a certificate file, ca.crt, that holds the trusted signer's certificate of the CA who signed the server certificates of the servers in your deployment. In that case, you could import the certificate into a Java Keystore file, /path/to/keystore.jks:

$ keytool \
 -import \
 -trustcacerts \
 -keystore /path/to/keystore \
 -file ca.crt \
 -alias ca-cert \
 -storepass changeit

Note

Because KeyStore converts all characters in its key aliases to lower case, use only lowercase in alias definitions of a KeyStore.

You could then configure the following KeyStore for IG that holds the trusted certificate. Notice that the url field takes an expression that evaluates to a URL, starting with a scheme such as file://:

{
    "name": "MyKeyStore",
    "type": "KeyStore",
    "config": {
        "url": "file:///path/to/keystore",
        "password": "changeit"
    }
}

The TrustManager handles the certificates in the KeyStore when deciding whether to trust the server certificate. The TrustManager references your KeyStore:

{
    "name": "MyTrustManager",
    "type": "TrustManager",
    "config": {
        "keystore": "MyKeyStore"
    }
}

The ClientHandler configuration has the following security settings:

"trustManager"

This references the TrustManager.

Recall that you must configure this when your server certificates are not trusted out of the box.

"hostnameVerifier"

This defines how the ClientHandler verifies host names in server certificates.

By default, host name verification is turned off.

"keyManager"

This references the optional KeyManager.

Configure this if servers request that IG present its certificate as part of mutual authentication.

In that case, generate a key pair for IG, and have the certificate signed by a well-known CA. For instructions, see the documentation for the Java keytool command. You can use a different keystore for the KeyManager than you use for the TrustManager.

The following ClientHandler configuration references MyTrustManager and sets strict host name verification:

{
    "name": "ClientHandler",
    "type": "ClientHandler",
    "config": {
        "hostnameVerifier": "STRICT",
        "trustManager": "MyTrustManager"
    }
}

2.7. Setting Up Keys For JWT Encryption

You can use a JSON Web Token (JWT) session, JwtSession, to configure IG as described in JwtSession(5) in the Configuration Reference. A JwtSession stores session information in JWT cookies on the user-agent, rather than storing the information in the container where IG runs.

In order to encrypt the JWTs, IG needs cryptographic keys. IG can generate its own key pair in memory, but that key pair disappears on restart and cannot be shared across IG servers. Alternatively, IG can use keys from a keystore.

The following procedure prepares a keystore for JWT encryption in a deployment with one IG instance. For a deployment with more than one IG instance, also configure a "sharedSecret" as described in JwtSession(5) in the Configuration Reference.

Procedure 2.3. To Prepare a Keystore for JWT Encryption
  1. Generate the key pair in a new keystore file by using the Java keytool command.

    The following command generates a Java Keystore format file, /path/to/keystore.jks, holding a key pair with alias jwe-key. Notice that both the keystore and the private key have the same password:

    $ keytool \
     -genkey \
     -alias jwe-key \
     -keyalg rsa \
     -keystore /path/to/keystore.jks \
     -storepass changeit \
     -keypass changeit \
     -dname "CN=openig.example.com,O=Example Corp"

    Note

    Because KeyStore converts all characters in its key aliases to lower case, use only lowercase in alias definitions of a KeyStore.

  2. Add a KeyStore to your configuration that references the keystore file:

    {
        "name": "MyKeyStore",
        "type": "KeyStore",
        "config": {
            "url": "file:///path/to/keystore.jks",
            "password": "changeit"
        }
    }

    For details, see KeyStore(5) in the Configuration Reference.

  3. Add a JwtSession to your configuration that references your KeyStore:

    {
        "name": "MyJwtSession",
        "type": "JwtSession",
        "config": {
            "keystore": "MyKeyStore",
            "alias": "jwe-key",
            "password": "changeit",
            "cookieName": "IG",
            "cookieDomain": ".example.com"
        }
    }

    For a deployment with more than one IG instance, also configure a "sharedSecret" as described in JwtSession(5) in the Configuration Reference.

  4. Specify your JwtSession object in the top-level configuration, or in the route configuration:

    "session": "MyJwtSession"

2.8. Making the Configuration Immutable

IG operates in development mode (mutable mode) and production mode (immutable mode):

Development mode

Use development mode to evaluate or demo IG, or to develop configurations on a single instance. This mode is not suitable for production.

In development mode, by default all endpoints are open and accessible. You can create, edit, and deploy routes through IG Studio, and manage routes through Common REST, without authentication or authorization.

To protect specific endpoints in development mode, configure an ApiProtectionFilter in admin.json and add it to the IG configuration.

Production mode

After you have developed your configuration, switch to production mode to test the configuration, to run the software in pre-production or production, or to run multiple instances of the software with the same configuration.

In production mode, the /routes endpoint is not exposed or accessible. IG Studio is effectively disabled, and you cannot manage, list, or even read routes through Common REST.

By default, other endpoints, such as /monitoring, /share, and api/info are exposed to the loopback address only. To change the default protection for specific endpoints, configure an ApiProtectionFilter in admin.json and add it to the IG configuration.

Procedure 2.4. To Switch From Development Mode to Production Mode

By default, IG operates in development mode. After creating your configuration in development mode, switch to production mode to prevent any unwanted changes:

  1. Add the following file to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/admin.json.

    On Windows, add the file to %appdata%\OpenIG\config:

    {
      "mode": "PRODUCTION"
    }

    The file changes the operating mode from the default value of DEVELOPMENT, used when you don't provide an admin.json file, to PRODUCTION.

    For more information, see AdminHttpApplication(5) in the Configuration Reference.

  2. Prevent routes from being reloaded after startup:

    • To prevent all routes in the configuration from being reloaded, edit the main router in config.json.

    • To prevent individual routes from being reloaded, edit the routers in those routes.

    {
      "type": "Router",
      "config": {
        "scanInterval": "disabled"
      }
    }

    For more information, see Router(5) in the Configuration Reference.

  3. Restart IG.

    When IG starts up, the routes endpoint is not available and is not displayed in the log. When you try to access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio, an HTTP 404 is returned.

Chapter 3. Getting Login Credentials From Data Sources

In Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide you learned how to configure IG to proxy traffic and capture request and response data. You also learned how to configure IG to use a static request to log in with hard-coded credentials. In this chapter, you will learn to:

  • Configure IG to look up credentials in a file

  • Configure IG to look up credentials in a relational database

3.1. Before You Start

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

3.2. Log in With Credentials From a File

This sample shows you how to configure IG to get credentials from a file.

The sample uses a comma-separated value file, userfile:

username,password,fullname,email
george,costanza,George Costanza,george@example.com
kramer,newman,Kramer,kramer@example.com
bjensen,hifalutin,Babs Jensen,bjensen@example.com
demo,changeit,Demo User,demo@example.com
kvaughan,bribery,Kirsten Vaughan,kvaughan@example.com
scarter,sprain,Sam Carter,scarter@example.com

IG looks up the user credentials based on the user's email address. IG uses a FileAttributesFilter to look up the credentials.

Follow these steps to set up log in with credentials from a file:

  1. Add the user file on your system:

    $ vi /tmp/userfile
    $ cat /tmp/userfile
    username,password,fullname,email
    george,costanza,George Costanza,george@example.com
    kramer,newman,Kramer,kramer@example.com
    bjensen,hifalutin,Babs Jensen,bjensen@example.com
    demo,changeit,Demo User,demo@example.com
    kvaughan,bribery,Kirsten Vaughan,kvaughan@example.com
    scarter,sprain,Sam Carter,scarter@example.com
    
        

    On Windows systems, use an appropriate path such as C:\Temp\userfile.

  2. Add a new route to the IG configuration to obtain the credentials from the file.

    To add the route, add the following route configuration file as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/02-file.json:

    {
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "PasswordReplayFilter",
              "config": {
                "loginPage": "${true}",
                "credentials": {
                  "type": "FileAttributesFilter",
                  "config": {
                    "file": "/tmp/userfile",
                    "key": "email",
                    "value": "george@example.com",
                    "target": "${attributes.credentials}"
                  }
                },
                "request": {
                  "method": "POST",
                  "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
                  "form": {
                    "username": [
                      "${attributes.credentials.username}"
                    ],
                    "password": [
                      "${attributes.credentials.password}"
                    ]
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/file')}"
    }
    

    On Windows, the file name should be %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\02-file.json.

    Notice the following features of the new route:

    • The FileAttributesFilter specifies the file to access, the key and value to look up to retrieve the user's record, and where to store the results in the request context attributes map.

    • The PasswordReplayFilter creates a request by retrieving the username and password from the attributes map and replacing your browser's original HTTP GET request with an HTTP POST login request that contains the credentials to authenticate.

    • The route matches requests to /file.

  3. On Windows systems, edit the path name to the user file.

Now browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/file.

If everything is configured correctly, IG logs you in as George.

What's happening behind the scenes?

Figure 3.1. Log in With Credentials From a File

IG intercepts your browser's HTTP GET request. The request matches the new route configuration. The PasswordReplayFilter's FileAttributesFilter looks up credentials in a file, and stores the credentials it finds in the request context attributes map. The PasswordReplayFilter's request pulls the credentials out of the attributes map, builds the login form, and performs the HTTP POST request to the HTTP server. The HTTP server validates the credentials, and responds with a profile page. IG then passes the response from the HTTP server to your browser.

3.3. Log in With Credentials From a Database

This sample shows you how to configure IG to get credentials from H2. This sample was developed with Jetty and with H2 1.4.178.

Although this sample uses H2, IG also works with other database software. IG relies on the application server where it runs to connect to the database. Configuring IG to retrieve data from a database is therefore a question of configuring the application server to connect to the database, and configuring IG to choose the appropriate data source, and to send the appropriate SQL request to the database. As a result, the IG configuration depends more on the data structure than on any particular database drivers or connection configuration.

Procedure 3.1. Preparing the Database

Follow these steps to prepare the database:

  1. On the system where IG runs, download and unpack H2 database.

  2. Start H2:

    $ sh /path/to/h2/bin/h2.sh

    H2 starts, listening on port 8082, and opens a browser console page.

  3. In the browser console page, select Generic H2 (Server) under Saved Settings. This sets the Driver Class, org.h2.Driver, the JDBC URL, jdbc:h2:tcp://localhost/~/test, the User Name, sa.

    In the Password field, type password.

    Then click Connect to access the console.

  4. Run a statement to create a users table based on the user file from Section 3.2, "Log in With Credentials From a File".

    If you have not created the user file on your system, put the following content in /tmp/userfile:

    username,password,fullname,email
    george,costanza,George Costanza,george@example.com
    kramer,newman,Kramer,kramer@example.com
    bjensen,hifalutin,Babs Jensen,bjensen@example.com
    demo,changeit,Demo User,demo@example.com
    kvaughan,bribery,Kirsten Vaughan,kvaughan@example.com
    scarter,sprain,Sam Carter,scarter@example.com
    

    Then create the users table through the H2 console:

    DROP TABLE IF EXISTS USERS;
    CREATE TABLE USERS AS SELECT * FROM CSVREAD('/tmp/userfile');

    On success, the table should contain the same users as the file. You can check this by running SELECT * FROM users; in the H2 console.

Procedure 3.2. Preparing Jetty's Connection to the Database

Follow these steps to enable Jetty to connect to the database:

  1. Configure Jetty for JNDI.

    For the version of Jetty used in this sample, stop Jetty and add the following lines to /path/to/jetty/start.ini:

    # ===========================================================
    # Enable JNDI
    # -----------------------------------------------------------
    OPTIONS=jndi
    
    # ===========================================================
    # Enable additional webapp environment configurators
    # -----------------------------------------------------------
    OPTIONS=plus
    etc/jetty-plus.xml

    For more information, see the Jetty documentation on Configuring JNDI.

  2. Copy the H2 library to the classpath for Jetty:

    $ cp /path/to/h2/bin/h2-*.jar /path/to/jetty/lib/ext/
  3. Define a JNDI resource for H2 in /path/to/jetty/etc/jetty.xml:

    <New id="jdbc/forgerock" class="org.eclipse.jetty.plus.jndi.Resource">
      <Arg></Arg>
      <Arg>jdbc/forgerock</Arg>
      <Arg>
        <New class="org.h2.jdbcx.JdbcDataSource">
          <Set name="Url">jdbc:h2:tcp://localhost/~/test</Set>
          <Set name="User">sa</Set>
          <Set name="Password">password</Set>
        </New>
      </Arg>
    </New>
    
  4. Add a resource reference to the data source in /path/to/jetty/etc/webdefault.xml:

    <resource-ref>
        <res-ref-name>jdbc/forgerock</res-ref-name>
        <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type>
        <res-auth>Container</res-auth>
    </resource-ref>
    
  5. Restart Jetty to take the configuration changes into account.

Procedure 3.3. Preparing the IG Configuration

Add a new route to the IG configuration to look up credentials in the database:

  1. To add the route, add the following route configuration file as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/03-sql.json:

    {
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "PasswordReplayFilter",
              "config": {
                "loginPage": "${true}",
                "credentials": {
                  "type": "SqlAttributesFilter",
                  "config": {
                    "dataSource": "java:comp/env/jdbc/forgerock",
                    "preparedStatement":
                    "SELECT username, password FROM users WHERE email = ?;",
                    "parameters": [
                      "george@example.com"
                    ],
                    "target": "${attributes.sql}"
                  }
                },
                "request": {
                  "method": "POST",
                  "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
                  "form": {
                    "username": [
                      "${attributes.sql.USERNAME}"
                    ],
                    "password": [
                      "${attributes.sql.PASSWORD}"
                    ]
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/sql')}"
    }
    

    On Windows, the file name should be %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\03-sql.json.

  2. Notice the following features of the new route:

    • The SqlAttributesFilter specifies the data source to access, a prepared statement to look up the user's record, a parameter to pass into the statement, and where to store the search results in the request context attributes map.

    • The PasswordReplayFilter's request retrieves the username and password from the attributes map and replaces your browser's original HTTP GET request with an HTTP POST login request that contains the credentials to authenticate.

      Notice that the request is for username, password, and that H2 returns the fields as USERNAME and PASSWORD. The configuration reflects this difference.

    • The route matches requests to /sql.

Procedure 3.4. To Try Logging in With Credentials From a Database

With H2, Jetty, and IG correctly configured, you can try it out:

What's happening behind the scenes?

Figure 3.2. Log in With Credentials From a Database

IG intercepts your browser's HTTP GET request. The request matches the new route configuration. The PasswordReplayFilter's SqlAttributesFilter looks up credentials in H2, and stores the credentials it finds in the request context attributes map. The PasswordReplayFilter's request pulls the credentials out of the attributes map, builds the login form, and performs the HTTP POST request to the HTTP server. The HTTP server validates the credentials, and responds with a profile page. IG then passes the response from the HTTP server to your browser.

Chapter 4. Getting Login Credentials From Access Management

IG helps integrate applications with AM's password capture and replay feature. This feature of AM is typically used to integrate with Microsoft Outlook Web Access (OWA) or SharePoint by capturing the password during AM authentication, encrypting it, and adding to the session, which is later decrypted and used for Basic Authentication to OWA or SharePoint. In this chapter, you will learn:

  • How AM password capture and replay works

  • To configure IG to obtain credentials from AM authentication

  • To use the credentials to log the user in to a protected application

4.1. Detailed Flow

The following figure illustrates the flow of requests for a user who is not yet logged into AM accessing a protected application. After successful authentication, the user is logged into the application with the username and password from the AM login session.

Figure 4.1. Log in With Credentials Captured by AM

  1. The user sends a browser request to access a protected application.

  2. The AM policy agent protecting IG intercepts the request.

  3. The policy agent redirects the browser to AM.

  4. AM authenticates the user, capturing the login credentials, storing the password in encrypted form in the user's session.

  5. After authentication, AM redirects the browser...

  6. ...back to the protected application.

  7. The AM policy agent protecting IG intercepts the request, validates the user session with AM (not shown here), adds the username and encrypted password to headers in the request, and passes the request to IG.

  8. IG retrieves the credentials from the headers, and uses the username and decrypted password to replace the request with an HTTP POST of the login form.

  9. The application validates the login credentials.

  10. The application sends a response back to IG.

  11. IG passes the response from the application back to the user's browser.

4.2. Setup Summary

Table 4.1. Tasks for Configuring Policy Enforcement
TaskSee Section(s)

Create a file containing the password that is to be captured by the policy agent and shared with IG.

Procedure 4.1, "To Create a Password File"

Create a DES shared key to decrypt the password shared by AM and IG.

Procedure 4.2, "To Create a DES Shared Key In IG"

Set up a sample user in AM.

Procedure 4.3, "To Set Up a Sample User in AM"

Create a profile for a J2EE policy agent in AM.

Procedure 4.4, "To Create a Policy Agent Profile in AM"

Configure password capture and add the DES key to the AM configuration.

Procedure 4.5, "To Configure Password Capture in AM"

Install the AM policy agent alongside IG.

Procedure 4.6, "To Install the Policy Agent"

Create a route in IG to handle the requests.

Procedure 4.7, "To Configure IG for Password Replay"

Try the setup.

Procedure 4.8, "To Test the Setup"


4.3. Preparing the Tutorial

Before you start:

Procedure 4.1. To Create a Password File

Create a text file containing the password specified in Procedure 4.4, "To Create a Policy Agent Profile in AM".

  1. Create the password file:

    $ echo password > /tmp/pwd.txt

    On Windows:

    C:\> echo password > pwd.txt

  2. Protect the password file:

    $ chmod 400 /tmp/pwd.txt

    In Windows Explorer, right-click the created password file, select Read-Only, and then select OK.

Procedure 4.2. To Create a DES Shared Key In IG

In this procedure you generate a DES shared key in IG that you then use later in the AM and IG configuration.

When you configure password capture and replay, an AM policy agent shares captured passwords with IG. Before communicating passwords to IG, however, AM encrypts them with a DES shared key. IG uses the DES shared key to decrypt the shared passwords.

The shared key is sensitive information. If it is possible for others to inspect the response, make sure you use HTTPS to protect the communication.

For more information, see DesKeyGenHandler(5) in the Configuration Reference.

  1. Add the following route to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/04-keygen.json.

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\04-keygen.json:

    {
      "handler": {
        "type": "DesKeyGenHandler"
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/keygen')
                      and (matches(contexts.client.remoteAddress, ':1')
                      or matches(contexts.client.remoteAddress, '127.0.0.1'))}"
    }
    
  2. Call the route to generate a key:

    $ curl http://localhost:8080/keygen
    {"key":"1A+BCdEfGhI="}

    In this example, the key is 1A+BCdEfGhI=.

  3. Make a note of the key for later.

4.4. Setting Up AM for Password Replay

Procedure 4.3. To Set Up a Sample User in AM

If you haven't set up the user George Costanza in a previous tutorial, do so now.

  1. In the AM console, select the top level realm and browse to Subjects.

  2. Click New and create a user with the following values:

    • ID: george

    • Last Name: costanza

    • Full Name: george costanza

    • Password: costanza

Procedure 4.4. To Create a Policy Agent Profile in AM

For more information about configuring policy agents in AM, see Configuring Java EE Policy Agents in the ForgeRock Access Management Java EE Policy Agent User's Guide.

  1. In the top-level realm, select Applications > Agents > J2EE.

  2. Add an agent with the following values:

    • Name: JavaEE

    • Password: password

    • Server URL: http://openam.example.com:8088/openam

    • Agent URL: http://openig.example.com:8080/agentapp

  3. Edit the agent profile to add these settings, making sure to save your changes in each tab:

    • On the Global settings tab, select General, and change the Agent Filter Mode from ALL to SSO_ONLY.

    • On the Application tab, select Session Attributes Processing, and change the following values:

      • Session Attribute Fetch Mode: Change from NONE to HTTP_HEADER.

      • Session Attribute Mapping: Add [UserToken]=username and [sunIdentityUserPassword]=password.

    Note

    If you plan to use ForgeRock Common REST to create or edit routes, on the Application tab, under Not Enforced URI Processing, add /openig/api/*.

    This step adds the URL pattern for Common REST requests to the list of not-enforced URIs. The policy agent bypasses requests that match this URL pattern, granting them access without requiring authentication.

    For information about managing routes through Common REST, see Section 11.3, " Creating and Editing Routes Through Common REST ".

Procedure 4.5. To Configure Password Capture in AM

For more information about configuring policy agents in AM, see Configuring Java EE Policy Agents in the ForgeRock Access Management Java EE Policy Agent User's Guide.

  1. Update the Authentication Post Processing Classes for password replay.

    1. In the top level realm, select Authentication > Settings > Post Authentication Processing.

    2. Add the following class to Authentication Post Processing Classes, and then save the changes: com.sun.identity.authentication.spi.ReplayPasswd.

  2. Add the key you created in Procedure 4.2, "To Create a DES Shared Key In IG" to the AM configuration:

    1. In the AM console, select DEPLOYMENT > Servers, and then select the AM server name.

      In some earlier releases, select Configuration > Servers and Sites.

    2. Select Advanced, and add the property com.sun.am.replaypasswd.key with the value of the DES shared key.

  3. Restart AM.

4.5. Installing the AM Policy Agent

Procedure 4.6. To Install the Policy Agent

For more information about how to install the AM policy agent, see To Install the Policy Agent into Jetty in the ForgeRock Access Management Java EE Policy Agent User's Guide.

  1. Make sure that IG is stopped and AM is running.

  2. Download and then unzip the AM Java EE policy agent in the directory alongside IG. For example, in the /path/to directory.

    A /path/to/j2ee_agents directory is created.

  3. Install the agent with a command similar to this:

    $ /path/to/j2ee_agents/jetty_v7_agent/bin/agentadmin --install --acceptLicense

    You are prompted to enter information about the installation.

  4. Answer the prompts with the following hints:

    • Jetty Server Config Directory: /path/to/jetty/etc

    • Jetty installation directory: /path/to/jetty

    • AM server URL: http://openam.example.com:8088/openam

    • Agent URL: http://openig.example.com:8080/agentapp

    • Agent Profile Name: JavaEE

    • Agent Profile Password file name : /tmp/pwd.txt

  5. Add the following filter configuration to /path/to/jetty/etc/webdefault.xml:

    <filter>
      <filter-name>Agent</filter-name>
      <display-name>Agent</display-name>
      <description>OpenAM Policy Agent Filter</description>
      <filter-class>com.sun.identity.agents.filter.AmAgentFilter</filter-class>
    </filter>
    
    <filter-mapping>
      <filter-name>Agent</filter-name>
      <url-pattern>/replay</url-pattern>
      <dispatcher>REQUEST</dispatcher>
      <dispatcher>INCLUDE</dispatcher>
      <dispatcher>FORWARD</dispatcher>
      <dispatcher>ERROR</dispatcher>
    </filter-mapping>
    
  6. To test the setup of the policy agent, start IG, and browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/replay.

    You should be redirected to AM for authentication, but do not log in yet.

4.6. Setting Up IG for Password Replay

Procedure 4.7. To Configure IG for Password Replay
  1. Add the following route to IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/04-replay.json:

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\04-replay.json.

    {
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "PasswordReplayFilter",
              "config": {
                "loginPage": "${true}",
                "headerDecryption": {
                  "algorithm": "DES/ECB/NoPadding",
                  "key": "DESKEY",
                  "keyType": "DES",
                  "charSet": "utf-8",
                  "headers": [
                    "password"
                  ]
                },
                "request": {
                  "method": "POST",
                  "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
                  "form": {
                    "username": [
                      "${request.headers['username'][0]}"
                    ],
                    "password": [
                      "${request.headers['password'][0]}"
                    ]
                  }
                }
              }
            },
            {
              "type": "HeaderFilter",
              "config": {
                "messageType": "REQUEST",
                "remove": [
                  "password",
                  "username"
                ]
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/replay')}"
    }
    
  2. Edit the route to change DESKEY to the actual key value that you generated in Procedure 4.2, "To Create a DES Shared Key In IG".

    Notice the following features of the new route:

    • The route matches requests to /replay.

    • The PasswordReplayFilter uses the headerDecryption information to decrypt the password that AM captured and encrypted, and that the AM policy agent included in the headers for the request.

      The headerDecryption object uses the DES shared key value that you generated.

    • The PasswordReplayFilter retrieves the username and password from the context and replaces your browser's original HTTP GET request with an HTTP POST login request that contains the credentials to authenticate.

    • The HeaderFilter removes the username and password headers before continuing to process the request.

4.7. Testing the Setup

Procedure 4.8. To Test the Setup
  1. Log out of AM if you are logged in.

  2. Access the route on http://openig.example.com:8080/replay.

    You should be redirected to the AM login page.

  3. Log in with username george, password costanza.

    The request is redirected to the sample application.

    Tip

    If requests are directed to AM instead of to the sample application, review the cookie domain in the AM configuration. For more information, see Section 17.1, "Requests Redirected to Access Management Instead of to the Resource".

Chapter 5. Enforcing Policy Decisions and Supporting Session Upgrade

This chapter describes how to set up IG as a policy enforcement point, with AM as a policy decision point. It provides an example of how to enforce a policy decision from AM, and an example of upgrading a session to a higher authentication level.

For more information about authentication and session upgrade, see AM's Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide .

5.1. About IG As a PEP With AM As PDP

The following terms are used in access management:

  • Policy Decision Point (PDP): Entity that evaluates access rights and then issues authorization decisions.

  • Policy Enforcement Point (PEP): Entity that intercepts a request for a resource and then enforces policy decisions from a PDP.

IG as a PEP intercepts requests for a resource, and provides information about the request to AM as a PDP.

AM evaluates requests based on their context and the configured policies. AM then returns decisions that indicate what actions are allowed or denied, as well as any advices, subject attributes, or static attributes for the specified resources.

After a policy decision, IG continues to process requests as follows:

  • If the request is allowed, processing continues.

  • If the request is denied with advice, IG checks whether it can respond to the advice. If IG can respond to the advice, it processes the advice.

  • If the request is denied without advice, or if IG cannot respond to the advice, IG forwards the request to a failureHandler declared in the PolicyEnforcementFilter. If there is no failureHandler, IG returns a 403 Forbidden.

  • If an error occurs during the process, IG returns 500 Internal Server Error.

Attributes and advices returned by the policy decision are stored in the attributes and advices properties of the ${contexts.policyDecision} context. They are available to the PolicyEnforcementFilter's downstream filters and handlers.

In AM, administrators can maintain centralized, fine-grained, declarative policies to manage who can access what resources, and under what conditions. Policies can be managed separately by AM realm and by AM application.

AM provides a REST API for authorized users to request policy decisions. IG provides a PolicyEnforcementFilter that uses the REST API. For information, see PolicyEnforcementFilter(5) in the Configuration Reference.

5.2. Enforcing Policy Decisions From AM

This section gives an example of how to set up IG as a PEP, requesting policy decisions from AM as a PDP.

Table 5.1. Tasks for Configuring Policy Enforcement
TaskSee Section(s)

Set up a policy in AM to allow authenticated users to access the sample application.

Procedure 5.1, "To Create a Policy in AM"

Create credentials and privileges in AM for a policy administrator. When IG requests policy decisions, it must use these credentials.

Procedure 5.2, "To Create a Policy Administrator in AM"

Configure IG as a PEP in IG Studio.

Procedure 5.3, "To Set Up IG as a PEP"

Test the setup.

Procedure 5.4, "To Test the Setup"


5.2.1. Setting Up AM As a PDP

This section describes how to create a policy in AM and configure a user who can request policy decisions.

Before you start, install and configure AM on http://openam.example.com:8088/openam, with the default configuration. If you use a different configuration, substitute in the tutorial accordingly.

Procedure 5.1. To Create a Policy in AM
  1. Log in to the AM console as administrator.

  2. In the top-level realm, select Authorization > Policy Sets.

  3. Add a new policy set with the following values, and then select Create:

    • Id: PEP policy set

    • Resource Types: URL

  4. In the new policy set, add a policy with the following values, and then select Create:

    • Name: IG Policy

    • Resource Type: URL

    • Resource pattern: *://*:*/*

    • Resource value: http://app.example.com:8081/home/pep

    This policy protects the home page of the sample application.

  5. Select the Actions tab, add an action to allow HTTP GET, and then save your changes.

  6. Select the Subjects tab, remove any default subject conditions, add a subject condition for all Authenticated Users, and then save your changes.

Procedure 5.2. To Create a Policy Administrator in AM
  1. In the top-level realm, create a subject with ID policyAdmin and password password.

  2. Create a policyAdmins group and add the user you created.

  3. In the privileges configuration for the policyAdmins group, add the privilege REST calls for policy evaluation.

    This privilege allows a subject in that group to request policy decisions.

  4. Make sure all the changes are saved.

5.2.2. Setting Up IG as a PEP

This section describes how to set up IG to configure policy enforcement, where the user agent is redirected to AM for authentication.

To configure IG without using IG Studio, add the route in the following procedure to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/04-pep.json. On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\04-pep.json.

Procedure 5.3. To Set Up IG as a PEP

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide. Make sure that your config.json has a main router named _router.

  1. Access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio, and select Protect an Application.

  2. In the Create route window, select Advanced Options and enter the following information, and then select Create route:

    • Base URI: http://app.example.com:8081

    • Condition: Path: /home/pep

    • Name: 04-pep

  3. Configure authentication:

    1. Select Authentication, and then enable it.

    2. Select Single Sign-On.

    3. Enter the following information, and then save the settings:

      • AM URL: http://openam.example.com:8088/openam

      Leave the other fields with their default values.

  4. Configure authorization:

    1. Select Authorization, and then enable it.

    2. Select OpenAM Policy Enforcement.

    3. Select the following options to reflect the configuration in Section 5.2.1, "Setting Up AM As a PDP", and then save the settings:

      • AM configuration:

        • OpenAM URL: http://openam.example.com:8088/openam

        • Policy administrator ID: policyAdmin

        • Policy administrator password: password

      • OpenAM policy endpoint:

        • Policy set: PEP policy set

        • OpenAM SSO token ID: ${contexts.ssoToken.value}

      Leave the other fields with their default values, or empty if they are empty.

  5. On the top-right of the screen, select and Display to review the route.

    The following route should be displayed:

    {
      "name": "04-pep",
      "monitor": false,
      "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/pep')}",
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "SingleSignOnFilter",
              "name": "SingleSignOnFilter-1",
              "config": {
                "openamUrl": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam",
                "realm": "/",
                "cookieName": "iPlanetDirectoryPro"
              }
            },
            {
              "type": "PolicyEnforcementFilter",
              "name": "PolicyEnforcementFilter-1",
              "config": {
                "openamUrl": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam",
                "pepUsername": "policyAdmin",
                "pepPassword": "password",
                "pepRealm": "/",
                "realm": "/",
                "application": "PEP policy set",
                "ssoTokenSubject": "${contexts.ssoToken.value}"
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      }
    }

    Notice the following features of the new route:

    • The route matches requests to /home/pep.

    • The first filter in the chain is the SingleSignOnFilter. For information, see SingleSignOnFilter(5) in the Configuration Reference.

      If the request does not have a valid iPlanetDirectoryPro cookie, the SingleSignOnFilter redirects the request to AM for authentication.

      If the request already has a valid iPlanetDirectoryPro cookie, or after authenticating with AM to get a valid iPlanetDirectoryPro cookie, the SingleSignOnFilter passes the request to the next filter. The SingleSignOnFilter stores the cookie value in an SsoTokenContext.

    • The next filter in the chain is the PolicyEnforcementFilter. For information, see PolicyEnforcementFilter(5) in the Configuration Reference.

      The PolicyEnforcementFilter retrieves the token value from the SsoTokenContext to identify the subject making the request, and then calls the AM policy endpoint for a policy decision.

  6. Select Deploy to push the route to the IG configuration.

    You can check the $HOME/.openig/config/routes folder to see that the route is there.

5.2.3. Testing the Setup

Procedure 5.4. To Test the Setup
  1. Log out of AM.

  2. Browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/home/pep.

    Because you have not previously authenticated to AM, the request does not contain a cookie with an SSO token. The SingleSignOnFilter redirects you to AM for authentication.

  3. Log in to AM as user demo, password changeit.

    When you have authenticated, AM redirects you back to the request URL, and IG requests a policy decision using the iPlanetDirectoryPro cookie value.

    AM returns a policy decision that grants access to the sample application.

    Tip

    If requests are directed to AM instead of to the sample application, review the cookie domain in the AM configuration. For more information, see Section 17.1, "Requests Redirected to Access Management Instead of to the Resource".

5.3. Upgrading a Session

This section builds on the example in Section 5.2, "Enforcing Policy Decisions From AM". The authentication level required to access the sample application is increased to level 1. After authenticating with AM, the user must upgrade the session by entering a verification code before they can access the sample application.

Table 5.2. Tasks for Configuring Session Upgrade
TaskSee Section(s)

Set up IG as a policy enforcement point and AM as a policy decision point, as described in the previous section.

Section 5.2, "Enforcing Policy Decisions From AM"

Add an environment condition to the IG policy to require authentication level 1 to access the sample application.

Procedure 5.5, "To Add an Environment Condition to the AM Policy"

Create a scripted authentication module and scripts in AM to deliver a token with authentication level 1.

Procedure 5.6, "To Set Up an Authentication Module"

Try the setup.

Procedure 5.7, "To Test the Setup"


5.3.1. Setting Up AM for Session Upgrade

This section provides an example of session upgrade. After authenticating with AM, the user must also provide a verification code to access the sample application.

To run this example, configure IG and AM as described in Section 5.2, "Enforcing Policy Decisions From AM". No additional configuration of IG is required; the following procedures build on the AM configuration.

Procedure 5.5. To Add an Environment Condition to the AM Policy

This section changes the policy you created in Procedure 5.1, "To Create a Policy in AM".

  1. Log in to the AM console as administrator.

  2. In the top-level realm, select Authorization > Policy Sets > PEP policy set.

  3. In the IG policy, select Environments, and add an environment condition to require authentication level greater than or equal to 1.

Procedure 5.6. To Set Up an Authentication Module

This section sets up an AM authentication module and scripts to upgrade a session's authentication level to 1.

  1. In the top level realm, select Scripts > Scripted Module - Client Side, and replace the default script with the following script:

    spinner.hideSpinner();
    autoSubmitDelay = 60000;
    $(document).ready(function() {
      fs = $(document.forms[0]).find("fieldset");
      strUI = '<div class="form-group"> \
               <label class="sr-only separator" for="answer"> \
               Verification Code</label><input onchange="s=$(\'#clientScriptOutputData\')[0]; \
               if (!s.value) s.value=\'{}\'; d=JSON.parse(s.value); d[\'answer\']=value; \
               s.value=JSON.stringify(d);" id="answer" class="form-control input-lg" type="text" \
               placeholder="Enter your verification code" value="" name="answer"></input></div>';
      $(fs).prepend(strUI);
    });

    Leave all other values as default.

    This client side script adds a field to the AM form, in which the user is required to enter a verification code. The script formats the entered code as a JSON object, as required by the server side script.

  2. Select Scripts > Scripted Module - Server Side, and replace the default script with the following script:

    username = 'demo'
    logger.error('username: ' + username)
    
    // Test whether the user 'demo' enters the correct validation code
    data = JSON.parse(clientScriptOutputData);
    answer = data.answer;
    
    if (answer !== '123456') {
      logger.error('Authentication Failed !!')
      authState = FAILED;
    } else {
      logger.error('Authenticated !!')
      authState = SUCCESS;
    }

    Leave all other values as default.

    This server side script tests that the user demo has entered 123456 as the verification code.

  3. In the top level realm, select Authentication > Modules, and add a module with the following characteristics:

    • Name: VerificationCodeLevel1

    • Type: Scripted Module

  4. In the authentication module, enable the option for client-side script, and select the following options:

    • Client-side Script: Scripted Module - Client Side

    • Server-side Script: Scripted Module - Server Side

    • Authentication Level: 1

5.3.2. Testing the Setup

Procedure 5.7. To Test the Setup
  1. Log out of AM.

  2. Browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/home/pep.

    If you have not previously authenticated to AM, the SingleSignOnFilter redirects the request to AM for authentication.

  3. Log in to AM as user demo, password changeit.

    AM creates a session with an authentication level 0, and IG requests a policy decision. The updated policy requires authentication level 1, which is higher than the session's current authentication level.

    AM steps up the authentication level by using the authentication module and scripts you just created.

  4. In the session upgrade window, enter the verification code 123456.

    AM returns a policy decision that grants access to the sample application.

    Tip

    If requests are directed to AM instead of to the sample application, review the cookie domain in the AM configuration. For more information, see Section 17.1, "Requests Redirected to Access Management Instead of to the Resource".

Chapter 6. Acting As a SAML 2.0 Service Provider

The federation component of IG is a standards-based authentication service that validates users and logs them in to applications that IG protects. The federation component implements SAML 2.0. In this chapter, you will learn:

  • How IG works as a SAML 2.0 service provider

  • How to set up IG as a service provider for a single application

Appendix A, "SAML 2.0 and Multiple Applications" describes how to set up IG as a SAML 2.0 service provider for two applications, using AM as the identity provider.

6.1. About SAML 2.0 SSO and Federation

Federation allows organizations to share identities and services without giving away their identity information or the services they provide. Federation depends on standards to orchestrate interaction and exchange information between providers.

SAML 2.0 is a standard that describes the messages that providers exchange and the way that they exchange them. SAML 2.0 enables web single sign-on (SSO), for example, where the service managing the user's identity does not belong to the same organization and does not use the same software as the service that the user wants to access.

The following terms are used for federation and SAML:

  • Identity Provider (IDP): The service that manages the user identity.

  • Service Provider (SP): The service that a user wants to access.

  • Circle of trust (CoT): An identity provider and service provider that participate in the federation.

When an identity provider and a service provider participate in federation, they agree on what security information to exchange, and mutually configure access to each other's services. The metadata that identity providers and service providers share is in an XML format defined by the SAML 2.0 standard.

6.1.1.  Steps in SSO

SSO can be initiated by the SP (SP initiated SSO) or by the IDP (IDP initiated SSO).

Before SSO can be initiated by an IDP, the IDP must be configured with links that refer to the SP, and the user must be authenticated to the IDP. Instead of accessing app.example.com directly on the SP, the user accesses a link on the IDP that refers to the remote SP. The IDP provides SAML assertions for the user to the SP.

When SSO is initiated by the SP, the user attempts to access app.example.com directly on the SP. Because the user's federated identity is managed by the IDP, the SP sends a SAML authentication request to the IDP. After authenticating the user, the IDP provides SAML assertions for the user to the SP.

In both cases, the SAML assertion sent from the IDP to the SP attests which user is authenticated, when the authentication succeeded, how long the assertion is valid, and so on. The assertions can optionally contain additional and configurable attribute values, such as user meta-information or anything else provided by the IDP.

The SP uses the SAML assertions from the IDP to make authorization decisions, for example, to let an authenticated user complete a purchase that gets charged to the user's account at the identity provider.

SAML assertions can optionally be signed and encrypted.

6.1.2.  IG As a SAML 2.0 SP

IG acts as a SAML 2.0 SP for SSO, providing users with an interface to applications that don't support SAML 2.0.

When SSO is initiated by the IDP, the IDP sends an unsolicited authentication statement to IG. When SSO is initiated by IG, IG calls the federation component to initiate SSO with the IDP. In both cases, the job of the federation component is to authenticate the user and to pass the required attributes to IG so that IG can log the user into protected applications.

6.2. Installation Overview

This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with SAML 2.0 federation and with the components involved, including AM. For information about AM, read the documentation for your version of AM.

This tutorial does not address PKI configuration for validation and encryption, although IG is capable of handling both, just as any AM Fedlet can handle both.

This tutorial takes you through the steps to set up AM as an IDP and IG as an SP to protect an application. To set up multiple SPs, read this chapter, work through the samples, and then consider the explanation in Appendix A, "SAML 2.0 and Multiple Applications".


Table 6.2.  Fedlet Configuration Files
FileDescription

fedlet.cot

Circle of trust for IG and the identity provider.

idp.xml

Standard metadata (usually generated by the IDP).

idp-extended.xml

Metadata extensions (usually generated by the IDP).

sp.xml

Standard metadata for the IG SP (usually generated by the IDP).

sp-extended.xml

Metadata extensions for the IG SP (usually generated by the IDP).


For examples of the federation configuration files, see Section 6.7, " Example Federation Configuration Files ". You can copy and edit these files to create new configurations.

6.3. Preparing the Network

Configure the network so that browser traffic to the application hosts is proxied through IG. The example in this chapter uses the host name sp.example.com.

Add sp.example.com to your /etc/hosts file:

127.0.0.1    localhost openam.example.com openig.example.com app.example.com sp.example.com

6.4. Configuring AM As an IDP

6.4.1.  Setting Up AM for This Tutorial

Procedure 6.1.  To Set Up AM for This Tutorial
  1. Install and configure AM on http://openam.example.com:8088/openam, with the default configuration. If you use a different configuration, make sure you substitute in the tutorial accordingly.

  2. In the top level realm, browse to Subject and create a user with following credentials:

    • ID (Username): george

    • Last Name: costanza

    • Full Name: george costanza

    • Password: costanza

  3. Edit the user to add the following information:

    • Email Address: george

    • Employee Number: costanza

    For simplicity, this tutorial uses mail to hold the username, and employeenumber to hold the password. Both attributes are in the standard user profile with the default AM configuration, and neither is needed for anything else in this tutorial. In a real deployment, you would use other attributes to represent real user profiles.

  4. Test that you can log in to AM with this username and password.

6.4.2.  Setting Up a Hosted Identity Provider

Procedure 6.2.  To Set Up a Hosted Identity Provider
  1. In the top level realm select Configure SAMLv2 Provider > Create Hosted Identity Provider.

    A configuration page for the IDP is displayed.

  2. In metadata > Name, change http://openam.example.com:8088/openam to openam.

    This makes it easier to refer to AM as the IDP.

  3. In metadata > Signing Key, select test.

  4. In Circle of Trust, select an existing circle of trust (CoT) or add one. In this example, the CoT is called Circle of Trust.

  5. In Attribute Mapping, map the mail attribute to mail, and map the employeenumber attribute to employeenumber.

    The SAML 2.0 attribute mapping indicates that IG (the SP) wants AM (the IDP) to get the value of these attributes from the user profile and send them to IG. IG can use the attribute values to log the user in to the application it protects.

  6. Select Configure.

    A confirmation page is displayed. You can start to create a Fedlet from this page or go back to the top level realm, as described in the following procedure.

6.4.3.  Create a Fedlet Configuration

A Fedlet is an example web application that acts as a lightweight SAML v2.0 SP. When you create a Fedlet, the federation configuration files are created in a directory similar to this: $HOME/openam/myfedlets/openig-fedlet/Fedlet.zip.

Procedure 6.3.  To Create a Fedlet Configuration
  1. In the top level realm, browse to Create Fedlet Configuration.

  2. In Name, enter a name for the Fedlet. In this tutorial, the Fedlet is named sp.

  3. In Destination URL, enter the following URL for the SP: http://sp.example.com:8080/saml.

  4. In Attribute Mapping, map the mail attribute to mail, and map the employeenumber attribute to employeenumber.

  5. Select Create.

    After successfully creating the Fedlet, AM displays the location of the configuration files. Depending on your version of AM, the configuration files are in a war directory or .zip file.

    The .zip file is named something like $HOME/openam/myfedlets/sp/Fedlet.zip on the system where AM runs.

6.5. Configuring IG As an SP

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

6.5.1.  Retrieve the Fedlet Configuration Files

Procedure 6.4.  To Retrieve the Fedlet Configuration Files
  1. Unpack the configuration files from the Fedlet you created in Section 6.4.3, " Create a Fedlet Configuration ". For example, unpack the .zip file as follows:

    $ cd $HOME/openam/myfedlets/sp
    $ unzip Fedlet.zip
  2. Copy the files to the IG configuration:

    $ mkdir $HOME/.openig/SAML
    $ cp conf/* $HOME/.openig/SAML
    $ ls -l $HOME/.openig/SAML
    
    FederationConfig.properties
    fedlet.cot
    idp-extended.xml
    idp.xml
    sp-extended.xml
    sp.xml

  3. If the following fedlet adapter header is defined in sp-extended.xml, comment it out to prevent issues with timeout:

    <!--
      <Attribute name="fedletAdapter">
        <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultFedletAdapter</Value>
      </Attribute>
    -->

  4. Restart IG.

6.5.2.  Adding a Route for Credential Injection

Create the configuration file $HOME/.openig/config/routes/05-saml.json.

On Windows, the file name should be %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\05-saml.json.

{
  "handler": {
    "type": "SamlFederationHandler",
    "config": {
      "assertionMapping": {
        "username": "mail",
        "password": "employeenumber"
      },
      "subjectMapping": "sp-subject-name",
      "redirectURI": "/federate"
    }
  },
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/saml')}",
  "session": "JwtSession"
}

The route injects credentials into the context, based on attribute values from the SAML assertion returned on successful authentication. Note the following features of the route:

  • The route matches requests to /saml.

  • The SamlFederationHandler extracts the mail and employee number from the SAML assertion and maps them to the session fields session.username and session.password.

    The handler stores the subject name as a string in the session field session.sp-subject-name, which is named by the subjectMapping property. By default, the subject name is stored in the session field session.subjectName.

    The handler then redirects the request to the /federate route.

  • The route uses the JwtSession implementation, meaning it stores encrypted session information in a browser cookie. The name is a reference to the JwtSession object defined in config.json. For details, see JwtSession(5) in the Configuration Reference.

6.5.3.  Adding a Route for SAML Federation

Create the configuration file $HOME/.openig/config/routes/05-federate.json.

On Windows, the file name should be %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\05-federate.json.

{
  "handler": {
    "type": "DispatchHandler",
    "config": {
      "bindings": [
        {
          "condition": "${empty session.username}",
          "handler": {
            "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
            "config": {
              "status": 302,
              "reason": "Found",
              "headers": {
                "Location": [
                  "http://sp.example.com:8080/saml/SPInitiatedSSO"
                ]
              }
            }
          }
        },
        {
          "handler": {
            "type": "Chain",
            "config": {
              "filters": [
                {
                  "type": "StaticRequestFilter",
                  "config": {
                    "method": "POST",
                    "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
                    "form": {
                      "username": [
                        "${session.username[0]}"
                      ],
                      "password": [
                        "${session.password[0]}"
                      ]
                    }
                  }
                }
              ],
              "handler": "ClientHandler"
            }
          }
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/federate')}",
  "session": "JwtSession"
}

Notice the following features of the route:

  • The route matches requests to /federate. This is the route you use to test the configuration.

  • If the username has not been populated in the context, the user has not yet authenticated with the IDP. In this case,

    • The DispatchHandler dispatches requests to the StaticResponseHandler.

    • The StaticResponseHandler redirects to the SP-initiated SSO end point to initiate SAML 2.0 web browser SSO.

    • After authentication is successful, the SamlFederationHandler injects credentials into the session.

    If the credentials have been inserted into the context, or after successful authentication in the previous step, the DispatchHandler dispatches requests to the Chain to log the user in to the protected application.

  • The StaticRequestFilter retrieves the first value for the username and password attributes of the SAML assertion.

    Note

    The attributes of a SAML assertion can contain one or more values, which are made available as a list of strings. Even if an attribute contains a single value, it is made available as a list of strings.

    The StaticRequestFilter then replaces the browser's original HTTP GET request with an HTTP POST login request that contains the credentials to authenticate.

  • The route uses the JwtSession implementation, meaning it stores encrypted session information in a browser cookie. The name is a reference to the JwtSession object defined in config.json. For details, see JwtSession(5) in the Configuration Reference.

Tip

If more dynamic control is needed for the URL where the user agent is redirected, then use the RelayState query string parameter in the URL of the redirect Location header. The RelayState query string parameter specifies where to redirect the user when the SAML 2.0 web browser SSO process is complete. The RelayState overrides the redirectURI set in the SamlFederationHandler. The RelayState value must be URL-encoded. When using an expression, use the urlEncode() function to encode the value. For example: ${urlEncodeQueryParameterNameOrValue(contexts.router.originalUri)}. In the following example, the user is finally redirected to the original URI from the request:

"headers": {
    "Location": [
        "http://openig.example.com:8080/saml/SPInitiatedSSO?RelayState=${urlEncodeQueryParameterNameOrValue(contexts.router.originalUri)}"
    ]
}

6.6. Testing the Configuration

6.6.1.  Testing IDP-initiated SSO

  • Log out of the AM console and select this link for IDP-initiated SSO. The AM login page is displayed.

  • Log in to AM with username george and password costanza. IG returns the response page showing that the user has logged in.

The following sequence diagram shows what just happened.

Figure 6.1. IDP-Initiated SSO

6.6.2.  Testing SP-initiated SSO

  • Log out of the AM console, and browse to the URL for the route at http://openig.example.com:8080/federate. The AM login page is displayed.

  • Log in to AM with the username george and password costanza. IG returns the response page showing that the user has logged in.

The following sequence diagram shows what just happened.

Figure 6.2. SP-Initiated SSO

6.7.  Example Federation Configuration Files

6.7.1. Circle of Trust

The following example of $HOME/.openig/SAML/fedlet.cot defines a CoT between AM as the IDP and an IG SP:

cot-name=Circle of Trust
sun-fm-cot-status=Active
sun-fm-trusted-providers=openam,sp
sun-fm-saml2-readerservice-url=
sun-fm-saml2-writerservice-url=

6.7.2. SAML Configuration File

The following example of $HOME/.openig/SAML/sp.xml defines a SAML configuration file for an IG service provider, sp:

<EntityDescriptor
  entityID="sp"
  xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:metadata">
  <SPSSODescriptor
    AuthnRequestsSigned="false"
    WantAssertionsSigned="false"
    protocolSupportEnumeration="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:protocol">
    <SingleLogoutService
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:HTTP-Redirect"
      Location="http://sp.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloRedirect"
      ResponseLocation="http://sp.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloRedirect"/>
    <SingleLogoutService
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:HTTP-POST"
      Location="http://sp.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloPOST"
      ResponseLocation="http://sp.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloPOST"/>
    <SingleLogoutService
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:SOAP"
      Location="http://sp.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloSoap"/>
    <NameIDFormat>urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:nameid-format:transient</NameIDFormat>
    <AssertionConsumerService
      isDefault="true"
      index="0"
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:HTTP-POST"
      Location="http://sp.example.com:8080/saml/fedletapplication"/>
    <AssertionConsumerService
      index="1"
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:HTTP-Artifact"
      Location="http://sp.example.com:8080/saml/fedletapplication"/>
  </SPSSODescriptor>
  <RoleDescriptor
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:query="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:metadata:ext:query"
    xsi:type="query:AttributeQueryDescriptorType"
    protocolSupportEnumeration="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:protocol">
  </RoleDescriptor>
  <XACMLAuthzDecisionQueryDescriptor
    WantAssertionsSigned="false"
    protocolSupportEnumeration="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:protocol">
  </XACMLAuthzDecisionQueryDescriptor>
</EntityDescriptor>

6.7.3.  Extended Configuration File

The following example of $HOME/.openig/SAML/sp-extended.xml defines a SAML configuration file for an IG service provider, sp:

<EntityConfig xmlns="urn:sun:fm:SAML:2.0:entityconfig"
    xmlns:fm="urn:sun:fm:SAML:2.0:entityconfig"
    hosted="1"
    entityID="sp">

    <SPSSOConfig metaAlias="/sp">
        <Attribute name="description">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="signingCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="encryptionCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthOn">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthUser">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthPassword">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="autofedEnabled">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="autofedAttribute">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="transientUser">
            <Value>anonymous</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAdapter">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAdapterEnv">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <!--
        <Attribute name="fedletAdapter">
            <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultFedletAdapter</Value>
        </Attribute>
        -->
        <Attribute name="fedletAdapterEnv">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAccountMapper">
            <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultLibrarySPAccountMapper</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="useNameIDAsSPUserID">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAttributeMapper">
            <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultSPAttributeMapper</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAuthncontextMapper">
            <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultSPAuthnContextMapper</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAuthncontextClassrefMapping">
            <Value>urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:ac:classes:PasswordProtectedTransport|0|default</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAuthncontextComparisonType">
           <Value>exact</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="attributeMap">
           <Value>employeenumber=employeenumber</Value>
           <Value>mail=mail</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="saml2AuthModuleName">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="localAuthURL">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="intermediateUrl">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="defaultRelayState">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="appLogoutUrl">
           <Value>http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/logout</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="assertionTimeSkew">
           <Value>300</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantAttributeEncrypted">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantAssertionEncrypted">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantNameIDEncrypted">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantPOSTResponseSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantArtifactResponseSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantLogoutRequestSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantLogoutResponseSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantMNIRequestSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantMNIResponseSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="responseArtifactMessageEncoding">
           <Value>URI</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="cotlist">
       <Value>Circle of Trust</Value></Attribute>
       <Attribute name="saeAppSecretList">
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="saeSPUrl">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="saeSPLogoutUrl">
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="ECPRequestIDPListFinderImpl">
           <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.ECPIDPFinder</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="ECPRequestIDPList">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="ECPRequestIDPListGetComplete">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="enableIDPProxy">
           <Value>false</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="idpProxyList">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="idpProxyCount">
           <Value>0</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="useIntroductionForIDPProxy">
           <Value>false</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="spSessionSyncEnabled">
           <Value>false</Value>
       </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="relayStateUrlList">
        </Attribute>
    </SPSSOConfig>
    <AttributeQueryConfig metaAlias="/attrQuery">
        <Attribute name="signingCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="encryptionCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="wantNameIDEncrypted">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="cotlist">
            <Value>Circle of Trust</Value>
        </Attribute>
    </AttributeQueryConfig>
    <XACMLAuthzDecisionQueryConfig metaAlias="/pep">
        <Attribute name="signingCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="encryptionCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthOn">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthUser">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthPassword">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="wantXACMLAuthzDecisionResponseSigned">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="wantAssertionEncrypted">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="cotlist">
            <Value>Circle of Trust</Value>
        </Attribute>
    </XACMLAuthzDecisionQueryConfig>
</EntityConfig>

Chapter 7. Acting as an OAuth 2.0 Resource Server

This chapter describes how IG acts as an OAuth 2.0 Resource Server, using the AM token info endpoint and the introspection endpoint.

7.1. About IG As an OAuth 2.0 Resource Server

The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework describes a way of allowing a third-party application to access a user's resources without having the user's credentials.

OAuth 2.0 includes the following entities:

  • Resource owner: The user who owns protected resources on a resource server. For example, a resource owner has photos stored in a web service.

  • Resource server: The service that gives authorized client applications access to the user's protected resources. In OAuth 2.0, an authorization server grants the client application authorization based on the resource owner's consent. For example, a web service that holds the user's photos.

  • Client: The application that requests access to the protected resources. For example, a photo printing service requests access to the user's photos.

  • Authorization server: The service responsible for authenticating resource owners and obtaining their consent to allow client applications to access their resources. For example, AM can act as the OAuth 2.0 authorization server to authenticate resource owners and obtain their consent. Other services, such as Google and Facebook can provide OAuth 2.0 authorization services.

The following image illustrates the steps for a client application to access a user's protected resources, with AM as the authorization server and IG as the resource server.

Figure 7.1. Handling OAuth 2.0 Requests as an OAuth 2.0 Resource Server

  • The application obtains an authorization grant from the authorization server, representing the resource owner's consent.

    For information about the different OAuth 2.0 grant mechanisms supported by AM, see OAuth 2.0 Authorization Grant in the ForgeRock Access Management OAuth 2.0 Guide.

  • The application authenticates to the authorization server and requests an access token. The authorization server returns an access token to the application.

    An OAuth 2.0 access token is an opaque string given by the authorization server in the Authorization request header, like this:

    Authorization: Bearer 7af41ddd-47a4-40dc-b530-a9aa9f7ceda9

    Access tokens are the credentials to access protected resources. The advantage of access tokens over passwords or other credentials is that access tokens can be granted and revoked without exposing the user's credentials.

    The token represents the authorization to access protected resources. Because an access token is a bearer token, anyone who has the access token can use it to get the resources. Access tokens must therefore be protected, so that requests involving them go over HTTPS.

  • The application supplies the access token to the resource server, which then validates the access token. If the access token is found to be valid, then the resource server can let the client have access to the resources.

    IG validates the access token by submitting it to a token information endpoint or an introspection endpoint. The endpoint typically returns the time until the token expires, the OAuth 2.0 scopes associated with the token, and potentially other information.

    In OAuth 2.0, the token scopes are strings that identify the scope of access authorized to the client, but can also be used for other purposes.

7.2. Preparing the Tutorial

Table 7.1. Tasks for Configuring IG As an OAuth2 Resource Server
TaskSee Section(s)

Set up a sample user in AM.

Procedure 7.1, "To Set Up a Sample User in AM"

Set up AM as an authorization server.

Procedure 7.2, "To Set Up AM As an Authorization Server"

Set up IG as a resource server to validate access tokens through the token info endpoint and introspection endpoint.

Procedure 7.3, "To Set Up IG As a Resource Server Using the Token Info Endpoint"

Procedure 7.4, "To Set Up IG As a Resource Server Using the Introspection Endpoint"

Test the setup.

Procedure 7.5, "To Test the Setup"

Add downstream filters that use information from the context to log you in to the sample application automatically.

Section 7.6, "Using the Context to Log In To the Sample Application"


7.3. Setting Up AM As an Authorization Server

For more complete information about configuring AM as an OAuth 2.0 authorization service, see Configuring the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Service in the ForgeRock Access Management OAuth 2.0 Guide.

Before you start, install and configure AM on http://openam.example.com:8088/openam, with the default configuration. If you use a different configuration, substitute in the tutorial accordingly.

Procedure 7.1. To Set Up a Sample User in AM

If you haven't set up the user George Costanza in a previous tutorial, do so now.

  1. In the AM console, select the top level realm and browse to Subjects.

  2. Click New and create a user with the following values:

    • ID: george

    • Last Name: costanza

    • Full Name: george costanza

    • Password: costanza

  3. In the User window, select the new user and set the following values:

    • Email Address: george

    • Employee number: costanza

Procedure 7.2. To Set Up AM As an Authorization Server
  1. In the AM console, configure an OAuth 2.0 Authorization Server:

    1. In the top level realm, select Configure OAuth Provider > Configure OAuth 2.0.

    2. Accept all of the default values and select Create.

  2. Configure a profile for the third-party application to request OAuth 2.0 access tokens:

    1. In the top level realm, select Applications > OAuth 2.0.

    2. Add a client with the following values:

      • Client ID: client-application

      • Client secret: password

      • Scope(s): mail employeenumber

      This tutorial uses mail to hold the username, and employeenumber to hold the password. The attributes are part of a user's profile included with the default AM configuration, and are not needed for anything else in this tutorial. In a real deployment, you would no doubt use other attributes that depend on how the real user profiles are configured.

  3. If you plan to use the token introspection endpoint to validate the access tokens, configure a profile for the resource server:

    1. In the top level realm, select Applications > OAuth 2.0.

    2. Add a client with the following values:

      • Client ID: resource-server

      • Client secret password

      • Scope(s): am-introspect-all-tokens

        The client with this scope is authorized to examine (introspect) tokens.

  4. Log out of AM.

7.4. Setting Up IG As a Resource Server

This section describes how to set up IG as an OAuth 2.0 resource server, using the AM token info endpoint and the introspection endpoint. For more information about the OAuth 2.0 resource server, see OAuth2ResourceServerFilter(5) in the Configuration Reference.

7.4.1. Validating Access Tokens Through the Token Info Endpoint

This section sets up IG as an OAuth 2.0 resource server, using the AM token info endpoint.

To configure IG without using IG Studio, add the route in the following procedure to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/rs-tokeninfo.json. On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\rs-tokeninfo.json.

After completing this procedure, test it as described in Section 7.5, "Testing the Setup", or set up the example for the introspection endpoint as described in Section 7.4.2, "Validating Access Tokens Through the Introspection Endpoint".

Procedure 7.3. To Set Up IG As a Resource Server Using the Token Info Endpoint

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide. Make sure that your config.json has a main router named _router.

  1. Access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio, and select Protect an Application.

  2. In the Create a route window, select Application URL, and enter http://app.example.com:8081/rs-tokeninfo.

  3. Configure authorization:

    1. Select Authorization, and then enable it.

    2. Select OAuth 2.0 Resource Server.

    3. Enter the following information to reflect the configuration in Procedure 7.2, "To Set Up AM As an Authorization Server", and then save the settings:

      • Scopes: mail employeenumber

      • Access token resolver: AM token info endpoint

      • Token info endpoint: http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/tokeninfo

      • Require HTTPS: Deselect this option

      • Enable cache: Deselect this option

      Leave all other values as default.

      To view the route so far, on the top-right of the screen select and Display.

  4. Add a StaticResponseHandler:

    1. On the top-right of the screen, select and Editor mode to switch into editor mode.

      Warning

      After switching to Editor mode, you cannot go back. You will be able to use the JSON file editor to manually edit the route, but will no longer be able use the full IG Studio interface to add or edit filters.

    2. Replace the last ClientHandler in the route with the following StaticResponseHandler, and then save the route:

      "handler": {
        "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
        "config": {
         "status": 200,
         "entity": "<html><body><h2>Decoded access token: ${contexts.oauth2.accessToken.info}</h2></body></html>"
        }
      }

  5. On the top-right of the screen, select and Display to review the route.

    Make sure that the following route is displayed:

    {
      "name": "rs-tokeninfo",
      "monitor": false,
      "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/rs-tokeninfo')}",
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [{
            "name": "OAuth2ResourceServerFilter-1",
            "type": "OAuth2ResourceServerFilter",
            "config": {
              "scopes": [
                "mail",
                "employeenumber"
              ],
              "requireHttps": false,
              "realm": "OpenIG",
              "accessTokenResolver": {
                "name": "token-resolver-1",
                "type": "OpenAmAccessTokenResolver",
                "config": {
                  "endpoint": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/tokeninfo"
                }
              }
            }
          }],
          "handler": {
            "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
            "config": {
              "status": 200,
              "entity": "<html><body><h2>Decoded access token: ${contexts.oauth2.accessToken.info}</h2></body></html>"
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }

    Notice the following features of the route:

    • The route matches requests to /rs-tokeninfo.

    • The OAuth2ResourceServerFilter expects an OAuth 2.0 access token in the header of the incoming authorization request, with the scopes mail and employeenumber.

      The accessTokenResolver uses the token info endpoint to validate the access token.

      For convenience in this test, "requireHttps" is false. In production environments, set it to true.

    • After the filter successfully validates the access token, it creates a new context from the authorization server response. The context is named oauth2, and can be reached at contexts.oauth2 or contexts['oauth2'].

      The context contains information about the access token, which can be reached at contexts.oauth2.accessToken.info. Filters and handlers further down the chain can access the token info through the context. For an example that uses the scopes email and employeenumber to log the user in to the sample application, see Section 7.6, "Using the Context to Log In To the Sample Application".

      If there is no access token in the request, or token validation does not complete successfully, the filter returns an HTTP error status to the user-agent, and IG does not continue processing the request. This is done as specified in the RFC, OAuth 2.0 Bearer Token Usage.

    • The StaticResponseHandler returns the content of the access token from the context ${contexts.oauth2.accessToken.info}.

  6. Select Deploy to push the route to the IG configuration.

    You can check the $HOME/.openig/config/routes folder to see that the route is there.

7.4.2. Validating Access Tokens Through the Introspection Endpoint

This section sets up IG as an OAuth 2.0 resource server, using the introspection endpoint.

To configure IG without using IG Studio, add the route in the following procedure to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/rs-introspect.json. On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\rs-introspect.json.

Procedure 7.4. To Set Up IG As a Resource Server Using the Introspection Endpoint

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide. Make sure that your config.json has a main router named _router.

  1. Access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio, and select Protect an Application.

  2. In the Create a route window, select Application URL, and enter http://app.example.com:8081/rs-introspect.

  3. Configure authorization:

    1. Select Authorization, and then enable it.

    2. Select OAuth 2.0 Resource Server.

    3. Enter the following information to reflect the configuration in Procedure 7.2, "To Set Up AM As an Authorization Server", and then save the settings:

      • Scopes: mail employeenumber

      • Access token resolver: OAuth 2.0 introspection endpoint

      • Introspection endpoint URI: http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/introspect

      • Client name and Client secret: resource-server and password

        This is the name and password of the OAuth 2.0 client with the scope to examine (introspect) tokens, configured at the end of Procedure 7.2, "To Set Up AM As an Authorization Server".

      • Require HTTPS: Deselect this option

      • Enable cache: Deselect this option

      Leave all other values as default.

      To view the route so far, on the top-right of the screen select and Display.

  4. Add a StaticResponseHandler:

    1. On the top-right of the screen, select and Editor mode to switch into editor mode.

      Warning

      After switching to Editor mode, you cannot go back. You will be able to use the JSON file editor to manually edit the route, but will no longer be able use the full IG Studio interface to add or edit filters.

    2. Replace the last ClientHandler in the route with the following StaticResponseHandler, and then save the route:

      "handler": {
        "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
        "config": {
          "status": 200,
          "entity": "<html><body><h2>Decoded access token: ${contexts.oauth2.accessToken.info}</h2></body></html>"
        }
      }

  5. On the top-right of the screen, select and Display to review the route.

    Make sure that the following route is displayed:

    {
      "name": "rs-introspect",
      "monitor": false,
      "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/rs-introspect')}",
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "name": "OAuth2ResourceServerFilter-1",
              "type": "OAuth2ResourceServerFilter",
              "config": {
                "scopes": [
                  "mail",
                  "employeenumber"
                ],
                "requireHttps": false,
                "realm": "OpenIG",
                "accessTokenResolver": {
                  "name": "token-resolver-1",
                  "type": "TokenIntrospectionAccessTokenResolver",
                  "config": {
                    "endpoint": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/introspect",
                    "providerHandler": {
                      "type": "Chain",
                      "config": {
                        "filters": [
                          {
                            "type": "HeaderFilter",
                            "config": {
                              "messageType": "request",
                              "add": {
                                "Authorization": [
                                  "Basic ${encodeBase64('resource-server:password')}"
                                ]
                              }
                            }
                          }
                        ],
                        "handler": "ForgeRockClientHandler"
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": {
            "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
            "config": {
              "status": 200,
              "entity": "<html><body><h2>Decoded access token: ${contexts.oauth2.accessToken.info}</h2></body></html>"
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }

    Notice the following features of the route compared to rs-tokeninfo.json:

    • The route matches requests to /rs-introspect.

    • The accessTokenResolver uses the token introspection endpoint to validate the access token.

    • The providerHandler is a chain that adds an authorization header to the request. The header contains the username and password of the OAuth 2.0 client with the scope to examine (introspect) access tokens.

  6. Select Deploy to push the route to the IG configuration.

    You can check the $HOME/.openig/config/routes folder to see that the route is there.

7.5. Testing the Setup

The following configurations get an access token from AM and use it to access IG, which then uses the OAuth 2.0 resource owner password credentials authorization grant.

Procedure 7.5. To Test the Setup
  1. In a terminal window, use a curl command similar to the following to retrieve an access token:

    $ curl \
    --user "client-application:password" \
    --data "grant_type=password&username=george&password=costanza&scope=mail%20employeenumber" \
    http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/access_token
    
    {
    "access_token":"aba19a55-468d-45e2-b1c4-decc7202faea",
    "scope":"employeenumber mail",
    "token_type":"Bearer",
    "expires_in":3599
    }
  2. Validate the access token:

    • To use the /oauth2/tokeninfo endpoint, run the following command, replacing <access_token> with the access token returned by the previous step:

      $ curl \
      --header "Authorization: Bearer <access_token>" \
      http://openig.example.com:8080/rs-tokeninfo
      
      {
        access_token = f12c7d3e - 0183 - 4 f89 - 8 f5d - aa3055713a96,
        employeenumber = costanza,
        mail = george,
        grant_type = password,
        scope = [employeenumber, mail],
        realm = /,
        token_type = Bearer,
        expires_in = 32606,
        client_id = client-application
      }

      Note that the token info endpoint returns the scopes, employeenumber and mail.

    • To use the /oauth2/introspect endpoint, run the following command, replacing <access_token> with the access token returned by the previous step:

      $ curl \
      --header "Authorization: Bearer <access_token>" \
      http://openig.example.com:8080/rs-introspect
      
      {
        active = true,
        scope = employeenumber mail,
        client_id = client-application,
        user_id = george,
        token_type = access_token,
        exp = 1493721361,
        sub = george,
        iss = http: //openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2
      }

      Note that the token introspection endpoint returns different information than the token info endpoint.

7.6. Using the Context to Log In To the Sample Application

The token info endpoint returns the scopes, employeenumber and mail in the context. This section contains an example route that retrieves the scopes and uses them to log the user directly in to the sample application.

Procedure 7.6. To Log In To the Sample Application By Using the Token Info
  1. Run the example in Procedure 7.3, "To Set Up IG As a Resource Server Using the Token Info Endpoint".

  2. On the top-right of the IG Studio screen, select and Editor mode.

  3. Remove the StaticResponseHandler, and add the following filters and handler:

    • An AssignmentFilter to access the token info through the context, and inject the credentials into session.

    • A StaticRequestFilter to retrieve the username and password from session, and replaces the original HTTP GET request with an HTTP POST login request that contains the credentials to authenticate.

    • A ClientHandler to submit the request to the sample application.

    An example route with a different name and condition is as follows:

    {
      "name" : "rs-pwreplay",
      "monitor" : false,
      "baseURI" : "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "condition" : "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/rs-pwreplay')}",
      "handler" : {
        "type" : "Chain",
        "config" : {
          "filters" : [ {
            "name" : "OAuth2ResourceServerFilter-1",
            "type" : "OAuth2ResourceServerFilter",
            "config" : {
              "scopes" : [ "mail", "employeenumber" ],
              "requireHttps" : false,
              "realm" : "OpenIG",
              "accessTokenResolver" : {
                "name" : "token-resolver-1",
                "type" : "OpenAmAccessTokenResolver",
                "config" : {
                  "endpoint" : "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/tokeninfo"
                }
              }
            }
          },
            {
              "type": "AssignmentFilter",
              "config": {
                "onRequest": [{
                  "target": "${session.username}",
                  "value": "${contexts.oauth2.accessToken.info.mail}"
                },
                  {
                    "target": "${session.password}",
                    "value": "${contexts.oauth2.accessToken.info.employeenumber}"
                  }
                ]
              }
            },
            {
              "type": "StaticRequestFilter",
              "config": {
                "method": "POST",
                "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
                "form": {
                  "username": [
                    "${session.username}"
                  ],
                  "password": [
                    "${session.password}"
                  ]
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      }
    }

  4. In a terminal window, use a curl command similar to the following to access the example route, replacing <access_token> with a new access token or the one returned in Procedure 7.5, "To Test the Setup":

    $ curl \
    --header "Authorization: Bearer <access_token>" \
    http://openig.example.com:8080/rs-pwreplay

    HTML for the sample application should be displayed.

Chapter 8. Acting As an OAuth 2.0 Client or OpenID Connect Relying Party

IG helps integrate applications into OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect deployments. In this chapter, you will:

  • Configure IG as an OpenID Connect 1.0 relying party

  • Configure IG to use OpenID Connect discovery and dynamic client registration

8.1. About IG As an OAuth 2.0 Client

As described in Chapter 7, "Acting as an OAuth 2.0 Resource Server", an OAuth 2.0 client is a third-party application that needs access to a user's protected resources.

IG can act as an OAuth 2.0 client when you configure an OAuth2ClientFilter as described in OAuth2ClientFilter(5) in the Configuration Reference. The OAuth2ClientFilter handles the process of allowing the user to select a provider, and redirecting the user through the authentication and authorization steps of an OAuth 2.0 authorization code grant. The code grant results in the authorization server returning an access token to the filter.

When an authorization grant succeeds, the OAuth2ClientFilter injects the access token data into a configurable target in the context so that subsequent filters and handlers have access to the access token. Subsequent requests can use the access token without reauthentication. If an authorization grant fails, the failureHandler is invoked.

If the protected application is an OAuth 2.0 resource server, then IG can send the access token with the resource request.

8.2. About IG As an OpenID Connect 1.0 Relying Party

The specifications available through the OpenID Connect site describe the OpenID Connect 1.0 authentication layer built on OAuth 2.0.

OpenID Connect 1.0 is a specific implementation of OAuth 2.0, where the identity provider holds the protected resource that the third-party application aims to access.

OpenID Connect 1.0 has the following key entities:

  • End user: An OAuth 2.0 resource owner whose user information the application needs to access.

    The end user wants to use an application through an existing identity provider account without signing up and creating credentials for another web service.

  • Relying Party (RP): An OAuth 2.0 client that needs access to the end user's protected user information.

    For example, an online mail application needs to know which end user is accessing the application in order to present the correct inbox.

    As another example, an online shopping site needs to know which end user is accessing the site in order to present the right offerings, account, and shopping cart.

  • OpenID Provider (OP): An OAuth 2.0 authorization server and also resource server that holds the user information and grants access.

    The OP has the end user consent to provide the RP with access to some of its user information. Because OpenID Connect 1.0 defines unique identification for an account (subject identifier + issuer identifier), the RP can use this as a key to its own user profile.

    For the online mail application, this key could be used to access the mailboxes and related account information. For the online shopping site, this key could be used to access the offerings, account, shopping cart and others. The key makes it possible to serve users as if they had local accounts.

  • UserInfo: The protected resource that the third-party application aims to access. The information about the authenticated end-user is expressed in a standard format. The user-info endpoint is hosted on the authorization server and is protected with OAuth 2.0.

When IG acts as an OpenID Connect relying party, its ultimate role is to retrieve user information from the OpenID provider, and then to inject that information into the context for use by subsequent filters and handlers.

8.3. Installation Overview

This tutorial takes you through the steps to set up AM as an OpenID Connect provider and IG as an OpenID Connect relying party. For an example configuration with two identity providers, AM and Google, and a login handler, see "Example Configuration For Multiple Identity Providers" in the Configuration Reference.

Table 8.1. Tasks for Configuring OpenID Connect
TaskSee Section(s)

Set up AM as an OpenID Connect provider.

Section 8.4, " Setting Up AM for OpenID Connect "

Set up IG as a relying party for browser requests to the home page of the sample application.

Section 8.5, "Setting Up IG As a Relying Party"

Test the configuration.

Section 8.6, "Testing the Configuration"


8.4.  Setting Up AM for OpenID Connect

In this part, you create a sample user and set up AM as an OpenID Connect provider.

Before you start, install and configure AM on http://openam.example.com:8088/openam, with the default configuration. If you use a different configuration, substitute in the tutorial accordingly.

Procedure 8.1. To Set Up a Sample User

If you haven't set up the user George Costanza in a previous tutorial, do so now.

  1. In the AM console, select the top level realm and browse to Subjects.

  2. Click New and create a user with the following values:

    • ID: george

    • Last Name: costanza

    • Full Name: george costanza

    • Password: costanza

  3. In the User window, select the new user and set Email Address: george@example.com.

Procedure 8.2.  To Set Up AM as an OpenID Connect Provider
  1. Configure AM as an OAuth 2.0 Authorization Server and OpenID Connect Provider.

    1. In the AM console, select the top-level realm and browse to Configure OAuth Provider > Configure OpenID Connect.

    2. Accept the default values and click Create.

  2. Register an OpenID Connect relying party. This step enables IG to communicate as an OAuth 2.0 relying party with AM.

    1. In the top level realm, select Applications > OAuth 2.0.

    2. Add a client with the following values:

      • Client ID: oidc_client

      • Client secret: password

      • Redirection URIs: http://openig.example.com:8080/home/id_token/callback

      • Scope(s): openid, profile, and email.

      • ID Token Signing Algorithm: HS256, HS384, or HS512.

        Because the algorithm must be HMAC, the value of RS256 is not okay.

  3. Log out of AM.

8.5. Setting Up IG As a Relying Party

This section describes how to use IG Studio to configure IG as a relying party for browser requests to the home page of the sample application. The example refers to the provider configuration in Section 8.4, " Setting Up AM for OpenID Connect ".

To configure IG without using IG Studio, add the route in Example 8.1, "Route for IG As a Relying Party" to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/07-openid.json. On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\07-openid.json.

Procedure 8.3. To Set Up IG As a Relying Party

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide. Make sure that your config.json has a main router named _router.

  1. Access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio, and select Protect an Application.

  2. In the Create a route window, select Advanced Options and enter the following information:

    • Base URI: http://app.example.com:8081

    • Condition: Path: /home/id_token

    • Name: 07-openid

  3. Select Create route.

  4. Select Authentication, and then enable authentication.

  5. Select OpenID Connect, and then select the following options to reflect the configuration in Procedure 8.2, " To Set Up AM as an OpenID Connect Provider ":

    • Client Filter:

      • Client Endpoint: /home/id_token

      • Require HTTPS: Deselect this option

    • Client Registration:

      • Client ID: oidc_client

      • Client secret: password

      • Scopes: openid profile email

      • Basic authentication: Select this option

    • Issuer:

      • Well-known Endpoint: http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/.well-known/openid-configuration

  6. Select Save.

    The icon in the OpenID Connect panel indicates that OpenID Connect is configured. Select the panel again to edit your settings.

  7. On the top-right of the screen, select and Display to review the route. The route in Example 8.1, "Route for IG As a Relying Party" should be displayed.

  8. Select Deploy to push the route to the IG configuration.

    You can check the $HOME/.openig/config/routes folder to see that the route is there.

Example 8.1. Route for IG As a Relying Party
{
  "name": "07-openid",
  "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
  "monitor": false,
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/id_token')}",
  "handler": {
    "type": "Chain",
    "config": {
      "filters": [
        {
          "type": "OAuth2ClientFilter",
          "name": "OAuth2Client",
          "config": {
            "clientEndpoint": "/home/id_token",
            "failureHandler": {
              "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
              "config": {
                "status": 500,
                "headers": {
                  "Content-Type": [
                    "text/plain"
                  ]
                },
                "entity": "An error occurred during the OAuth2 setup."
              }
            },
            "registrations": [
              {
                "name": "oidc-user-info-client",
                "type": "ClientRegistration",
                "config": {
                  "clientId": "oidc_client",
                  "clientSecret": "password",
                  "issuer": {
                    "name": "Issuer",
                    "type": "Issuer",
                    "config": {
                      "wellKnownEndpoint": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/.well-known/openid-configuration"
                    }
                  },
                  "scopes": [
                    "openid",
                    "profile",
                    "email"
                  ],
                  "tokenEndpointAuthMethod": "client_secret_basic"
                }
              }
            ],
            "requireHttps": false
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": "ClientHandler"
    }
  }
}

Notice the following features about the route:

  • The route matches requests to /home/id_token.

  • The OAuth2ClientFilter enables IG to act as a relying party. It uses a single client registration that is defined inline and refers to the AM server configured in Section 8.4, " Setting Up AM for OpenID Connect ".

  • The filter has a base client endpoint of /home/id_token, which creates the following service URIs:

    • Requests to /home/id_token/login start the delegated authorization process.

    • Requests to /home/id_token/callback are expected as redirects from the OAuth 2.0 Authorization Server (OpenID Connect provider). This is why the redirect URI in the client profile in AM is set to http://openig.example.com:8080/home/id_token/callback.

    • Requests to /home/id_token/logout remove the authorization state for the end user, and redirect to the specified URL if a goto parameter is provided.

    These endpoints are implicitly reserved. Attempts to access them directly can cause undefined errors.

  • For convenience in this test, "requireHttps" is false. In production environments, set it to true. So that you see the delegated authorization process when you make a request, "requireLogin" has the default value true.

  • The target for storing authorization state information is ${attributes.openid}. This is where subsequent filters and handlers can find access tokens and user information.

8.6. Testing the Configuration

Procedure 8.4.  To Test the Configuration
  1. With IG running, access http://openig.example.com:8080/home/id_token.

    The AM login screen is displayed.

  2. Log in to AM with the username george and password costanza.

    An OpenID Connect request to access private information is displayed.

  3. Select Allow.

    The home page of the sample application is displayed.

    What's happening behind the scenes?

    • When IG gets the browser request, the OAuth2ClientFilter redirects you to authenticate with AM and consent to authorize access to user information. After you authorize access, AM returns an access token to the filter.

    • The OAuth2ClientFilter uses the access token to get the user information, and then injects the authorization state information into attributes.openid.

    • The ClientHandler redirects the request to the home page of the sample application.

8.7. Adapting the Configuration to Authenticate Automatically to the Sample Application

To authenticate automatically to the sample application, edit $HOME/.openig/config/routes/07-openid.json manually as follows:

  • In AM and IG, change the endpoints from /home/openid to /openid. This endpoint directs requests to the login page of the sample application instead of the home page.

  • Add a StaticRequestFilter like the following to the end of the chain in 07-openid.json:

    {
      "type": "StaticRequestFilter",
      "config": {
        "method": "POST",
        "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
        "form": {
          "username": [
            "${attributes.openid.user_info.sub}"
          ],
            "password": [
             "${attributes.openid.user_info.family_name}"
          ]
        }
      }
    }

    The StaticRequestFilter retrieves the username and password from the context, and replaces the original HTTP GET request with an HTTP POST login request containing credentials.

8.8. Using OpenID Connect Discovery and Dynamic Client Registration

OpenID Connect defines mechanisms for discovering and dynamically registering with an identity provider that is not known in advance. These mechanisms are specified in OpenID Connect Discovery and OpenID Connect Dynamic Client Registration. IG supports discovery and dynamic registration. In this section you will learn how to configure IG to try these features with AM.

Although this tutorial focuses on OpenID Connect dynamic registration, IG also supports dynamic registration as described in RFC 7591, OAuth 2.0 Dynamic Client Registration Protocol.

8.8.1. Preparing to Try Discovery and Dynamic Client Registration

This short tutorial builds on the previous tutorial in this chapter. If you have not already done so, start by performing the steps described in Section 8.3, "Installation Overview". This tutorial requires a recent sample application, as the newer versions include a small WebFinger service that is used here.

When ready, complete preparations for OpenID Connect discovery and dynamic client registration:

Procedure 8.5. Preparing AM for OpenID Connect Dynamic Registration

By default, AM does not allow dynamic registration without an access token.

After carrying out the steps described in Section 8.4, " Setting Up AM for OpenID Connect ", also perform these steps:

  1. Log in to AM console as administrator.

  2. In the top-level realm, select Services, and then display the OAuth2 Provider configuration.

  3. In the Client Dynamic Registration tab, enable Allow Open Dynamic Client Registration.

    In earlier versions of AM, this option is in Advanced OpenID Connect.

  4. Log out of AM.

Procedure 8.6. Preparing IG for Discovery and Dynamic Registration

Follow these steps to add a route demonstrating OpenID Connect discovery and dynamic client registration:

  1. Add a new route to the IG configuration, by including the following route configuration file as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/07-discovery.json:

    {
      "heap": [
        {
          "name": "DiscoveryPage",
          "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
          "config": {
            "status": 200,
            "reason": "OK",
            "entity":
              "<!doctype html>
              <html>
              <head>
                <title>OpenID Connect Discovery</title>
                <meta charset='UTF-8'>
              </head>
              <body>
                <form id='form' action='/discovery/login?'>
                  Enter your user ID or email address:
                <input type='text' id='discovery' name='discovery'
                       placeholder='george or george@example.com' />
                <input type='hidden' name='goto'
                       value='${contexts.router.originalUri}' />
                </form>
                <script>
                // The sample application handles the WebFinger request,
                // so make sure the request is sent to the sample app.
                window.onload = function() {
                  document.getElementById('form').onsubmit = function() {
                    // Fix the URL if not using the default settings.
                    var sampleAppUrl = 'http://app.example.com:8081/';
                    var discovery = document.getElementById('discovery');
                    discovery.value = sampleAppUrl + discovery.value.split('@', 1)[0];
                  };
                };
                </script>
              </body>
              </html>"
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "name": "DynamicallyRegisteredClient",
              "type": "OAuth2ClientFilter",
              "config": {
                "clientEndpoint": "/discovery",
                "requireHttps": false,
                "requireLogin": true,
                "target": "${attributes.openid}",
                "failureHandler": {
                  "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
                  "config": {
                    "comment": "Trivial failure handler for debugging only",
                    "status": 500,
                    "reason": "Error",
                    "entity": "${attributes.openid}"
                  }
                },
                "loginHandler": "DiscoveryPage",
                "metadata": {
                  "client_name": "My Dynamically Registered Client",
                  "redirect_uris": [
                    "http://openig.example.com:8080/discovery/callback"
                  ],
                  "scopes": [
                    "openid",
                    "profile"
                  ]
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": {
            "type": "Chain",
            "config": {
              "filters": [
                {
                  "type": "StaticRequestFilter",
                  "config": {
                    "method": "POST",
                    "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
                    "form": {
                      "username": [
                        "${attributes.openid.user_info.sub}"
                      ],
                      "password": [
                        "${attributes.openid.user_info.family_name}"
                      ]
                    }
                  }
                }
              ],
              "handler": "ClientHandler"
            }
          }
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/discovery')}",
      "baseURI": "http://openig.example.com:8080"
    }
    

    On Windows, the file name should be %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\07-discovery.json.

  2. Consider the differences with 07-openid.json:

    • For discovery and dynamic client registration, no issuer or client registration is defined. Instead a StaticResponseHandler is used as a login handler for the client filter.

      The static response handler serves an HTML page that provides important pieces of information to IG:

      • The value of a discovery parameter.

        IG uses the value to perform OpenID Connect discovery. Examples from the specification include acct:joe@example.com, https://example.com:8080/, and https://example.com/joe. First, IG extracts the domain host and port from the value, and attempts to find a match in the supportedDomains lists for any issuers that are already configured for the route. If it finds a match, then it can potentially use the issuer's registration end point and avoid an additional request to look up the user's issuer using the WebFinger protocol. If there is no match in the supported domains lists, IG uses the discovery value as the resource for a WebFinger request according to the OpenID Connect Discovery protocol.

        On success, IG has either found an appropriate issuer in the configuration, or found the issuer using the WebFinger protocol. IG can thus proceed to dynamic client registration.

        The small JavaScript function in the HTML page transforms user input into a useful discovery value for IG. This is not a requirement for deployment, only a convenience for the purposes of this example. Alternatives are described in the discovery protocol specification.

      • The value of a goto parameter.

        The goto parameter takes a URI that tells IG where to redirect the end user's browser once the process is complete and IG has injected the OpenID Connect user information into the context. In this case, the user is redirected back to this route so that the innermost chain of the configuration can log the user in to the protected application.

    • The OAuth2ClientFilter specifies the following configuration:

      • Login handler to point to the login page described above.

      • Metadata that IG uses to prepare the dynamic registration request, including:

        • Client name

        • Redirection URIs

          As set out in RFCs for OAuth2 and OpenID, redirection URIs are mandatory. One of the registered redirection URI values must exactly match the clientEndpoint/callback URI.

        • Scopes:

          • scope is available for dynamic client registration with AM from version 5.5, and identity providers that support RFC 7591, OAuth 2.0 Dynamic Client Registration Protocol.

          • scopes is available for dynamic client registration with AM 5.5 and earlier versions only.

          For the option to dynamically register with a wider range of identity providers, you can use both scope and scopes at the same time.

    • 07-discovery.json uses the path /discovery, whereas 07-openid.json uses /home/id_token.

      This distinction makes it easy to keep traffic separate on the two routes with a simple condition as in the following:

      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/discovery')}"

8.8.2. Trying OpenID Connect Discovery and Dynamic Client Registration

After following the steps described in Section 8.8.1, "Preparing to Try Discovery and Dynamic Client Registration", test your configuration by browsing to IG at http://openig.example.com:8080/discovery.

Provide the following email address: george@example.com.

When redirected to the AM login page, log in as user george, password costanza, and then allow the application access to user information.

If successful, IG logs you in to the sample application as George Costanza, and the sample application returns George's page.

What is happening behind the scenes?

After IG gets the browser request, it returns the example page for discovery. You provide a user ID or email address, and the page transforms that into a discovery value. The value is tailored to let IG use the sample application as a WebFinger server. (In the real world the WebFinger server is more likely a service on the issuer's domain, not part of the protected application. For the purposes of this tutorial the WebFinger service has been embedded in the sample application to avoid leaving you with another server to manage during the tutorial.)

IG learns from the WebFinger service that AM is the issuer for the user. IG retrieves the OpenID Provider configuration from AM, and registers itself dynamically with AM, using the redirection URIs and scopes specified in the OAuth 2.0 client filter configuration.

Once the issuer and client registration are properly configured, the OAuth 2.0 client filter redirects the browser to AM for authentication and authorization to access to the user information. The rest is the same as the previous tutorial in this chapter. For details, see Section 8.6, "Testing the Configuration".

IG reuses issuer and client registration configurations that it builds after discovery and dynamic registration. These dynamically generated configuration objects are held in memory, and do not persist when IG is restarted.

Chapter 9. Transforming OpenID Connect ID Tokens Into SAML Assertions

IG provides a token transformation filter to transform OpenID Connect ID tokens (id_tokens) issued by AM into SAML 2.0 assertions. The implementation uses the AM REST Security Token Service (STS) APIs, where the subject confirmation method is Bearer.

Many enterprises use existing or legacy, SAML 2.0-based SSO, but many mobile and social applications are managed by OAuth 2.0/OpenID. Use the IG token transformation filter to bridge OAuth 2.0 and SAML 2.0 frameworks.

9.1. About Token Transformation

The following figure illustrates the basic flow of information between a request, IG, the AM OAuth 2.0 and STS modules, and an application. For a more detailed view of the flow, see Figure 9.2, "Flow of Events".

Figure 9.1. Token Transformation
Token Transformation

The basic process is as follows:

  1. A user tries to access to a protected resource.

  2. If the user is not authenticated, the OAuth2ClientFilter redirects the request to AM. After authentication, AM asks for the user's consent to give IG access to private information.

  3. If the user consents, AM returns an id_token to the OAuth2ClientFilter. The filter opens the id_token JWT and makes it available in attributes.openid.id_token and attributes.openid.id_token_claims for downstream filters.

  4. The TokenTransformationFilter calls the AM STS to transform the id_token into a SAML 2.0 assertion.

  5. The STS validates the signature, decodes the payload, and verifies that the user issued the transaction. The STS then issues a SAML assertion to IG on behalf of the user.

  6. The TokenTransformationFilter makes the result of the token transformation available to downstream handlers in the issuedToken property of the ${contexts.sts} context.

9.2. Installation Overview

This tutorial takes you through the steps to set up AM as an OAuth 2.0 provider and IG as an OpenID Connect relying party.

When a user makes a request, the OAuth2ClientFilter returns an id_token. The TokenTransformationFilter references a REST STS instance that you set up in AM to transform the id_token into a SAML 2.0 assertion.

You need to be logged in to AM as administrator to set up the configuration for token transformation, but you do not need special privileges to request a token transformation. For more information, see TokenTransformationFilter(5) in the Configuration Reference.

Before you start this tutorial:

Table 9.1. Tasks for Configuring Token Transformation
TaskSee Section(s)

Set up AM as an OpenID Connect provider and IG as an an OpenID Connect relying party.

Section 8.4, " Setting Up AM for OpenID Connect "

Create a Bearer authentication module to validate the id_token and AM user.

Section 9.3.2, " Creating a Bearer Module "

Create an STS REST instance to transform the id_token into a SAML assertion.

Section 9.3.3, "Creating an Instance of STS REST"

Create the routes in IG to send the requests and test the setup.

Section 9.4, " Setting Up IG Routes for Token Transformation "


9.3.  Setting Up AM for Token Transformation

9.3.1.  Setting Up AM as an OpenID Connect Provider

Set up AM as described in Section 8.4, " Setting Up AM for OpenID Connect ". IG authenticates with AM and retrieves an OpenID Connect ID token (id_token) to be transformed by STS.

9.3.2.  Creating a Bearer Module

The OpenID Connect ID token bearer module expects an id_token in an HTTP request header. It validates the id_token, and, if successful, looks up the AM user profile corresponding to the end user for whom the id_token was issued. Assuming the id_token is valid and the profile is found, the module authenticates the AM user.

You configure the token bearer module to specify how AM gets the information to validate the id_token, which request header contains the id_token, the identifier for the provider who issued the id_token, and how to map the id_token claims to an AM user profile.

Procedure 9.1.  To Create a Bearer Module for the id_token
  1. Log in to the AM console as administrator.

  2. In the top level realm, select Authentication > Modules.

  3. Select Add Module and create a new bearer module with the following characteristics:

    • Module name: oidc

    • Type: OpenID Connect id_token bearer

  4. In the configuration page, enter the following values and leave the other fields with the default values:

    • Audience name: oidc_client, the name OAuth 2.0/OpenID Connect client.

    • List of accepted authorized parties: oidc_client.

    • OpenID Connect validation configuration type: Client Secret

    • OpenID Connect validation configuration value: password.

      This is the password of the OAuth 2.0/OpenID Connect client.

    • Name of OpenID Connect ID Token Issuer: http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2

    • Client Secret (available from AM 5.0): password

  5. Select Save Changes.

9.3.3. Creating an Instance of STS REST

The REST STS instance exposes a preconfigured transformation under a specific REST endpoint.

For more information about setting up a REST STS instance, see the AM Security Token Service Guide .

For information about configuring keystores, see Configuring Keystores in the AM Setup and Maintenance Guide.

  1. In the top level realm, select STS.

  2. Create a Rest STS instance with the following characteristics:

    • Deployment Configuration

      • Deployment Url Element: openig

        This value identifies the STS instance and is used by the instance parameter in the TokenTransformationFilter.

    • Issued SAML2 Token Configuration

      • SAML2 issuer Id: OpenAM

      • Service Provider Entity Id: openig_sp

      • NameIdFormat: Select nameid:format:transient

      • Attribute Mappings: Add password=mail and userName=uid.

      • Keystore Password: Retrieve the value from your AM installation, at /path/to/openam/openam/.storepass

        This property specifies the password used to decrypt the keystore.

      • Signature Key Alias: By default, the value is test

        This property specifies the private key alias in the keystore used to sign the assertion. It is configured in the Certificate Alias field of the OpenAM Security Key Store Tab.

      • Signature Key Password: changeit

        This property specifies the password of the private key used to sign the assertion.

      Note

      For STS, it isn't necessary to create a SAML SP configuration in AM.

    • OpenIdConnect Token Configuration

  3. Select Create.

  4. Log out of AM.

9.4.  Setting Up IG Routes for Token Transformation

The following sequence diagram shows what happens when you set up and access routes for token transformation.

Figure 9.2. Flow of Events

Procedure 9.2.  To Set Up Routes to Create an id_token

Errors that occur during the token transformation cause an error response to be returned to the client and an error message to be logged for the IG administrator.

  1. Edit config.json to comment the baseURI in the top-level handler. The handler declaration appears as follows:

    {
        "handler": {
            "type": "Router",
            "name": "_router",
            "_baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
            "capture": "all"
        }
    }

    Restart IG for the changes to take effect.

  2. Add the following route to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/50-idtoken.json

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\50-idtoken.json.

    {
      "heap": [
        {
          "name": "openam",
          "type": "ClientRegistration",
          "config": {
            "clientId": "oidc_client",
            "clientSecret": "password",
            "issuer": {
              "type": "Issuer",
              "config": {
                "wellKnownEndpoint": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/.well-known/openid-configuration"
              }
            },
            "scopes": [
              "openid",
              "profile",
              "email"
            ]
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "OAuth2ClientFilter",
              "config": {
                "clientEndpoint": "/home/id_token",
                "requireHttps": false,
                "requireLogin": true,
                "registrations": "openam",
                "target": "${attributes.openid}",
                "failureHandler": {
                  "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
                  "config": {
                    "entity": "OAuth2ClientFilter failed...",
                    "reason": "NotFound",
                    "status": 500
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": {
            "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
            "config": {
              "entity": "{\"id_token\":\n\"${attributes.openid.id_token}\"} \n\n\n{\"saml_assertions\":\n\"${contexts.sts.issuedToken}\"}",
              "reason": "Found",
              "status": 200
            }
          }
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/id_token')}"
    }

    Notice the following features of the route:

    • The route matches requests to /home/id_token.

    • The client registration is defined in the heap. The registration holds configuration parameters provided during Procedure 8.2, " To Set Up AM as an OpenID Connect Provider ", and IG uses these parameters to connect with AM.

    • The OAuth2ClientFilter enables IG to act as an OpenID Connect relying party.

      • The client endpoint is set to /home/id_token, so the service URIs for this filter on the IG server are /home/id_token/login, /home/id_token/logout, and /home/id_token/callback.

      • For convenience in this test, "requireHttps" is false. In production environments, set it to true. So that you see the delegated authorization process when you make a request, "requireLogin" is true.

      • The target for storing authorization state information is ${attributes.openid}. This is where subsequent filters and handlers can find access tokens and user information.

    • When the request succeeds, a StaticResponseHandler retrieves and displays the id_token from the target {attributes.openid.id_token}.

  3. To prevent conflicts with the route you set up in Chapter 8, "Acting As an OAuth 2.0 Client or OpenID Connect Relying Party", rename the route 07-openid.json to 07-openid.json.old

  4. With IG running, access http://openig.example.com:8080/home/id_token.

    The AM login screen is displayed.

  5. Log in to AM with the username george and password costanza.

    An OpenID Connect request to access private information is displayed.

  6. Select Allow.

    The id_token is displayed above an empty placeholder for the SAML assertion.

    {"id_token":
    "eyAidHlwIjogIkpXVCIsICJhbGciOiAiSFMyNTYiIH0.eyAiYXRfaGFzaCI6ICJ . . ."}
    
    {"saml_assertions":
    ""}
Procedure 9.3.  To Edit the Route to Transform the id_token Into a SAML Assertion
  1. Add the following filter in the chain of 50-idtoken.json, after the OAuth2ClientFilter. An example of the edited route is at the end of this procedure.

    {
      "type": "TokenTransformationFilter",
      "config": {
        "openamUri": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam",
        "username": "oidc_client",
        "password": "password",
        "idToken": "${attributes.openid.id_token}",
        "instance": "openig",
        "ssoTokenHeader": "iPlanetDirectoryPro"
      }
    }

    Notice the following features of the new filter:

    • Requests from this filter are made to http://openam.example.com:8088/openam.

    • The username and password are for the AM subject set up in Procedure 8.2, " To Set Up AM as an OpenID Connect Provider ".

    • The id_token parameter defines where this filter gets the id_token created by the OAuth2ClientFilter.

      The TokenTransformationFilter makes the result of the token transformation available to downstream handlers in the issuedToken property of the ${contexts.sts} context.

    • The instance parameter must match the Deployment URL Element for the REST STS instance.

  2. With IG running, access http://openig.example.com:8080/home/id_token.

    The SAML assertions are displayed under the id_token.

    {"id_token":
    "eyAidHlwIjogIkpXVCIsICJhbGciOiAiSFMyNTYiIH0.eyAiYXRfaGFzaCI6ICJ . . ."}
    
    {"saml_assertions":
    <"saml:Assertion xmlns:saml="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:assertion" Version= . . ."}

Example of the final 50_idtoken.json:

{
  "heap": [
    {
      "name": "openam",
      "type": "ClientRegistration",
      "config": {
        "clientId": "oidc_client",
        "clientSecret": "password",
        "issuer": {
          "type": "Issuer",
          "config": {
            "wellKnownEndpoint": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/.well-known/openid-configuration"
          }
        },
        "scopes": [
          "openid",
          "profile",
          "email"
        ]
      }
    }
  ],
  "handler": {
    "type": "Chain",
    "config": {
      "filters": [
        {
          "type": "OAuth2ClientFilter",
          "config": {
            "clientEndpoint": "/home/id_token",
            "requireHttps": false,
            "requireLogin": true,
            "registrations": "openam",
            "target": "${attributes.openid}",
            "failureHandler": {
              "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
              "config": {
                "entity": "OAuth2ClientFilter failed...",
                "reason": "NotFound",
                "status": 500
              }
            }
          }
        },
        {
          "type": "TokenTransformationFilter",
          "config": {
            "openamUri": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam",
            "username": "oidc_client",
            "password": "password",
            "idToken": "${attributes.openid.id_token}",
            "instance": "openig",
            "ssoTokenHeader": "iPlanetDirectoryPro"
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": {
        "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
        "config": {
          "entity": "{\"id_token\":\n\"${attributes.openid.id_token}\"} \n\n\n{\"saml_assertions\":\n\"${contexts.sts.issuedToken}\"}",
          "reason": "Found",
          "status": 200
        }
      }
    }
  },
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/id_token')}"
}

Chapter 10. Supporting UMA Resource Servers

This chapter describes the experimental support that IG provides for building a User-Managed Access (UMA) resource server.

IG 5.5 and AM 5.5 add support for the User-Managed Access (UMA) 2.0 Grant for OAuth 2.0 Authorization specifications. The text and examples in this chapter describe UMA 2.0, and are relevant for IG 5.5 and later versions used with AM 5.5 and later versions.

The examples in this chapter do not work for versions of IG or AM below 5.5. Refer to the documentation for those versions.

For information about UMA, see the AM User-Managed Access (UMA) 2.0 Guide

10.1. About IG As an UMA Resource Server

This section illustrates the position of IG as a resource server in an UMA environment, with AM as an authorization server.

For more information about the actions that form the UMA workflow, and the process flows for protecting a resource and performing an UMA 2.0 grant, see UMA 2.0 Actors and Actions in the AM User-Managed Access (UMA) 2.0 Guide.

Figure 10.1. UMA Architecture
UMA Architecture

10.2. Sharing and Accessing Protected Resources

This section describes the data flows for registering protected resources and accessing protected resources with a Requesting Party Token (RPT).

For more information about the UMA 2.0 process flow, see UMA 2.0 Process Flow in the AM User-Managed Access (UMA) 2.0 Guide.

The following sequence diagram outlines the data flow for a successful registration of a protected resource:

Figure 10.2. UMA 2.0 Protecting a Resource Flow
UMA 2.0 Protecting a Resource Flow

The following sequence diagram outlines the data flow for a successful UMA 2.0 grant flow, where the client accesses the protected resource:

Figure 10.3. UMA 2.0 Grant Flow Process
UMA 2.0 Grant Flow Process

10.3. Limitations of This Implementation

When using IG as an UMA resource server, note the following points:

  • IG depends on the resource owner for the PAT.

    When a PAT expires, no refresh token is available to IG. The resource owner must repeat the entire share process with a new PAT in order to authorize access to protected resources. The resource owner should delete the old resource and create a new one.

  • Data about PATs and shared resources is held in memory.

    IG has no mechanism for persisting the data across restarts. When IG stops and starts again, the resource owner must repeat the entire share process.

  • UMA client applications for sharing and accessing protected resources must deal with UMA error conditions and IG error conditions.

  • By default, the REST API to manage share objects exposed by IG is protected only by CORS.

  • When matching protected resource paths with share patterns, IG takes the longest match.

    For example, if resource owner Alice shares /photos/.* with Bob, and /photos/vacation.png with Charlie, and then Bob attempts to access /photos/vacation.png, IG applies the sharing permissions for Charlie, not Bob. As a result, Bob can be denied access.

10.4. Preparing the Tutorial

This tutorial describes one way of setting up IG as an UMA resource server. It uses AM as an authorization server for OAuth 2.0 and for UMA, and uses the sample application as a resource to protect and for files that serve as a basic UMA client.

Table 10.1. Tasks for Configuring UMA
TaskSee Section(s)

Modify the AM configuration to allow cross-site access.

Procedure 10.1, "To Enable CORS Support for AM"

Configure AM as an authorization server.

Procedure 10.2, "To Configure AM As an OAuth 2.0 Authorization Server and UMA Authorization Server"

Register client profiles in AM for OAuth 2.0 and UMA.

Procedure 10.3, "To Register Client Profiles in AM"

Create a subject to act as a resource owner and a subject to act as a requesting party.

Procedure 10.4, "To Create a Resource Owner and Requesting Party"

Set up the IG configuration for an UMA resource server

Procedure 10.5, "To Set Up IG As an UMA Resource Server"

If you use a configuration that is different from that described in this chapter, adjust the sample to your configuration.

Section 10.8, "Editing the Example to Match Custom Settings"


10.5. Setting Up AM As an Authorization Server

This section describes the following tasks to set up AM as an authorization server:

  • Enabling cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) support in AM

  • Configuring AM as an authorization server

  • Registering UMA client profiles with AM

  • Setting up a resource owner (Alice) and requesting party (Bob)

Before you start, install and configure AM on http://openam.example.com:8088/openam, with the default configuration. If you use a different configuration, substitute in the tutorial accordingly.

Procedure 10.1. To Enable CORS Support for AM

For information about CORS support, see the AM product documentation. This procedure describes how to modify the AM configuration to allow cross-site access.

Caution

The settings in this section are suggestions for this tutorial, and are not intended as documentation for setting up AM CORS support on a server in production.

If you need to accept all origins, by allowing the use of Access-Control-Allowed-Origin=*, do not allow Content-Type headers. Allowing the use of both types of header exposes AM to cross-site request forgery (CSRF) attacks.

  1. In the WEB-INF/web.xml file of AM, edit the URL pattern for CORSFilter to match all endpoints:

    <filter-mapping>
        <filter-name>CORSFilter</filter-name>
        <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
    </filter-mapping>

  2. In the same file, edit the CORSFilter configuration to authorize cross-site access for origins, hosts, and headers, as shown in the following excerpt:

    <filter>
        <filter-name>CORSFilter</filter-name>
        <filter-class>org.forgerock.openam.cors.CORSFilter</filter-class>
        <init-param>
            <description>
                Accepted Methods (Required):
                A comma separated list of HTTP methods for which to accept CORS requests.
            </description>
            <param-name>methods</param-name>
            <param-value>POST,GET,PUT,DELETE,PATCH,OPTIONS</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <init-param>
            <description>
                Accepted Origins (Required):
                A comma separated list of origins from which to accept CORS requests.
            </description>
            <param-name>origins</param-name>
            <param-value>http://app.example.com:8081,http://openig.example.com:8080,http://openam.example.com:8088</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <init-param>
            <description>
                Allow Credentials (Optional):
                Whether to include the Vary (Origin)
                and Access-Control-Allow-Credentials headers in the response.
                Default: false
            </description>
            <param-name>allowCredentials</param-name>
            <param-value>true</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <init-param>
            <description>
                Allowed Headers (Optional):
                A comma separated list of HTTP headers
                which can be included in the requests.
            </description>
            <param-name>headers</param-name>
            <param-value>
              Authorization,Content-Type,iPlanetDirectoryPro,X-OpenAM-Username,X-OpenAM-Password,Accept,Accept-Encoding,Connection,Content-Length,Host,Origin,User-Agent,Accept-Language,Referer,Dnt,Accept-Api-Version,If-None-Match,Cookie,X-Requested-With,Cache-Control,X-Password,X-Username,X-NoSession
            </param-value>
        </init-param>
        <init-param>
            <description>
                Expected Hostname (Optional):
                The name of the host expected in the request Host header.
            </description>
            <param-name>expectedHostname</param-name>
            <param-value>openam.example.com:8088</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <init-param>
            <description>
                Exposed Headers (Optional):
                The comma separated list of headers
                which the user-agent can expose to its CORS client.
            </description>
            <param-name>exposeHeaders</param-name>
            <param-value>Access-Control-Allow-Origin,Access-Control-Allow-Credentials,Set-Cookie,WWW-Authenticate</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <init-param>
            <description>
                Maximum Cache Age (Optional):
                The maximum time that the CORS client can cache
                the pre-flight response, in seconds.
                Default: 600
            </description>
            <param-name>maxAge</param-name>
            <param-value>600</param-value>
        </init-param>
    </filter>
    
Procedure 10.2. To Configure AM As an OAuth 2.0 Authorization Server and UMA Authorization Server
  1. Log in to the AM console as administrator.

  2. In the top-level realm, select Configure OAuth Provider > Configure OAuth 2.0, accept the default values, and select Create.

    The AM service OAuth2 Provider is created for the authorization endpoint.

    The PAT is obtained through the OAuth 2.0 access token endpoint. The RPT is obtained through the UMA endpoint.

    If you plan to build your own examples or modify the sample clients, consider extending the default token lifetimes.

  3. Select Configure OAuth Provider > Configure User Managed Access, accept the default values, and select Create.

    The AM service UMA Provider is created.

Procedure 10.3. To Register Client Profiles in AM

Follow these steps to register client profiles for OAuth 2.0 and UMA:

  1. In the top level realm, select Applications > OAuth 2.0.

  2. Add a client with the following values:

    • Client ID: OpenIG

    • Client secret: password

    • Scope: uma_protection

  3. Add a client to use when accessing resources, with the following values:

    • Client ID: UmaClient

    • Client secret: password

    • Scope: openid

Procedure 10.4. To Create a Resource Owner and Requesting Party

Follow these steps to create subjects in the top-level realm:

  1. In the top-level realm, select Subjects.

  2. Add a subject to act as a resource owner, with the following values:

    • ID: alice

    • First Name: Alice

    • Last Name: User

    • Full Name: Alice User

    • Password: password

    • User Status: Active

  3. Add a subject to act as a requesting party, with the following values:

    • ID: bob

    • First Name: Bob

    • Last Name: User

    • Full Name: Bob User

    • Password: password

    • User Status: Active

10.6. Setting Up IG As an UMA Resource Server

Procedure 10.5. To Set Up IG As an UMA Resource Server

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

  1. Add the following file as $HOME/.openig/config/admin.json.

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\admin.json:

    {
      "heap": [
        {
          "name": "ClientHandler",
          "type": "ClientHandler"
        },
        {
          "name": "ApiProtectionFilter",
          "type": "ScriptableFilter",
          "config": {
            "type": "application/x-groovy",
            "file": "CorsFilter.groovy"
          }
        }
      ],
      "prefix": "openig"
    }

    To allow CORS support for the UMA share API, this route overrides the default ApiProtectionFilter that protects the reserved administrative route. By default, the administrative route is under /openig. For information, see AdminHttpApplication(5) in the Configuration Reference.

  2. Add the following route to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/00-uma.json.

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\00-uma.json.

    {
      "heap": [
        {
          "name": "UmaService",
          "type": "UmaService",
          "config": {
            "protectionApiHandler": "ClientHandler",
            "authorizationServerUri": "http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/", 
            "resources": [
              {
                "comment": "Protects all resources matching the following pattern.",
                "pattern": ".*",
                "actions": [
                  {
                    "scopes": [
                      "#read"
                    ],
                    "condition": "${request.method == 'GET'}"
                  },
                  {
                    "scopes": [
                      "#create"
                    ],
                    "condition": "${request.method == 'POST'}"
                  }
                ]
              }
            ]
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "ScriptableFilter",
              "config": {
                "type": "application/x-groovy",
                "file": "CorsFilter.groovy"
              }
            },
            {
              "type": "UmaFilter",
              "config": {
                "protectionApiHandler": "ClientHandler",
                "umaService": "UmaService"
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      },
      "condition": "${request.uri.host == 'app.example.com'}"
    }
    

    Notice the following features of the route:

    • The UmaService describes the resources that a resource owner can share. It uses AM as the authorization server.

      The UmaService provides a REST API to manage sharing of resource sets.

    • The handler for the route chains together the CORS filter, the UmaFilter, and the default handler.

      The UmaFilter manages requesting party access to protected resources, using the UmaService. Protected resources are on the sample application, which responds to requests on port 8081.

    • The route matches requests to app.example.com.

  3. Add the following script to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy/CorsFilter.groovy.

    On Windows, add the script as %appdata%\OpenIG\scripts\groovy\CorsFilter.groovy.

    import org.forgerock.http.protocol.Response
    import org.forgerock.http.protocol.Status
    
    if (request.method == 'OPTIONS') {
        /**
         * Supplies a response to a CORS preflight request.
         *
         * Example response:
         *
         * HTTP/1.1 200 OK
         * Access-Control-Allow-Origin: http://app.example.com:8081
         * Access-Control-Allow-Methods: POST
         * Access-Control-Allow-Headers: Authorization
         * Access-Control-Allow-Credentials: true
         * Access-Control-Max-Age: 3600
         */
    
        def origin = request.headers['Origin']?.firstValue
        def response = new Response(Status.OK)
    
        // Browsers sending a cross-origin request from a file might have Origin: null.
        response.headers.put("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", origin)
        request.headers['Access-Control-Request-Method']?.values.each() {
            response.headers.add("Access-Control-Allow-Methods", it)
        }
        request.headers['Access-Control-Request-Headers']?.values.each() {
            response.headers.add("Access-Control-Allow-Headers", it)
        }
        response.headers.put("Access-Control-Allow-Credentials", "true")
        response.headers.put("Access-Control-Max-Age", "3600")
    
        return response
    }
    
    return next.handle(context, request)
    /**
     * Adds headers to a CORS response.
     */
            .thenOnResult({ response ->
        if (response.status.isServerError()) {
            // Skip headers if the response is a server error.
        } else {
            def headers = [
                    "Access-Control-Allow-Origin": request.headers['Origin']?.firstValue,
                    "Access-Control-Allow-Credentials": "true",
                    "Access-Control-Expose-Headers": "WWW-Authenticate"
            ]
            response.headers.addAll(headers)
        }
    })
    

    This script adds a CORS filter to include headers for cross-origin requests.

    The tutorial involves JavaScript clients that are served by the sample application, and so not from the same origin as AM or IG. The route uses a CORS filter to include appropriate response headers for cross-origin requests.

    The CORS filter handles pre-flight (HTTP OPTIONS) requests, and responses for all HTTP operations. The logic for the filter is provided through the script.

    The filter adds the appropriate headers to CORS requests. Pre-flight requests are diverted to a dedicated handler, which returns the response directly to the user agent. For all other requests, the headers are added to the response.

    For information about scripting filters and handlers, see Chapter 13, "Extending Identity Gateway".

  4. Restart IG to reload the configuration.

10.7. Test the Configuration

Follow these steps to test the configuration and demonstrate IG acting as an UMA resource server:

  1. Log out of AM.

  2. Browse to http://app.example.com:8081/uma/.

    If you used the settings described in this chapter and Section 2.4, "Installing the Sample Application" in the Getting Started Guide, your configuration should match the displayed configuration. If you used other settings, you might need to edit the sample files to match your settings. For information, see Section 10.8, "Editing the Example to Match Custom Settings".

  3. Select the link to demonstrate Alice sharing resources.

  4. On Alice's page, select Share with Bob to simulate Alice sharing resources as described in Section 10.2, "Sharing and Accessing Protected Resources".

    The following items are displayed:

    • The PAT that Alice receives from AM

    • The metadata for the resource set that Alice registers through IG

    • The result of Alice authenticating with AM in order to create a policy

    • The successful result when Alice configures the authorization policy attached to the shared resource.

    If the step fails, get help in Section 17.2, "Troubleshooting the UMA Example".

  5. Go back to the first page, and select the link to demonstrate Bob accessing resources.

  6. On Bob's page, select Get Alice's resources to simulate Bob accessing one of Alice's resources.

    The following items are displayed:

    • The WWW-Authenticate Header

    • The OpenID Connect Token that Bob gets to obtain the RPT

    • The RPT that Bob gets in order to request the resource again

    • The final response containing the body of the resource

10.8. Editing the Example to Match Custom Settings

If you use a configuration that is different to that described in this chapter, consider the following tasks to adjust the sample to your configuration:

  1. Unpack the UMA files from the sample application described in Section 2.4, "Installing the Sample Application" in the Getting Started Guide to temporary folder:

    $ mkdir /tmp/uma
    $ cd /tmp/uma
    $ jar -xvf /path/to/IG-sample-application-5.5.0.jar uma
     created: uma/
    inflated: uma/alice.html
    inflated: uma/bob.html
    inflated: uma/common.js
    inflated: uma/index.html
    inflated: uma/style.css
          

  2. Edit the configuration in common.js, alice.html, and bob.html to match your settings.

  3. Repack the UMA sample client files and then restart the sample application:

    $ jar -uvf /path/to/IG-sample-application-5.5.0.jar uma
    adding: uma/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)
    adding: uma/index.html(in = 1698) (out= 880)(deflated 48%)
    adding: uma/common.js(in = 4265) (out= 1319)(deflated 69%)
    adding: uma/bob.html(in = 5427) (out= 1811)(deflated 66%)
    adding: uma/style.css(in = 1403) (out= 696)(deflated 50%)
    adding: uma/alice.html(in = 5494) (out= 1762)(deflated 67%)

  4. If necessary, adjust the CORS settings for AM.

10.9. Understanding the UMA API With an API Descriptor

The UMA share endpoint serves API descriptors at runtime. When you retrieve an API descriptor for the endpoint, a JSON that describes the API for the endpoint is returned.

You can use the API descriptor with a tool such as Swagger UI to generate a web page that helps you to view and test the endpoint. For information, see Section 1.10, "Understanding IG APIs With API Descriptors".

Chapter 11. Configuring Routers and Routes

IG provides routers and routes to handle requests and their context. In this chapter, you will learn about:

  • How routers and routes are configured

  • How to read, create, edit, or delete routes through Common REST or IG Studio

  • How to prevent changes to routes when IG is running

11.1. Configuring Routers

When you set up the first tutorial, you configured a Router in the top-level config.json file, which is shown here again in the following listing:

{
  "handler": {
    "type": "Router",
    "name": "_router",
    "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
    "capture": "all"
  },
  "heap": [
    {
      "name": "JwtSession",
      "type": "JwtSession"
    },
    {
      "name": "capture",
      "type": "CaptureDecorator",
      "config": {
        "captureEntity": true,
        "_captureContext": true
      }
    }
  ]
}

In this configuration, all requests are passed with the default settings to the router. The router scans $HOME/.openig/config/routes at startup, and rescans the directory every 10 seconds. If routes have been added, deleted or changed, the router applies the changes.

The main router and any subrouters are used to build the monitoring endpoints. For information about monitoring endpoints, see Chapter 14, "Auditing and Monitoring". For information about the parameters of a router, see Router(5) in the Configuration Reference.

11.2. Configuring Routes

Routes are JSON configuration files that handle requests and their context, and then hand off any request they accept to a handler. Another way to think of a route is like an independent dispatch handler, as described in DispatchHandler(5) in the Configuration Reference.

Routes can have a base URI to change the scheme, host, and port of the request.

For information about the parameters of routes, see Route(5) in the Configuration Reference.

11.2.1. Configuring Objects Inline or In the Heap

If you use an object only once in the configuration, you can declare it inline in the route and do not need to name it. However, when you need use an object multiple times, declare it in the heap, and then reference it by name in the route.

The following route shows an inline declaration for a handler. The handler is a router to route requests to separate route configurations:

{
    "handler": {
        "type": "Router"
    }
}

The following example shows a named router in the heap, and a handler references the router by its name:

{
    "handler": "My Router",
    "heap": [
        {
            "name": "My Router",
            "type": "Router"
        }
    ]
}

Notice that the heap takes an array. Because the heap holds all configuration objects at the same level, you can impose any hierarchy or order when referencing objects. Note that when you declare all objects in the heap and reference them by name, neither hierarchy nor ordering are obvious from the structure of the configuration file alone.

11.2.2. Setting Route Conditions

When a route has a condition, it can handle only requests that meet the condition. When a route has no condition, it can handle any request.

A condition can be based on almost any characteristic of the request, context, or IG runtime environment. Conditions are defined using IG expressions, as described in Expressions(5) in the Configuration Reference.

The following example shows a route condition that is met when the request path is /login:

"condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/login')}"

The following example shows a route condition that is met only by requests with api.example.com as the host portion of the URI:

"condition": "${request.uri.host == 'api.example.com'}"

The following example shows a route with no condition. This route accepts any request:

{
    "name": "default",
    "handler": {
        "type": "ClientHandler"
    }
}

Because routes define the conditions on which they accept a request, the router does not have to know about specific routes in advance. In other words, you can configure the router first and then add routes while IG is running.

11.2.3.  Configuring Route Names, IDs, and Filenames

Route filenames have the extension .json, in lowercase. A router scans the routes folder for files with the .json extension.

When a route has a name configuration object, the name is used by the router to order the routes lexicographically in the configuration. If the route is not named, the route ID is used.

When you add a route manually to the routes folder or add it through Common REST, the route ID is the same as the filename of the route you add. When you add a route through IG Studio, you can edit the default route ID.

11.3.  Creating and Editing Routes Through Common REST

Note

When IG is in production mode, you cannot manage, list, or even read routes through Common REST. For more information, see Section 2.8, "Making the Configuration Immutable".

Note

If an AM policy agent is configured in the same container as IG, by default the policy agent intercepts requests to manage routes. When you try to add a route through Common REST, the policy agent redirects the request to AM and the route is not added.

To override this behavior, add the URL pattern /openig/api/* to the list of not-enforced URI in the policy agent profile. For information, see Procedure 4.4, "To Create a Policy Agent Profile in AM".

Through Common REST, you can read, add, delete, and edit routes on IG without manually accessing the file system. You can also list the routes in the order that they are loaded in the configuration, and set fields to filter the information about the routes.

The following examples show some ways to manage routes through Common REST. For more information, see Section 5, "About ForgeRock Common REST" in the Configuration Reference.

Procedure 11.1.  To Manage Routes Through Common REST

Before you start, prepare IG as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

  1. Add the following route to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/00-crest.json.

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\00-crest.json.

    {
      "name": "crest",
      "handler": {
        "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
        "config": {
          "status": 200,
          "reason": "OK",
          "entity": "Hello, world!"
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/crest')}"
    }

    To check that the route is working, access the route on: http://openig.example.com:8080/crest.

  2. To read a route through Common REST:

    • Enter the following command in a terminal window:

      $ http GET http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes/00-crest

      The route is displayed. Note that the route _id is displayed in the JSON of the route.

  3. To add a route through Common REST:

    • Move $HOME/.openig/config/routes/00-crest.json to /tmp/00-crest.json.

    • Check in $HOME/.openig/logs/route-system.log that the route has been removed from the configuration. To double check, access http://openig.example.com:8080/crest. You should get an HTTP 404.

    • Enter the following command in a terminal window:

      $ http PUT http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes/00-crest < /tmp/00-crest.json

      This command posts the file in /tmp/00-crest.json to the routes directory.

    • Check in $HOME/.openig/logs/route-system.log that the route has been added to configuration. To double-check, access http://openig.example.com:8080/crest. You should see the "Hello, world!" message.

  4. To edit a route through CREST:

    • Edit /tmp/00-crest.json to change the message displayed by the response handler in the route.

    • Enter the following command in a terminal window:

      $ http PUT http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes/00-crest If-Match:* < /tmp/00-crest.json

      This command deploys the route with the new configuration. Because the changes are persisted into the configuration, the existing $HOME/.openig/config/routes/00-crest.json is replaced with the edited version in /tmp/00-crest.json.

    • Check in $HOME/.openig/logs/route-system.log, that the route has been updated. To double-check, access http://openig.example.com:8080/crest to confirm that the displayed message has changed.

  5. To delete a route through CREST:

    • Enter the following command in a terminal window:

      $ $ http DELETE http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes/00-crest

    • Check in $HOME/.openig/logs/route-system.log that the route has been removed from the configuration. To double-check, access http://openig.example.com:8080/crest. You should get an HTTP 404.

  6. To list the routes deployed on the router, in the order that they are tried by the router:

    • Enter the following command in a terminal window:

      $ http "http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes?_queryFilter=true"

      The list of loaded routes is displayed.

11.4. Creating Routes Through IG Studio

Note

When IG is in production mode, IG Studio is effectively disabled. For more information, see Section 2.8, "Making the Configuration Immutable".

IG Studio is a user interface to configure and deploy routes in IG. You can use IG Studio to create routes for tasks such as authenticating users, and authorizing access to APIs, throttling the rate of requests to protected applications, capturing messages, and collecting statistics. New features will be added as IG Studio evolves.

When IG is installed and running as described in this guide, access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio.

For help to get started with IG Studio, see Chapter 3, "Configuring Routes With IG Studio" in the Getting Started Guide. For examples of how to use IG Studio to configure routes, see the following sections of this guide:

11.5. Preventing the Reload of Routes

To prevent routes from being reloaded after startup, stop IG, edit the router scanInterval, and restart IG. When the interval is set to disabled, routes are loaded only at startup:

{
    "name": "Router",
    "type": "Router",
    "config": {
        "scanInterval": "disabled"
    }
}

The following example changes the location where the router looks for the routes:

{
    "name": "Router",
    "type": "Router",
    "config": {
        "directory": "/path/to/safe/routes",
        "scanInterval": "disabled"
    }
}

11.6. Accessing Reserved Routes

IG uses an ApiProtectionFilter to protect the reserved routes. By default, the filter allows access to reserved routes only from the loopback address. To override this behavior, declare a custom ApiProtectionFilter in the top-level heap. For an example, see the CORS filter described in Procedure 10.5, "To Set Up IG As an UMA Resource Server".

Chapter 12. Configuration Templates

This chapter contains template routes for common configurations.

Before you use one of the templates here, install and configure IG with a router and default route as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

Next, take one of the templates and then modify it to suit your deployment. Read the summary of each template to find the right match for your application.

When you move to use IG in production, be sure to turn off DEBUG level logging, and to deactivate CaptureDecorator use to avoid filling up disk space. Also consider locking down the Router configuration.

12.1. Proxy and Capture

If you installed and configured IG with a router and default route as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide, then you already proxy and capture both the application requests coming in and the server responses going out.

The route shown in Example 12.1, "Proxy and Capture" uses a DispatchHandler to change the scheme to HTTPS on login. To use this template change the baseURI settings to match those of the target application.

When connecting to the protected application over HTTPS, the ClientHandler must be configured to trust the application's public key server certificate. If the certificate was signed by a well-known Certificate Authority, then there should be no further configuration to do. Otherwise, use a ClientHandler that references a truststore holding the certificate.

Example 12.1. Proxy and Capture
{
  "handler": {
    "type": "DispatchHandler",
    "config": {
      "bindings": [
        {
          "condition": "${request.uri.path == '/login'}",
          "handler": "ClientHandler",
          "comment": "Must be able to trust the server cert for HTTPS",
          "baseURI": "https://app.example.com:8444"
        },
        {
          "condition": "${request.uri.scheme == 'http'}",
          "handler": "ClientHandler",
          "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081"
        },
        {
          "handler": "ClientHandler",
          "baseURI": "https://app.example.com:8444"
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "capture": "all",
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.query, 'demo=capture')}"
}

To try this example with the sample application, save the file as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/20-capture.json, and browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/login?demo=capture.

To use this as a default route with a real application, remove the route-level condition on the handler that specifies a demo query string parameter.

12.2. Simple Login Form

The route in Example 12.2, "Simple Login Form" logs the user into the target application with hard-coded user name and password. The route intercepts the login page request and replaces it with the login form. Adapt the uri, form, and baseURI settings as necessary.

Example 12.2. Simple Login Form
{
  "heap": [
    {
      "name": "ClientHandler",
      "type": "ClientHandler",
      "comment": "Testing only: blindly trust the server cert for HTTPS.",
      "config": {
        "trustManager": {
          "type": "TrustAllManager"
        }
      }
    }
  ],
  "handler": {
    "type": "Chain",
    "config": {
      "filters": [
        {
          "type": "PasswordReplayFilter",
          "config": {
            "loginPage": "${request.uri.path == '/login'}",
            "request": {
              "method": "POST",
              "uri": "https://app.example.com:8444/login",
              "form": {
                "username": [
                  "MY_USERNAME"
                ],
                "password": [
                  "MY_PASSWORD"
                ]
              }
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": "ClientHandler"
    }
  },
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.query, 'demo=simple')}"
}

The parameters in the PasswordReplayFilter form, MY_USERNAME and MY_PASSWORD, can use strings or expressions. When connecting to the protected application over HTTPS, the ClientHandler must be configured to trust the application's public key server certificate.

To try this example with the sample application, save the file as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/21-simple.json, replace MY_USERNAME with demo and MY_PASSWORD with changeit, and browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/login?demo=simple.

To use this as a default route with a real application, use a ClientHandler that does not blindly trust the server certificate, and remove the route-level condition on the handler that specifies a demo query string parameter.

12.5. Login Which Requires a Hidden Value From the Login Page

Some applications call for extracting a hidden value from the login page and including the value in the login form POSTed to the target application. The route in Example 12.5, "Login Which Requires a Hidden Value From the Login Page" extracts a hidden value from the login page, and posts a static form including the hidden value.

Example 12.5. Login Which Requires a Hidden Value From the Login Page
{
  "heap": [
    {
      "name": "ClientHandler",
      "type": "ClientHandler",
      "comment": "Testing only: blindly trust the server cert for HTTPS.",
      "config": {
        "trustManager": {
          "type": "TrustAllManager"
        }
      }
    }
  ],
  "handler": {
    "type": "Chain",
    "config": {
      "filters": [
        {
          "type": "PasswordReplayFilter",
          "config": {
            "loginPage": "${request.uri.path == '/login'}",
            "loginPageExtractions": [
              {
                "name": "hidden",
                "pattern": "loginToken\\s+value=\"(.*)\""
              }
            ],
            "request": {
              "method": "POST",
              "uri": "https://app.example.com:8444/login",
              "form": {
                "username": [
                  "MY_USERNAME"
                ],
                "password": [
                  "MY_PASSWORD"
                ],
                "hiddenValue": [
                  "${attributes.extracted.hidden}"
                ]
              }
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": "ClientHandler"
    }
  },
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.query, 'demo=hidden')}"
}

The parameters in the PasswordReplayFilter form, MY_USERNAME and MY_PASSWORD, can have string values, and they can also use expressions. When connecting to the protected application over HTTPS, the ClientHandler must be configured to trust the application's public key server certificate.

To try this example with the sample application, save the file as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/24-hidden.json, replace MY_USERNAME with scarter and MY_PASSWORD with sprain, and browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/login?demo=hidden.

To use this as a default route with a real application, use a ClientHandler that does not blindly trust the server certificate, and remove the route-level condition on the handler that specifies a demo query string parameter.

12.6. HTTP and HTTPS Application

The route in Example 12.6, "HTTP and HTTPS Application" proxies traffic to an application with both HTTP and HTTPS ports. The application uses HTTPS for authentication and HTTP for the general application features. Assuming all login requests are made over HTTPS, you must add the login filters and handlers to the chain.

Example 12.6. HTTP and HTTPS Application
{
  "handler": {
    "type": "DispatchHandler",
    "config": {
      "bindings": [
        {
          "condition": "${request.uri.scheme == 'http'}",
          "handler": "ClientHandler",
          "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081"
        },
        {
          "condition": "${request.uri.path == '/login'}",
          "handler": {
            "type": "Chain",
            "config": {
              "comment": "Add one or more filters to handle login.",
              "filters": [],
              "handler": "ClientHandler"
            }
          },
          "baseURI": "https://app.example.com:8444"
        },
        {
          "handler": "ClientHandler",
          "baseURI": "https://app.example.com:8444"
        }
      ]
    }
  },
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.query, 'demo=https')}"
}

When connecting to the protected application over HTTPS, the ClientHandler must be configured to trust the application's public key server certificate.

To try this example with the sample application, save the file as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/25-https.json, and browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/login?demo=https.

To use this as a default route with a real application, remove the route-level condition on the handler that specifies a demo query string parameter.

12.7. AM Integration With Headers

The route in Example 12.7, "AM Integration With Headers" logs the user into the target application using the headers such as those passed in from an AM policy agent. If the header passed in contains only a user name or subject and requires a lookup to an external data source, you must add an attribute filter to the chain to retrieve the credentials.

Example 12.7. AM Integration With Headers
{
  "heap": [
    {
      "name": "ClientHandler",
      "type": "ClientHandler",
      "comment": "Testing only: blindly trust the server cert for HTTPS.",
      "config": {
        "trustManager": {
          "type": "TrustAllManager"
        }
      }
    }
  ],
  "handler": {
    "type": "Chain",
    "config": {
      "filters": [
        {
          "type": "PasswordReplayFilter",
          "config": {
            "loginPage": "${request.uri.path == '/login'}",
            "request": {
              "method": "POST",
              "uri": "https://app.example.com:8444/login",
              "form": {
                "username": [
                  "${request.headers['username'][0]}"
                ],
                "password": [
                  "${request.headers['password'][0]}"
                ]
              }
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": "ClientHandler"
    }
  },
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.query, 'demo=headers')}"
}

When connecting to the protected application over HTTPS, the ClientHandler must be configured to trust the application's public key server certificate.

To try this example with the sample application, save the file as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/26-headers.json, and use the curl command to simulate the headers being passed in from an AM policy agent as in the following example:

$ curl \
 --header "username: kvaughan" \
 --header "password: bribery" \
 http://openig.example.com:8080/login?demo=headers
...
    <title id="welcome">Howdy, kvaughan</title>
...
  

To use this as a default route with a real application, use a ClientHandler that does not blindly trust the server certificate, and remove the route-level condition on the handler that specifies a demo query string parameter.

12.8. Microsoft Online Outlook Web Access

The route in Example 12.8, "Microsoft Online Outlook Web Access" logs the user into Microsoft Online Outlook Web Access (OWA). The example shows how you would use IG and the AM password capture feature to integrate with OWA. Follow the example in Chapter 4, "Getting Login Credentials From Access Management", and substitute this template as a replacement for the default route.

Example 12.8. Microsoft Online Outlook Web Access
{
  "handler": {
    "type": "Chain",
    "config": {
      "filters": [
        {
          "type": "PasswordReplayFilter",
          "config": {
            "loginPage": "${request.uri.path == '/owa/auth/logon.aspx'}",
            "headerDecryption": {
              "algorithm": "DES/ECB/NoPadding",
              "key": "DESKEY",
              "keyType": "DES",
              "charSet": "utf-8",
              "headers": [
                "password"
              ]
            },
            "request": {
              "method": "POST",
              "uri": "https://login.microsoftonline.com",
              "headers": {
                "Host": [
                  "login.microsoftonline.com"
                ],
                "Content-Type": [
                  "Content-Type:application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
                ]
              },
              "form": {
                "destination": [
                  "https://login.microsoftonline.com/owa/"
                ],
                "forcedownlevel": [
                  "0"
                ],
                "trusted": [
                  "0"
                ],
                "username": [
                  "${request.headers['username'][0]}"
                ],
                "passwd": [
                  "${request.headers['password'][0]}"
                ],
                "isUtf8": [
                  "1"
                ]
              }
            }
          }
        }
      ],
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "HeaderFilter",
              "config": {
                "messageType": "REQUEST",
                "remove": [
                  "password",
                  "username"
                ]
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": {
            "type": "ClientHandler"
          },
          "baseURI": "https://login.microsoftonline.com"
        }
      }
    }
  },
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.query, 'demo=headers')}"
}

To try this example, save the file as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/27-owa.json. Change DESKEY to the actual key value that you generated when following the instructions in Procedure 4.5, "To Configure Password Capture in AM".

To use this as a default route with a real application, remove the route-level condition on the handler that specifies a demo query string parameter.

Chapter 13. Extending Identity Gateway

This chapter describes how to extend IG, taking you through the steps to:

  • Write scripts to create custom filters and handlers

  • Plug additional Java libraries into IG for further customization

To extend filter and handler functionality, IG supports the Groovy dynamic scripting language through the use of ScriptableFilter and ScriptableHandler objects.

For when you can't achieve complex server interactions or intensive data transformations with scripts or existing handlers, filters, or expressions, IG allows you to develop custom extensions in Java and provide them in additional libraries that you build into IG. The libraries allow you to develop custom extensions to IG.

Important

When you are writing scripts or Java extensions, never use a Promise blocking method, such as get(), getOrThrow(), or getOrThrowUninterruptibly(), to obtain the response.

A promise represents the result of an asynchronous operation. Therefore, using a blocking method to wait for the result can cause deadlocks and/or race issues.

13.1. About Scripting

Scriptable filters and handlers are added to the configuration in the same way as standard filters and handlers. They are configured by the script's Internet media type and either a source script included in the JSON configuration, or a file script that IG reads from a file. The configuration can optionally supply arguments to the script.

IG provides several global variables to scripts at runtime. As well as having access to Groovy's built-in functionality, scripts can access the request and the context, store variables across executions, write messages to logs, make requests to a web service or to an LDAP directory service, and access responses returned in promise callback methods. For information about scripting in IG, see ScriptableFilter(5) in the Configuration Reference and ScriptableHandler(5) in the Configuration Reference.

Before trying the scripts in this chapter, install and configure IG as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

When developing and debugging your scripts, consider configuring a capture decorator to log requests, responses, and context data in JSON form. You can then turn off capturing when you move to production. For details, see CaptureDecorator(5) in the Configuration Reference.

13.1.1. Creating a ScriptableFilter With a Reference File Script

The following example defines a ScriptableFilter written in Groovy, and stored in a file named $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy/SimpleFormLogin.groovy (%appdata%\OpenIG\scripts\groovy\SimpleFormLogin.groovy on Windows):

{
  "name": "SimpleFormLogin",
  "type": "ScriptableFilter",
  "config": {
    "type": "application/x-groovy",
    "file": "SimpleFormLogin.groovy"
  }
}

Relative paths in the file field depend on how IG is installed. If IG is installed in an application server, then paths for Groovy scripts are relative to $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy.

The base location $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy is on the classpath when the scripts are executed. If some Groovy scripts are not in the default package, but instead have their own package names, they belong in the directory corresponding to their package name. For example, a script in package com.example.groovy belongs under $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy/com/example/groovy/.

13.1.2. Creating a ScriptableFilter in IG Studio

This section uses IG Studio to configure a ScriptableFilter for a route by using IG Studio. For more information about using IG Studio, see Section 3.4, "Adding Filters to a Route" in the Getting Started Guide.

Procedure 13.1. To Create a Reference Script

Use this procedure to create a reference script that can be used by scriptable filters in a route. Alternatively, add the script directly in the filter as described in Procedure 13.2, "To Create a Scriptable Filter".

Note the following points about creating reference scripts:

  • When you enter a script directly in a scriptable filter or scriptable throttling filter, the script is added to the list of reference scripts.

  • You can use a reference script in multiple filters in a route. If you edit a reference script, all filters that use it are updated with the change.

  • If you delete a scriptable filter or scriptable throttling filter, or remove it from the chain, the script that it references remains in the list of scripts.

  • If a reference script is used in a filter, the script can't be renamed or deleted.

  1. In IG Studio, select the route to which you want to add a ScriptableFilter.

  2. Select Scripts and New script.

  3. Enter a name for the script, and select to use it in scriptable filters.

  4. Replace the default script with the following Groovy script:

    if (contexts.policyDecision.advices['MyCustomAdvice'] != null) {
      return handleCustomAdvice(context, request)
    } else {
      return next.handle(context, request)
    }

    Note

    IG Studio does not check the validity of the Groovy script.

  5. Select Save. The script is added to the list of reference scripts for the route.

Procedure 13.2. To Create a Scriptable Filter

Use this procedure to add a ScriptableFilter to a route.

  1. In IG Studio, select the route to which you want to add a ScriptableFilter.

  2. Select Other filters, New filter, and then Scriptable filter.

  3. Enter a name for the scriptable filter, and select whether to create a new script or a use reference script:

    • To create a new script, enter a name for the script and replace the default script with the content of a valid Groovy script.

      When you save, the new script is stored in Scripts for use by other scriptable filters.

    • To use the script added in Procedure 13.1, "To Create a Reference Script", select the script from the list. The script is displayed in the Script window.

  4. Select Save. The ScriptableFilter is added to the chain.

    To move the filter to another position in the chain, select Chain and drag the filter. To edit the filter, select .

  5. On the top-right of the screen, select and Display. The script from Procedure 13.1, "To Create a Reference Script" creates a scriptable filter like this:

    {
      "name": "ScriptableFilter-myScriptableFilter",
      "type": "ScriptableFilter",
      "config": {
        "type": "application/x-groovy",
        "source": [
          "if (contexts.policyDecision.advices['MyCustomAdvice'] != null) {",
          "  return handleCustomAdvice(context, request)",
          "} else {",
          "  return next.handle(context, request)",
          "}"
        ]
      }
    }

  6. Select Deploy to push the route to the IG configuration.

13.2. Scripting Dispatch

In order to route requests, especially when the conditions are complicated, you can use a ScriptableHandler instead of a DispatchHandler as described in DispatchHandler(5) in the Configuration Reference.

The following script demonstrates a simple dispatch handler:

/*
 * Copyright 2014-2017 ForgeRock AS. All Rights Reserved
 *
 * Use of this code requires a commercial software license with ForgeRock AS.
 * or with one of its affiliates. All use shall be exclusively subject
 * to such license between the licensee and ForgeRock AS.
 */


/*
 * This simplistic dispatcher matches the path part of the HTTP request.
 * If the path is /mylogin, it checks Username and Password headers,
 * accepting bjensen:hifalutin, and returning HTTP 403 Forbidden to others.
 * Otherwise it returns HTTP 401 Unauthorized.
 */

// Rather than return a Promise of a response from an external source,
// this script returns the response itself.
response = new Response(Status.OK);

switch (request.uri.path) {

    case "/mylogin":

        if (request.headers.Username.values[0] == "bjensen" &&
                request.headers.Password.values[0] == "hifalutin") {

            response.status = Status.OK
            response.entity = "<html><p>Welcome back, Babs!</p></html>"

        } else {

            response.status = Status.FORBIDDEN
            response.entity = "<html><p>Authorization required</p></html>"

        }

        break

    default:

        response.status = Status.UNAUTHORIZED
        response.entity = "<html><p>Please <a href='./mylogin'>log in</a>.</p></html>"

        break

}

// Return the locally created response, no need to wrap it into a Promise
return response

To try this handler, save the script as $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy/DispatchHandler.groovy (%appdata%\OpenIG\scripts\groovy\DispatchHandler.groovy on Windows).

Next, add the following route to your configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/98-dispatch.json (%appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\98-dispatch.json on Windows):

{
  "heap": [
    {
      "name": "DispatchHandler",
      "type": "DispatchHandler",
      "config": {
        "bindings": [{
          "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '/mylogin')}",
          "handler": {
            "type": "Chain",
            "config": {
              "filters": [
                {
                  "type": "HeaderFilter",
                  "config": {
                    "messageType": "REQUEST",
                    "add": {
                      "Username": [
                        "bjensen"
                      ],
                      "Password": [
                        "hifalutin"
                      ]
                    }
                  }
                }
              ],
              "handler": "Dispatcher"
            }
          }
        },
          {
            "handler": "Dispatcher",
            "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '/dispatch')}"
          }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "name": "Dispatcher",
      "type": "ScriptableHandler",
      "config": {
        "type": "application/x-groovy",
        "file": "DispatchHandler.groovy"
      }
    }
  ],
  "handler": "DispatchHandler",
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/dispatch') or matches(request.uri.path, '^/mylogin')}"
}

The route sets up the headers required by the script when the user logs in.

To try it out, browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/dispatch.

The response from the script says, "Please log in." When you click the log in link, the HeaderFilter sets Username and Password headers in the request, and passes the request to the script.

The script then responds, Welcome back, Babs!

13.3. Scripting HTTP Basic Authentication

HTTP Basic authentication calls for the user agent such as a browser to send a user name and password to the server in an Authorization header. HTTP Basic authentication relies on an encrypted connection to protect the user name and password credentials, which are base64-encoded in the Authorization header, not encrypted.

The following script, for use in a ScriptableFilter, adds an Authorization header based on a username and password combination:

/*
 * Copyright 2014-2017 ForgeRock AS. All Rights Reserved
 *
 * Use of this code requires a commercial software license with ForgeRock AS.
 * or with one of its affiliates. All use shall be exclusively subject
 * to such license between the licensee and ForgeRock AS.
 */

/*
 * Perform basic authentication with the user name and password
 * that are supplied using a configuration like the following:
 *
 * {
 *     "name": "BasicAuth",
 *     "type": "ScriptableFilter",
 *     "config": {
 *         "type": "application/x-groovy",
 *         "file": "BasicAuthFilter.groovy",
 *         "args": {
 *             "username": "bjensen",
 *             "password": "hifalutin"
 *             }
 *         }
 * }
 */

def userPass = username + ":" + password
def base64UserPass = userPass.getBytes().encodeBase64()
request.headers.add("Authorization", "Basic ${base64UserPass}" as String)

// Credentials are only base64-encoded, not encrypted: Set scheme to HTTPS.

/*
 * When connecting over HTTPS, by default the client tries to trust the server.
 * If the server has no certificate
 * or has a self-signed certificate unknown to the client,
 * then the most likely result is an SSLPeerUnverifiedException.
 *
 * To avoid an SSLPeerUnverifiedException,
 * set up HTTPS correctly on the server.
 * Either use a server certificate signed by a well-known CA,
 * or set up the gateway to trust the server certificate.
 */
request.uri.scheme = "https"

// Calls the next Handler and returns a Promise of the Response.
// The Response can be handled with asynchronous Promise callbacks.
next.handle(context, request)

To try this filter, save the script as $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy/BasicAuthFilter.groovy (%appdata%\OpenIG\scripts\groovy\BasicAuthFilter.groovy on Windows).

Next, add the following route to your configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/09-basic.json (%appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\09-basic.json on Windows):

{
  "handler": {
    "type": "Chain",
    "config": {
      "filters": [
        {
          "type": "ScriptableFilter",
          "config": {
            "type": "application/x-groovy",
            "file": "BasicAuthFilter.groovy",
            "args": {
              "username": "bjensen",
              "password": "hifalutin"
            }
          },
          "capture": "filtered_request"
        }
      ],
      "handler": {
        "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
        "config": {
          "status": 200,
          "reason": "OK",
          "entity": "Hello, Babs!"
        }
      }
    }
  },
  "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/basic')}"
}

When the request path matches /basic the route calls the Chain, which runs the ScriptableFilter. The capture setting captures the request as updated by the ScriptableFilter. Finally, IG returns a static page.

To try it out, browse to http://openig.example.com:8080/basic.

The captured request in the console log shows that the scheme is now HTTPS, and that the Authorization header is set for HTTP Basic:

GET https://openig.example.com:8080/basic HTTP/1.1
Authorization: Basic YmplbnNlbjpoaWZhbHV0aW4=

13.4. Scripting LDAP Authentication

Many organizations use an LDAP directory service to store user profiles including authentication credentials. The LDAP directory service securely stores user passwords in a highly-available, central service capable of handling thousands of authentications per second.

The following script, for use in a ScriptableFilter, performs simple authentication against an LDAP server based on request form fields username and password:

/*
 * Copyright 2014-2017 ForgeRock AS. All Rights Reserved
 *
 * Use of this code requires a commercial software license with ForgeRock AS.
 * or with one of its affiliates. All use shall be exclusively subject
 * to such license between the licensee and ForgeRock AS.
 */

import org.forgerock.opendj.ldap.*

/*
 * Perform LDAP authentication based on user credentials from a form.
 *
 * If LDAP authentication succeeds, then return a promise to handle the response.
 * If there is a failure, produce an error response and return it.
 */

username = request.form?.username[0]
password = request.form?.password[0]

// For testing purposes, the LDAP host and port are provided in the context's attributes.
// Edit as needed to match your directory service.
host = attributes.ldapHost ?: "localhost"
port = attributes.ldapPort ?: 1389

client = ldap.connect(host, port as Integer)
try {

    // Assume the username is an exact match of either
    // the user ID, the email address, or the user's full name.
    filter = "(|(uid=%s)(mail=%s)(cn=%s))"

    user = client.searchSingleEntry(
            "ou=people,dc=example,dc=com",
            ldap.scope.sub,
            ldap.filter(filter, username, username, username))

    client.bind(user.name as String, password?.toCharArray())

    // Authentication succeeded.

    // Set a header (or whatever else you want to do here).
    request.headers.add("Ldap-User-Dn", user.name.toString())

    // Most LDAP attributes are multi-valued.
    // When you read multi-valued attributes, use the parse() method,
    // with an AttributeParser method
    // that specifies the type of object to return.
    attributes.cn = user.cn?.parse().asSetOfString()

    // When you write attribute values, set them directly.
    user.description = "New description set by my script"

    // Here is how you might read a single value of a multi-valued attribute:
    attributes.description = user.description?.parse().asString()

    // Call the next handler. This returns when the request has been handled.
    return next.handle(context, request)

} catch (AuthenticationException e) {

    // LDAP authentication failed, so fail the response with
    // HTTP status code 403 Forbidden.

    response = new Response(Status.FORBIDDEN)
    response.entity = "<html><p>Authentication failed: " + e.message + "</p></html>"

} catch (Exception e) {

    // Something other than authentication failed on the server side,
    // so fail the response with HTTP 500 Internal Server Error.

    response = new Response(Status.INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
    response.entity = "<html><p>Server error: " + e.message + "</p></html>"

} finally {
    client.close()
}

// Return the locally created response, no need to wrap it into a Promise
return response

For the list of methods to specify which type of objects to return, see the OpenDJ LDAP SDK Javadoc for AttributeParser.

To try the LDAP authentication script, follow these steps:

  1. Install an LDAP directory server such as ForgeRock Directory Services.

    Either import some sample users who can authenticate over LDAP, or generate sample users at installation time.

  2. Save the script as $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy/LdapAuthFilter.groovy (%appdata%\OpenIG\scripts\groovy\LdapAuthFilter.groovy on Windows).

    If the directory server installation does not match the assumptions made in the script, adjust the script to use the correct settings for your installation.

  3. Add the following route to your configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/10-ldap.json (%appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\10-ldap.json on Windows):

    {
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "ScriptableFilter",
              "config": {
                "type": "application/x-groovy",
                "file": "LdapAuthFilter.groovy"
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": {
            "type": "ScriptableHandler",
            "config": {
              "type": "application/x-groovy",
              "source": [
                "dn = request.headers['Ldap-User-Dn'].values[0]",
                "entity = '<html><body><p>Ldap-User-Dn: ' + dn + '</p></body></html>'",
                "",
                "response = new Response(Status.OK)",
                "response.entity = entity",
                "return response"
              ]
            }
          }
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/ldap')}"
    }
    

The route calls the LdapAuthFilter.groovy script to authenticate the user over LDAP. On successful authentication, it responds with the the bind DN.

To test the configuration, browse to a URL where query string parameters specify a valid username and password, such as http://openig.example.com:8080/ldap?username=user.0&password=password.

The response from the script shows the DN: Ldap-User-Dn: uid=user.0,ou=People,dc=example,dc=com.

13.5. Scripting SQL Queries

You can use a ScriptableFilter to look up information in a relational database and include the results in the request context.

The following filter looks up user credentials in a database given the user's email address, which is found in the form data of the request. The script then sets the credentials in headers, making sure the scheme is HTTPS to protect the request when it leaves IG:

/*
 * Copyright 2014-2017 ForgeRock AS. All Rights Reserved
 *
 * Use of this code requires a commercial software license with ForgeRock AS.
 * or with one of its affiliates. All use shall be exclusively subject
 * to such license between the licensee and ForgeRock AS.
 */

/*
 * Look up user credentials in a relational database
 * based on the user's email address provided in the request form data,
 * and set the credentials in the request headers for the next handler.
 */

def client = new SqlClient()
def credentials = client.getCredentials(request.form?.mail[0])
request.headers.add("Username", credentials.Username)
request.headers.add("Password", credentials.Password)

// The credentials are not protected in the headers, so use HTTPS.
request.uri.scheme = "https"

// Calls the next Handler and returns a Promise of the Response.
// The Response can be handled with asynchronous Promise callbacks.
next.handle(context, request)

The previous script demonstrates a ScriptableFilter that uses a SqlClient class defined in another script. The following code listing shows the SqlClient class:

/*
 * Copyright 2014-2017 ForgeRock AS. All Rights Reserved
 *
 * Use of this code requires a commercial software license with ForgeRock AS.
 * or with one of its affiliates. All use shall be exclusively subject
 * to such license between the licensee and ForgeRock AS.
 */

import groovy.sql.Sql

import javax.naming.InitialContext
import javax.sql.DataSource

/**
 * Access a database with a well-known structure,
 * in particular to get credentials given an email address.
 */
class SqlClient {

    // Get a DataSource from the container.
    InitialContext context = new InitialContext()
    DataSource dataSource = context.lookup("jdbc/forgerock") as DataSource
    def sql = new Sql(dataSource)

    // The expected table is laid out like the following.

    // Table USERS
    // ----------------------------------------
    // | USERNAME  | PASSWORD |   EMAIL   |...|
    // ----------------------------------------
    // | <username>| <passwd> | <mail@...>|...|
    // ----------------------------------------

    String tableName = "USERS"
    String usernameColumn = "USERNAME"
    String passwordColumn = "PASSWORD"
    String mailColumn = "EMAIL"

    /**
     * Get the Username and Password given an email address.
     *
     * @param mail Email address used to look up the credentials
     * @return Username and Password from the database
     */
    def getCredentials(mail) {
        def credentials = [:]
        def query = "SELECT " + usernameColumn + ", " + passwordColumn +
                " FROM " + tableName + " WHERE " + mailColumn + "='$mail';"

        sql.eachRow(query) {
            credentials.put("Username", it."$usernameColumn")
            credentials.put("Password", it."$passwordColumn")
        }
        return credentials
    }
}

To try the script, follow these steps:

  1. Follow the tutorial in Section 3.3, "Log in With Credentials From a Database".

    When everything in that tutorial works, you know that IG can connect to the database, look up users by email address, and successfully authenticate to the sample application.

  2. Save the scripts as $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy/SqlAccessFilter.groovy (%appdata%\OpenIG\scripts\groovy\SqlAccessFilter.groovy on Windows), and as $HOME/.openig/scripts/groovy/SqlClient.groovy (%appdata%\OpenIG\scripts\groovy\SqlClient.groovy on Windows).

  3. Add the following route to your configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/11-db.json (%appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\11-db.json on Windows):

    {
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "ScriptableFilter",
              "config": {
                "type": "application/x-groovy",
                "file": "SqlAccessFilter.groovy"
              }
            },
            {
              "type": "StaticRequestFilter",
              "config": {
                "method": "POST",
                "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
                "form": {
                  "username": [
                    "${request.headers['Username'][0]}"
                  ],
                  "password": [
                    "${request.headers['Password'][0]}"
                  ]
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/db')}"
    }
    

The route calls the ScriptableFilter to look up credentials over SQL. It then uses calls a StaticRequestFilter to build a login request. Although the script sets the scheme to HTTPS, the StaticRequestFilter ignores that and resets the URI. This makes it easier to try the script without additional steps to set up HTTPS.

To try the configuration, browse to a URL where a query string parameter specifies a valid email address, such as http://openig.example.com:8080/db?mail=george@example.com.

If the lookup and authentication are successful, you see the profile page of the sample application.

13.6. Developing Custom Extensions

IG includes a complete Java application programming interface to allow you to customize IG to perform complex server interactions or intensive data transformations that you cannot achieve with scripts or the existing handlers, filters, and expressions described in Expressions(5) in the Configuration Reference.

13.6.1. Key Extension Points

Interface Stability: Evolving (For information, see Section A.2, "ForgeRock Product Interface Stability" in the Configuration Reference.)

The following interfaces are available:

Decorator

A Decorator adds new behavior to another object without changing the base type of the object.

When suggesting custom Decorator names, know that IG reserves all field names that use only alphanumeric characters. To avoid clashes, use dots or dashes in your field names, such as my-decorator.

ExpressionPlugin

An ExpressionPlugin adds a node to the Expression context tree, alongside env (for environment variables), and system (for system properties). For example, the expression ${system['user.home']} yields the home directory of the user running the application server for IG.

In your ExpressionPlugin, the getKey() method returns the name of the node, and the getObject() method returns the unified expression language context object that contains the values needed to resolve the expression. The plugins for env and system return Map objects, for example.

When you add your own ExpressionPlugin, you must make it discoverable within your custom library. You do this by adding a services file named after the plugin interface, where the file contains the fully qualified class name of your plugin, under META-INF/services/org.forgerock.openig.el.ExpressionPlugin in the .jar file for your customizations. When you have more than one plugin, add one fully qualified class name per line. For details, see the reference documentation for the Java class ServiceLoader. If you build your project using Maven, then you can add this under the src/main/resources directory. As described in Section 13.6.4, "Embedding the Customization in IG", you must add your custom libraries to the WEB-INF/lib/ directory of the IG .war file that you deploy.

Be sure to provide some documentation for IG administrators on how your plugin extends expressions.

Filter

A Filter serves to process a request before handing it off to the next element in the chain, in a similar way to an interceptor programming model.

The Filter interface exposes a filter() method, which takes a Context, a Request, and the Handler, which is the next filter or handler to dispatch to. The filter() method returns a Promise that provides access to the Response with methods for dealing with both success and failure conditions.

A filter can elect not to pass the request to the next filter or handler, and instead handle the request itself. It can achieve this by merely avoiding a call to next.handle(context, request), creating its own response object and returning that in the promise. The filter is also at liberty to replace a response with another of its own. A filter can exist in more than one chain, therefore should make no assumptions or correlations using the chain it is supplied. The only valid use of a chain by a filter is to call its handle() method to dispatch the request to the rest of the chain.

Handler

A Handler generates a response for a request.

The Handler interface exposes a handle() method, which takes a Context, and a Request. It processes the request and returns a Promise that provides access to the Response with methods for dealing with both success and failure conditions. A handler can elect to dispatch the request to another handler or chain.

13.6.2. Implementing a Customized Sample Filter

The SampleFilter class implements the Filter interface to set a header in the incoming request and in the outgoing response. The following sample filter adds an arbitrary header:

package org.forgerock.openig.doc;

import org.forgerock.http.Filter;
import org.forgerock.http.Handler;
import org.forgerock.http.protocol.Request;
import org.forgerock.http.protocol.Response;
import org.forgerock.openig.heap.GenericHeaplet;
import org.forgerock.openig.heap.HeapException;
import org.forgerock.services.context.Context;
import org.forgerock.util.promise.NeverThrowsException;
import org.forgerock.util.promise.Promise;

/**
 * Filter to set a header in the incoming request and in the outgoing response.
 */
public class SampleFilter implements Filter {

    /** Header name. */
    String name;

    /** Header value. */
    String value;

    /**
     * Set a header in the incoming request and in the outgoing response.
     * A configuration example looks something like the following.
     *
     * <pre>
     * {
     *     "name": "SampleFilter",
     *     "type": "SampleFilter",
     *     "config": {
     *         "name": "X-Greeting",
     *         "value": "Hello world"
     *     }
     * }
     * </pre>
     *
     * @param context           Execution context.
     * @param request           HTTP Request.
     * @param next              Next filter or handler in the chain.
     * @return A {@code Promise} representing the response to be returned to the client.
     */
    @Override
    public Promise<Response, NeverThrowsException> filter(final Context context,
                                                          final Request request,
                                                          final Handler next) {

        // Set header in the request.
        request.getHeaders().put(name, value);

        // Pass to the next filter or handler in the chain.
        return next.handle(context, request)
                   // When it has been successfully executed, execute the following callback
                   .thenOnResult(response -> {
                       // Set header in the response.
                       response.getHeaders().put(name, value);
                   });
    }

    /**
     * Create and initialize the filter, based on the configuration.
     * The filter object is stored in the heap.
     */
    public static class Heaplet extends GenericHeaplet {

        /**
         * Create the filter object in the heap,
         * setting the header name and value for the filter,
         * based on the configuration.
         *
         * @return                  The filter object.
         * @throws HeapException    Failed to create the object.
         */
        @Override
        public Object create() throws HeapException {

            SampleFilter filter = new SampleFilter();
            filter.name  = config.get("name").as(evaluatedWithHeapProperties()).required().asString();
            filter.value = config.get("value").as(evaluatedWithHeapProperties()).required().asString();

            return filter;
        }
    }
}

When you set the sample filter type in the configuration, you need to provide the fully qualified class name, as in "type": "org.forgerock.openig.doc.SampleFilter". You can however implement a class alias resolver to make it possible to use a short name instead, as in "type": "SampleFilter":

package org.forgerock.openig.doc;

import org.forgerock.openig.alias.ClassAliasResolver;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * Allow use of short name aliases in configuration object types.
 *
 * This allows a configuration with {@code "type": "SampleFilter"}
 * instead of {@code "type": "org.forgerock.openig.doc.SampleFilter"}.
 */
public class SampleClassAliasResolver implements ClassAliasResolver {

    private static final Map<String, Class<?>> ALIASES =
            new HashMap<>();

    static {
        ALIASES.put("SampleFilter", SampleFilter.class);
    }

    /**
     * Get the class for a short name alias.
     *
     * @param alias Short name alias.
     * @return      The class, or null if the alias is not defined.
     */
    @Override
    public Class<?> resolve(String alias) {
        return ALIASES.get(alias);
    }
}

When you add your own resolver, you must make it discoverable within your custom library. You do this by adding a services file named after the class resolver interface, where the file contains the fully qualified class name of your resolver, under META-INF/services/org.forgerock.openig.alias.ClassAliasResolver in the .jar file for your customizations. When you have more than one resolver, add one fully qualified class name per line. If you build your project using Maven, then you can add this under the src/main/resources directory. The content of the file in this example is one line:

org.forgerock.openig.doc.SampleClassAliasResolver

The corresponding heap object configuration then looks as follows:

{
    "name": "SampleFilter",
    "type": "SampleFilter",
    "config": {
        "name": "X-Greeting",
        "value": "Hello world"
    }
}

13.6.3. Configuring the Heap Object for the Customization

Objects are added to the heap and supplied with configuration artifacts at initialization time. To be integrated with the configuration, a class must have an accompanying implementation of the Heaplet interface. The easiest and most common way of exposing the heaplet is to extend the GenericHeaplet class in a nested class of the class you want to create and initialize, overriding the heaplet's create() method.

Within the create() method, you can access the object's configuration through the config field.

13.6.4. Embedding the Customization in IG

After building your customizations into a .jar file, you can include them in the IG .war file for deployment. You do this by unpacking IG-5.5.0.war, including your .jar library in WEB-INF/lib, and then creating a new .war file.

For example, if your .jar file is in a project named sample-filter, and the development version is 1.0.0-SNAPSHOT, you might include the file as in the following example:

$ mkdir root && cd root
$ jar -xf ~/Downloads/IG-5.5.0.war
$ cp ~/Documents/sample-filter/target/sample-filter-1.0.0-SNAPSHOT.jar WEB-INF/lib
$ jar -cf ../custom.war *

In this example, the resulting custom.war contains the custom sample filter. You can deploy the custom .war file as you would deploy IG-5.5.0.war.

Chapter 14. Auditing and Monitoring

For each route, IG can collect statistics on the number of requests and responses passed through the route since startup, and on throughput time and response time. The information is exposed as JSON format monitoring resource over an HTTP endpoint.

You can add an audit service to a route, and the service can then publish messages to a consumer such as a CSV file, a relational database, or the Syslog facility. In this chapter, you will learn to:

  • Enable monitoring for a route

  • Read monitoring statistics for a route as a JSON format monitoring resource

  • Add an audit service to a route to integrate with the ForgeRock common audit event framework, sometimes referred to as Common Audit

14.1. Monitoring Routes

To collect statistics for a route, set the route's monitor attribute to true. Alternatively, use an appropriate boolean expression to enable or disable monitoring with an environment variable or system property.

When monitoring is enabled, statistics for the route are exposed as a JSON format monitoring resource that you can access over a Common REST endpoint. For information about what information is monitored, see "The REST API for Monitoring" in the Configuration Reference.

Monitoring endpoints serve API descriptors at runtime. When you retrieve an API descriptor for a monitoring endpoint, a JSON that describes the API for the endpoint is returned. You can use the API descriptor with a tool such as Swagger UI to generate a web page that helps you to view and test the endpoint. For information, see Section 1.10, "Understanding IG APIs With API Descriptors".

When you start IG, or add or edit routes, the endpoints are written in $HOME/.openig/logs/route-system.log. The endpoints are constructed from the base URL of IG, the object name of the main router configured in config.json, and the route ID. When a route contains a subrouter, its endpoint includes the main router and the subrouter.

The routes endpoint is defined by the presence and content of config.json, as follows:

  • When config.json is not provided, the routes endpoint includes the name of the main router in the default configuration, _router.

  • When config.json is provided with an unnamed main router, the routes endpoint includes the main router name router-handler.

  • When config.json is provided with a named main router, the routes endpoint includes the provided name or the transformed, URL-friendly name.

Procedure 14.1. To Monitor a Route

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

  1. Access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio, and select Protect an Application.

  2. In the Create a route window, select Advanced Options and enter the following information, and then select Create route:

    • Base URI: http://app.example.com:8081

    • Condition: Path: /home/monitor

    • Name: 00-monitor

  3. Select Statistics, and then enable statistics.

  4. In Percentiles, remove the default percentiles, add the percentiles 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75, and then select Save.

    These are example values. Alternatively, use the default values or other values.

  5. On the top-right of the screen, select > Display, and review the route. The following route should be displayed.

    {
      "name": "00-monitor",
      "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "monitor": {
        "enabled": true,
        "percentiles": [
          0.25,
          0.5,
          0.75
        ]
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/monitor')}",
      "handler": "ClientHandler"
    }

    Notice the following features of the new route:

    • The route matches requests to /home/monitor.

    • Each time the route is accessed, the ClientHandler passes the request to the sample application and IG collects statistics.

  6. Select Deploy to push the route to the IG configuration.

    You can check the $HOME/.openig/config/routes folder to see that the route is there.

  7. Access the route a few times at http://openig.example.com:8080/home/monitor.

  8. Go to the monitoring endpoint for the route, at http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/system/objects/_router/routes/00-monitor/monitoring.

    The monitoring resource displays statistics for requests and responses, as in the following example:

    {
        "requests": {
            "active": 0,
            "total": 3
        },
        "responseTime": {
            "mean": 0.108,
            "median": 0.109,
            "percentiles": {
                "0.25": 0.085,
                "0.5": 0.109,
                "0.75": 0.13
            },
            "standardDeviation": 0.018,
            "total": 0
        },
        "responses": {
            "clientError": 0,
            "errors": 0,
            "info": 0,
            "null": 0,
            "other": 0,
            "redirect": 0,
            "serverError": 0,
            "success": 3,
            "total": 3
        },
        "throughput": {
            "last15Minutes": 0.0,
            "last5Minutes": 0.0,
            "lastMinute": 0.0,
            "mean": 0.1
        }
    }
    

14.2. Recording Audit Event Messages

The ForgeRock common audit framework is a platform-wide infrastructure to handle audit events by using common audit event handlers. The handlers record events by logging them into files, relational databases, or syslog.

IG provides the following facilities to log audit events:

Each audit event is identified by a unique transaction ID that can be communicated across products and recorded for each local event. By using the transaction ID, requests can be tracked as they traverse the platform, making it easier to monitor activity and to enrich reports.

Transaction IDs from other services in the ForgeRock platform are sent as X-ForgeRock-TransactionId header values.

By default, IG does not trust transaction ID headers from client applications.

Note

If you trust transaction IDs sent by client applications, and want monitoring and reporting systems consuming the logs to allow correlation of requests as they traverse multiple servers, then set the boolean system property org.forgerock.http.TrustTransactionHeader to true in the Java command to start the container where IG runs.

To enable the audit framework for a route, you specify an audit service and configure an audit event handler. The following procedures describe how to record audit events in a CSV file and to the Elasticsearch search and analytics engine. For more information about recording audit events, see Audit Framework in the Configuration Reference.

14.2.1. Recording Audit Events in CSV

Procedure 14.2. To Record Audit Events in a CSV File

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

  1. Add the following route to the IG as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/30-audit.json.

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\30-audit.json.

    {
      "handler": "ForgeRockClientHandler",
      "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/audit')}",
      "auditService": {
        "type": "AuditService",
        "config": {
          "config": {},
          "event-handlers": [
            {
              "class": "org.forgerock.audit.handlers.csv.CsvAuditEventHandler",
              "config": {
                "name": "csv",
                "logDirectory": "/tmp/logs",
                "buffering": {
                  "enabled": "true",
                  "autoFlush": "true"
                },
                "topics": [
                  "access"
                ]
              }
            }
          ]
        }
      }
    }
    

    The route calls an audit service configuration for publishing log messages to the CSV file, /tmp/logs/access.csv. When a request matches audit, audit events are logged to the CSV file.

    The route uses the ForgeRockClientHandler as its handler, to send the X-ForgeRock-TransactionId header with its requests to external services.

  2. Access the route on http://openig.example.com:8080/home/audit.

    The home page of the sample application should be displayed and the file /tmp/logs/access.csv should be updated.

14.2.2. Recording Audit Events in Elasticsearch

Procedure 14.3.  To Record Audit Events in Elasticsearch

Before you start, prepare IG as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

  1. Make sure that Elasticsearch is installed and running.

    For Elasticsearch downloads and installation instructions, see the Elasticsearch Getting Started document. For information about configuring the Elasticsearch event handler, see ElasticsearchAuditEventHandler(5) in the Configuration Reference.

  2. Add the following route to the IG as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/30-elasticsearch.json.

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\30-elasticsearch.json.

    {
      "MyCapture": "all",
      "auditService": {
        "name": "audit-service",
        "type": "AuditService",
        "config": {
          "config": {},
          "enabled": true,
          "event-handlers": [
            {
              "class": "org.forgerock.audit.handlers.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchAuditEventHandler",
              "config": {
                "name": "elasticsearch",
                "topics": [
                  "access"
                ],
                "connection": {
                  "useSSL": false,
                  "host": "localhost",
                  "port": 9200
                },
                "indexMapping": {
                  "indexName": "audit"
                },
                "buffering": {
                  "enabled": true,
                  "maxSize": 10000,
                  "writeInterval": "250 millis",
                  "maxBatchedEvents": 500
                }
              }
            }
          ]
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/elasticsearch')}",
      "handler": {
        "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
        "config": {
          "entity": "View audit events in Elasticsearch at\rhttp://localhost:9200/audit/access/_search?q='\"OPENIG-HTTP-ACCESS\"'",
          "reason": "found",
          "status": 200,
          "headers": {
            "content-type": [
              "text/plain"
            ]
          }
        }
      }
    }

    The route calls an audit service configuration for publishing log messages in Elasticsearch. When a request matches the /elasticsearch route, audit events are logged to the ElasticsearchAuditEventHandler.

    The URL where you can view the messages logged by Elasticsearch is displayed. The URL is constructed from the host, port, index name, and topics defined in the event handler.

  3. Access the route on http://openig.example.com:8080/elasticsearch.

    The audit events are logged in Elasticsearch and the URL where you can view the messages is displayed.

  4. Access the URL http://localhost:9200/audit/access/_search?q='"OPENIG-HTTP-ACCESS"'.

    The audit events logged in Elasticsearch are displayed.

  5. Repeat the previous two steps again to access the IG route and then the Elasticsearch URL.

    Each time you access the IG route, the audit events logged in Elasticsearch should be updated.

14.2.3. Recording Audit Events in JMS

Important

This procedure is an example of how to record audit events with a JMS audit event handler configured to use the ActiveMQ message broker. This example is not tested on all configurations, and can be more or less relevant to your configuration.

For information about configuring the JMS event handler, see JmsAuditEventHandler(5) in the Configuration Reference.

Procedure 14.4. To Record Audit Events With a JMS Audit Event Handler

Before you start, prepare IG as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

  1. Add ActiveMQ client dependencies to IG:

    1. Download the following .jar files from :

      • geronimo-j2ee-management_1.1_spec-1.0.1.jar

      • hawtbuf-1.11.jar

      • activemq-client-5.13.3.jar

    2. Add the .jar files to the IG container, at /path/to/jetty/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/lib.

  2. Download and install the ActiveMQ message broker from http://activemq.apache.org/. For help, see the the ActiveMQ documentation on the same site.

  3. Create a consumer that subscribes to the audit topic.

    From the ActiveMQ installation directory, run the following command:

    $ ./bin/activemq consumer --destination topic://audit

  4. Add the following route to the IG as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/30-jms.json.

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\30-jms.json:

    {
      "MyCapture" : "all",
      "auditService" : {
        "config" : {
          "event-handlers" : [
            {
              "class" : "org.forgerock.audit.handlers.jms.JmsAuditEventHandler",
              "config" : {
                "name" : "jms",
                "topics" : [ "access" ],
                "deliveryMode" : "NON_PERSISTENT",
                "sessionMode" : "AUTO",
                "jndi" : {
                  "contextProperties" : {
                    "java.naming.factory.initial" : "org.apache.activemq.jndi.ActiveMQInitialContextFactory",
                    "java.naming.provider.url" : "tcp://openam.example.com:61616",
                    "topic.audit" : "audit"
                  },
                  "topicName" : "audit",
                  "connectionFactoryName" : "ConnectionFactory"
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "config" : { }
        },
        "type" : "AuditService"
      },
      "handler" : {
        "type" : "StaticResponseHandler",
        "config" : {
          "status" : 200,
          "headers" : {
            "content-type" : [ "text/plain" ]
          },
          "reason" : "found",
          "entity" : "Message from audited route"
        }
      },
      "monitor" : true,
      "condition" : "${request.uri.path == '/activemq_event_handler'}"
    }

    When a request matches the /activemq_event_handler route, this configuration publishes JMS messages containing audit event data to an ActiveMQ managed JMS topic, and the StaticResponseHandler displays a message.

  5. Access the route on http://openig.example.com:8080/activemq_event_handler.

    Depending on how ActiveMQ is configured, audit events are displayed on the ActiveMQ console or written to file. For example, the following log message can be written to a log file in the folder where you installed ActiveMQ:

    {
      "auditTopic": "access",
      "event": {
        "eventName": "OPENIG-HTTP-ACCESS",
        "timestamp": "2016-11-28T14:39:30.004Z",
        "transactionId": "882918f9-f7c3-47ee-9f87-5e3cfcfb98be-37",
        "server": {
          "ip": "0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1",
          "port": 8080
        },
        "client": {
          "ip": "0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1",
          "port": 56095
        },
        "http": {
          "request": {
            "secure": false,
            "method": "GET",
            "path": "http://openig.example.com:8080/activemq_event_handler",
            "queryParameters": {},
            "headers": {
              "accept": ["*/*"],
              "accept-encoding": ["gzip, deflate"],
              "Connection": ["keep-alive"],
              "host": ["openig.example.com:8080"],
              "user-agent": ["python-requests/2.9.1"]
            },
            "cookies": {}
          },
          "response": {
            "headers": {
              "Content-Length": ["26"],
              "Content-Type": ["text/plain"]
            }
          }
        },
        "response": {
          "status": "SUCCESSFUL",
          "statusCode": "200",
          "elapsedTime": 73,
          "elapsedTimeUnits": "MILLISECONDS"
        },
        "_id": "882918f9-f7c3-47ee-9f87-5e3cfcfb98be-38"
      }
    }

14.2.4. Recording Audit Events in JSON

This section describes how to record audit events with a JSON audit event handler. For information about configuring the JSON event handler, see JsonAuditEventHandler(5) in the Configuration Reference.

Procedure 14.5. To Record Audit Events With a JSON Audit Event Handler

Before you start, prepare IG as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

  1. Add the following route to IG as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/30-json.json.

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\30-json.json.

    {
      "handler": "ForgeRockClientHandler",
      "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/json-audit')}",
      "auditService": {
        "type": "AuditService",
        "config": {
          "config": {},
          "event-handlers": [{
            "class": "org.forgerock.audit.handlers.json.JsonAuditEventHandler",
            "config": {
              "name": "json",
              "logDirectory": "/tmp/logs",
              "topics": [
                "access"
              ]
            }
          }]
        }
      }
    }

    The route calls an audit service configuration for publishing log messages to the JSON file, /tmp/logs/access.audit.json. When a request matches /home/json-audit, a single line per audit event is logged to the JSON file.

    The route uses the ForgeRockClientHandler as its handler, to send the X-ForgeRock-TransactionId header with its requests to external services.

  2. Access the route on http://openig.example.com:8080/home/json-audit.

    The home page of the sample application should be displayed and the file /tmp/logs/access.audit.json is created or updated with a message. The following example message is formatted for easy reading, but it is produced as a single line for each event:

    {
      "eventName": "OPENIG-HTTP-ACCESS",
      "timestamp": "2016-11-08T15:39:59.128Z",
      "transactionId": "a386a21c-0ceb-4c6b-af77-167bd71f0161-1",
      "server": {
        "ip": "0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1",
        "port": 8080
      },
      "client": {
        "ip": "0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1",
        "port": 34066
      },
      "http": {
        "request": {
          "secure": false,
          "method": "GET",
          "path": "http://openig.example.com:8080/home/json-audit",
          "queryParameters": {},
          "headers": {
            "accept": ["text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8"],
            "accept-encoding": ["gzip, deflate"],
            "Accept-Language": ["en-US;q=1"],
            "cache-control": ["max-age=0"],
            "Connection": ["keep-alive"],
            "host": ["openig.example.com:8080"],
            "upgrade-insecure-requests": ["1"],
            "user-agent": ["Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_11_6)
                            AppleWebKit / 602.2 .14(KHTML, like Gecko)
                            Version / 10.0 .1 Safari / 602.2 .14 "]
          },
          "cookies": {
            "i18next": "en"
          }
        },
        "response": {
          "status": "SUCCESSFUL",
          "statusCode": "200",
          "elapsedTime": 104,
          "elapsedTimeUnits": "MILLISECONDS"
        },
        "_id": "a386a21c-0ceb-4c6b-af77-167bd71f0161-2"
      }
    }

14.2.5. Recording Audit Events in Splunk

This section describes how to set up a Splunk audit event handler to log IG events to a Splunk system. For information about configuring the Splunk event handler, see SplunkAuditEvenHandler(5) in the Configuration Reference.

Procedure 14.6. To Set Up Splunk

This procedure assumes a Splunk instance running on the same host as IG. Adjust the instructions for your Splunk system.

Before you start, prepare IG as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide.

  1. Download Splunk from http://www.splunk.com, and install it with the default configuration. If you don't already have a Splunk account, create one.

    Tip

    Splunk currently uses the following ports by default: 8000, 8065, 8088, 8089, and 8091. Before you install Splunk, make sure that these ports are free. Alternatively, change the Splunk installation and IG route to use other ports.

    To find port numbers and other settings used by Splunk, select Server settings > General settings in the Splunk web interface.

  2. With Splunk running, create a new source type and associate it with log data from IG:

    1. In the Splunk web interface, select Settings > Source Types > New Source Type.

    2. In the Create Source Type window, enter a name for the source type, for example, openig.

    3. In the Event Breaks panel of the same window, select Regex... and enter ^{ to indicate how the bulk messages are separated.

    4. Accept all of the other values as default and select Save.

  3. Create an HTTP Event Collector to provide an authorization token so that IG can log events to Splunk:

    1. Select Settings > Data Inputs > HTTP Event Collector > New Token.

    2. Enter a Name for the token, for example, openig, leave the other fields with their default values, and select Next.

    3. In the Input Settings screen, select Select > Select Source Type > Custom, and then select the source type you created in the previous step.

    4. Select Review and then Submit.

      An authorization token is displayed. Make a note of the value or keep it on the screen so that you use it as the value of authzToken in Procedure 14.7, "To Set Up IG for the Splunk Audit Event Handler".

  4. In the same window, check that the Global Settings are configured correctly. For example, make sure that all tokens are enabled and that SSL is not enabled.

    The HTTP port number displayed in these global settings is used as the value of port in Procedure 14.7, "To Set Up IG for the Splunk Audit Event Handler".

Procedure 14.7. To Set Up IG for the Splunk Audit Event Handler
  1. Add the following route to the IG as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/30-splunk.json.

    On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\30-splunk.json.

    {
      "handler": {
        "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
        "config": {
          "status": 200,
          "entity": "Creating Splunk Audit Event"
        }
      },
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/splunk')}",
      "auditService": {
        "type": "AuditService",
        "config": {
          "config": {},
          "event-handlers": [
            {
              "class": "org.forgerock.audit.handlers.splunk.SplunkAuditEventHandler",
              "config": {
                "name": "splunk",
                "topics": [
                  "access"
                ],
                "enabled": true,
                "connection": {
                  "useSSL": false,
                  "host": "localhost",
                  "port": 8088
                },
                "buffering": {
                  "maxSize": 10000,
                  "writeInterval": "100 ms",
                  "maxBatchedEvents": 500
                },
                "authzToken": "<splunk-authorization-token>"
              }
            }
          ]
        }
      }
    }
  2. Set the value of "authzToken" to the value of the authorization token returned in Procedure 14.6, "To Set Up Splunk".

Procedure 14.8. To Test the Setup
  1. Access the route on http://openig.example.com:8080/splunk

  2. Access the Splunk web interface on http://localhost:8000, and select Search & Reporting > Data Summary.

    Depending on how Splunk is configured, audit events are displayed on the web interface.

Chapter 15. Throttling the Rate of Requests to Protected Applications

To protect applications from being overused by clients, use a throttling filter to limit how many requests can be made in a defined time. This section describes how to set up simple, mapped, and scriptable throttling filters. For more configuration options, see ThrottlingFilter(5) in the Configuration Reference.

The throttling filter limits the rate that requests pass through a filter. The maximum number of requests that are allowed in a defined time is called the throttling rate.

By default, the throttling filter uses a strategy based on the token bucket algorithm, which allows some bursts. To prevent bursts, the throttling filter can be configured to use an alternative strategy.

When the throttling rate is reached, IG issues an HTTP status code 429 Too Many Requests and a Retry-After header like the following, where the value is the number of seconds to wait before trying the request again:

GET http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-scriptable HTTP/1.1

. . .

HTTP/1.1 429 Too Many Requests
Retry-After: 10

15.1.  Configuring a Simple Throttling Filter

This section describes how to use IG Studio to configure a simple throttling filter that applies a throttling rate of 6 requests/10 seconds. When an application is protected by this throttling filter, no more than 6 requests, irrespective of their origin, can access the sample application in a 10 second period.

Figure 15.1. Simple Throttling Filter
Simple Throttling Filter

To try this example without using IG Studio, add the route in the following procedure to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/simple-throttling.json. On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\simple-throttling.json.

Procedure 15.1. To Configure a Simple Throttling Filter

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide. Make sure that your config.json has a main router named _router.

  1. Access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio, and select Protect an Application.

  2. In the Create route window, select Advanced Options and enter the following information, and then select Create route:

    • Base URI: http://app.example.com:8081

    • Condition: Path: /home/throttle-simple

    • Name: 00-throttle-simple

  3. Select Throttling, and then enable throttling.

  4. In GROUPING POLICY, select to apply the rate to a single group.

    All requests are grouped together, and the default throttling rate is applied to the group. By default, no more than 100 requests can access the sample application each second.

  5. In RATE POLICY, select and allow 6 requests each 10 seconds.

  6. On the top-right of the screen, select and Display to view the route. The following route should be displayed:

    {
      "name": "00-throttle-simple",
      "monitor": false,
      "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/throttle-simple')}",
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "ThrottlingFilter",
              "name": "ThrottlingFilter-1",
              "config": {
                "requestGroupingPolicy": "",
                "rate": {
                  "numberOfRequests": 6,
                  "duration": "10 s"
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      }
    }

    Notice the following features of the new route:

    • The route matches requests to /home/throttle-simple.

    • The ThrottlingFilter contains a request grouping policy that is blank. This means that all requests are in the same group.

    • The rate defines the number of requests allowed to access the sample application in a given time.

  7. Select Deploy to push the route to the IG configuration.

    You can check the $HOME/.openig/config/routes folder to see that the route is there.

Procedure 15.2. To Test the Setup
  1. With IG and the sample application running, use curl, a bash script, or another tool to access the following route in a loop: http://openig.example.com:8080/home/simple-throttle.

    Accessing the route in a loop runs the request multiple times in quick succession, allowing you to test the throttling rate.

    $ curl -v http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-simple/\[01-10\] \
    > /tmp/simple-throttle.txt 2>&1
  2. Search the output file to see the result:

    $ grep "< HTTP/1.1" /tmp/simple-throttle.txt | sort | uniq -c
    
    6 < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    4 < HTTP/1.1 429 Too Many Requests

    Notice that the first six requests returned a success response, and the following four requests returned an HTTP 429 Too Many Requests. This result demonstrates that the throttling filter has allowed only six requests to access the application, and has blocked the other requests.

15.2.  Configuring a Mapped Throttling Filter

This section describes how to use IG Studio to configure a mapped throttling policy. The policy maps requests from users in the accounts and sales departments of example.com to different throttling rates. Requests from other departments use the default throttling rate.

The grouping policy defines criteria to group requests. In the following example, the grouping policy is based on the first UserID in the request header, representing each user ID. The throttling rate is applied independently to each User ID.

The throttling rate mapper defines criteria to assign a throttling rate. In the following example, the throttling rate is mapped to the value of the request header X-Forwarded-For, representing the hostname of the department. Each department is assigned a different throttling rate.

In the following example, the accounts department is assigned a throttling rate of 6 requests/10 seconds, and the sales department is assigned a rate of 3 requests/10 seconds. The finance department is not mapped and therefore receives the default rate. Because Alice and Bob have different User IDs, when they send requests from the accounts department they each have a throttling rate of 6 requests/10 seconds.

Figure 15.2. Mapped Throttling Filter
Mapped Throttling Filter

To try this example without using IG Studio, add the route in the following procedure to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/throttle-mapped.json. On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\throttle-mapped.json.

Procedure 15.3. To Configure a Mapped Throttling Filter

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide. Make sure that your config.json has a main router named _router.

  1. Access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio, and select Protect an Application.

  2. In the Create route window, select Advanced Options and enter the following information, and then select Create route:

    • Base URI: http://app.example.com:8081

    • Condition: Path: /home/throttle-mapped

    • Name: 00-throttle-mapped

  3. Select Throttling, and then enable throttling.

  4. Set up the grouping policy:

    1. In GROUPING POLICY, select to apply the rate to independent groups of requests.

      Requests are split into different groups according to criteria, and the throttling rate is applied to each group.

    2. Select to group requests by custom criteria.

    3. Enter the custom expression ${request.headers['UserId'][0]} to evaluate to the first UserID in the request header.

    4. Save the grouping policy.

  5. Set up the rate policy:

    1. In RATE POLICY, select Mapped.

    2. Select to map requests by custom criteria.

    3. Enter the custom expression ${request.headers['X-Forwarded-For'][0]} to evaluate to the first value of the request header X-Forwarded-For, representing the hostname of the department.

    4. In Default Rate, select and change default rate to 1 request each 10 seconds.

    5. In Mapped Rates, add the following rate for the accounts department:

      • Match Value: accounts.example.com

      • Number of requests: 6

      • Period: 10 seconds

    6. Add a different rate for the sales department:

      • Match Value: sales.example.com

      • Number of requests: 3

      • Period: 10 seconds

    7. Save the rate policy.

  6. Select and Display to view the route. The following route should be displayed:

    {
      "name": "00-throttle-mapped",
      "monitor": false,
      "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/throttle-mapped')}",
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "type": "ThrottlingFilter",
              "name": "ThrottlingFilter-1",
              "config": {
                "requestGroupingPolicy": "${request.headers['UserId'][0]}",
                "throttlingRatePolicy": {
                  "type": "MappedThrottlingPolicy",
                  "name": "MappedPolicy",
                  "config": {
                    "throttlingRateMapper": "${request.headers['X-Forwarded-For'][0]}",
                    "throttlingRatesMapping": {
                      "accounts.example.com": {
                        "numberOfRequests": 6,
                        "duration": "10 s"
                      },
                      "sales.example.com": {
                        "numberOfRequests": 3,
                        "duration": "10 s"
                      }
                    },
                    "defaultRate": {
                      "numberOfRequests": 1,
                      "duration": "10 s"
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      }
    }

    Notice the following features of the new route:

    • The route matches requests to /home/throttle-mapped.

    • The ThrottlingFilter contains a request grouping policy that groups requests by user ID. This means that the throttling rate is applied independently to each user ID.

    • The mapping policy maps different throttling rates for each department. If the request does not come from a mapped department, the default rate is applied.

  7. Select Deploy to push the route to the IG configuration.

    You can check the $HOME/.openig/config/routes folder to see that the route is there.

Procedure 15.4. To Test the Setup
  1. With IG and the sample application running, access the following route in a loop: http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-mapped.

    Accessing the route in a loop runs the request multiple times in quick succession, allowing you to test the throttling rate. You can use a command-line tool such as curl to run the following commands in quick succession or in a bash script:

    $ curl -v http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-mapped/\[01-10\] \
    --header "X-Forwarded-For:accounts.example.com" \
    --header "UserId:Alice" \
    > /tmp/Alice.txt 2>&1
    
    $ curl -v http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-mapped/\[01-10\] \
    --header "X-Forwarded-For:accounts.example.com" \
    --header "UserId:Bob" \
    > /tmp/Bob.txt 2>&1
    
    $ curl -v http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-mapped/\[01-10\] \
    --header "X-Forwarded-For:sales.example.com" \
    --header "UserId:Carol" \
    > /tmp/Carol.txt 2>&1
    
    $ curl -v http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-mapped/\[01-10\] \
    --header "X-Forwarded-For:finance.example.com" \
    --header "UserId:Dave" \
    > /tmp/Dave.txt 2>&1
  2. Search the output files to see the result for each user and each department:

    $ grep "< HTTP/1.1" /tmp/Alice.txt | sort | uniq -c
    
     6 < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     4 < HTTP/1.1 429 Too Many Requests
    
    $ grep "< HTTP/1.1" /tmp/Bob.txt | sort | uniq -c
    
     6 < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     4 < HTTP/1.1 429 Too Many Requests
    
    $ grep "< HTTP/1.1" /tmp/Carol.txt | sort | uniq -c
    
     3 < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     7 < HTTP/1.1 429 Too Many Requests
    
    $ grep "< HTTP/1.1" /tmp/Dave.txt | sort | uniq -c
    
     1 < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     9 < HTTP/1.1 429 Too Many Requests
    

    Notice that the first six requests from Alice and Bob in accounts are successful, and the first three requests from Carol in sales are successful, consistent with the mapping in 00-throttle-mapped.json. Requests from finance are not mapped, and therefore receive the default rate.

15.3.  Configuring a Scriptable Throttling Filter

This section describes how to configure a scriptable throttling policy. The script applies a throttling rate of 6 requests/10 seconds to requests from the accounts department of example.com. For all other requests, the script returns null. When the script returns null, the default rate of 1 request/10 seconds is applied.

Figure 15.3. Scriptable Throttling Policy
Scriptable Throttling Policy

To try this example without using IG Studio, add the route in the following procedure to the IG configuration as $HOME/.openig/config/routes/throttle-scriptable.json. On Windows, add the route as %appdata%\OpenIG\config\routes\throttle-scriptable.json.

Procedure 15.5. To Configure a Scriptable Throttling Filter

Before you start, prepare IG and the sample application as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide. Make sure that your config.json has a main router named _router.

  1. Access IG Studio on http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/studio, and select Protect an Application.

  2. In the Create route window, select Advanced Options and enter the following information, and then select Create route:

    • Base URI: http://app.example.com:8081

    • Condition: Path: /home/throttle-scriptable

    • Name: throttle-scriptable

  3. Select Throttling, and then enable throttling.

  4. Set up the grouping policy:

    1. In GROUPING POLICY, select to apply the rate to independent groups of requests.

      Requests are split into different groups according to criteria, and the throttling rate is applied to each group.

    2. Select to group requests by custom criteria.

    3. Enter the custom expression ${request.headers['UserId'][0]} to evaluate to the first UserID in the request header.

    4. Save the grouping policy.

  5. Set up the rate policy:

    1. In RATE POLICY, select Scripted.

    2. Select to create a new script, and name it X-Forwarded-For. So that you can easily identify the script, use a name that describes the content of the script.

      For information about using a reference script instead, see Procedure 13.1, "To Create a Reference Script".

    3. Replace the default script with the content of a valid Groovy script. For example, enter the following script:

      if (request.headers['X-Forwarded-For'].values[0]  == 'accounts.example.com') {
        return new ThrottlingRate(6, '10 seconds')
      } else {
        return null
      }

      Note

      IG Studio does not check the validity of the Groovy script.

      When you save, the script is added to the list of reference scripts available to use in scriptable throttling filters.

    4. Enable the default rate, and set it to 1 request each 10 seconds.

    5. Save the rate policy.

  6. Select and Display to view the route. The following route should be displayed:

    {
      "name": "throttle-scriptable",
      "baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
      "condition": "${matches(request.uri.path, '^/home/throttle-scriptable')}",
      "monitor": false,
      "handler": {
        "type": "Chain",
        "config": {
          "filters": [
            {
              "name": "ThrottlingFilter-1",
              "type": "ThrottlingFilter",
              "config": {
                "requestGroupingPolicy": "${request.headers['UserId'][0]}",
                "throttlingRatePolicy": {
                  "type": "DefaultRateThrottlingPolicy",
                  "config": {
                    "delegateThrottlingRatePolicy": {
                      "name": "ScriptedPolicy",
                      "type": "ScriptableThrottlingPolicy",
                      "config": {
                        "type": "application/x-groovy",
                        "source": [
                          "if (request.headers['X-Forwarded-For'].values[0]  == 'accounts.example.com') {",
                          "  return new ThrottlingRate(6, '10 seconds')",
                          "  } else {",
                          "  return null",
                          "}"
                        ]
                      }
                    },
                    "defaultRate": {
                      "numberOfRequests": 1,
                      "duration": "10 s"
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          ],
          "handler": "ClientHandler"
        }
      }
    }

    Notice the following features of the new route:

    • The route matches requests to /home/throttle-scriptable.

    • The DefaultRateThrottlingPolicy delegates the management of throttling to the ScriptableThrottlingPolicy.

    • The script applies a throttling rate to requests from the accounts department of example.com. For all other requests, the script returns null and the default rate is applied.

  7. Select Deploy to push the route to the IG configuration.

    You can check the $HOME/.openig/config/routes folder to see that the route is there.

Procedure 15.6. To Test the Setup
  1. With IG and the sample application running, access the following route in a loop: http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-scriptable.

    Accessing the route in a loop runs the request multiple times in quick succession, allowing you to test the throttling rate. You can use a command-line tool such as curl to run the following commands in quick succession or in a bash script:

    $ curl -v http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-scriptable/\[01-10\] \
    --header "X-Forwarded-For:accounts.example.com" \
    --header "UserId:Alice" \
    > /tmp/Alice.txt 2>&1
    
    $ curl -v http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-scriptable/\[01-10\] \
    --header "X-Forwarded-For:accounts.example.com" \
    --header "UserId:Bob" \
    > /tmp/Bob.txt 2>&1
    
    $ curl -v http://openig.example.com:8080/home/throttle-scriptable/\[01-10\] \
    --header "X-Forwarded-For:sales.example.com" \
    --header "UserId:Carol" \
    > /tmp/Carol.txt 2>&1
  2. Search the output files to see the result for each user and each organization:

    $ grep "< HTTP/1.1" /tmp/Alice.txt | sort | uniq -c
    
     6 < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     4 < HTTP/1.1 429 Too Many Requests
    
    $ grep "< HTTP/1.1" /tmp/Bob.txt | sort | uniq -c
    
     6 < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     4 < HTTP/1.1 429 Too Many Requests
    
    $ grep "< HTTP/1.1" /tmp/Carol.txt | sort | uniq -c
    
     1 < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
     9 < HTTP/1.1 429 Too Many Requests
    

    Notice that the first six requests from Alice and Bob in accounts are successful, consistent with the value in the script. The script returns null for requests from Carol in sales, so those requests receive the default throttling rate.

15.4.  Dynamic Throttling Rate

In Section 15.2, " Configuring a Mapped Throttling Filter ", requests from the same user were always sent from the same department in example.com. This example shows what happens to the throttling rate when a user sends requests from more than one department.

The throttling rate is applied to users according to the evaluation of requestGroupingPolicy, and different throttling rates are mapped to different departments of example.com according to the evaluation of throttlingRateMapper.

Figure 15.4. Dynamic Throttling Rate
Dynamic throttling rate

In the example, Alice sends five requests from the accounts department, quickly followed by four requests from sales, and then three more requests from accounts.

After making five requests from accounts, Alice has almost reached the throttling rate. When she switches to sales, the number of requests she has already made is disregarded and the full throttling rate for sales is applied. Alice can now make three more requests from sales even though she had nearly reached her throttling rate for accounts.

After making three requests from sales, Alice has reached her throttling rate. When she makes a fourth request from sales, the request is refused. Alice switches back to accounts and can now make six more requests even though she had reached her throttling rate for sales.

When you configure requestGroupingPolicy and throttlingRateMapper, bear in mind what happens when requests from the same requestGroupingPolicy can be mapped to different throttling rates by the throttlingRateMapper.

Chapter 16. Logging Events

Log messages in IG and third-party dependencies are recorded using the Logback implementation of the Simple Logging Facade for Java (SLF4J) API.

16.1.  Default Logging Behavior

Log messages are recorded with the following default configuration:

  • When IG starts, log messages for IG and third-party dependencies, such as the ForgeRock Common Audit framework, are displayed on the console and written to $HOME/.openig/logs/route-system.log.

  • When a route is accessed, log messages for requests passing through the route are written to a separate log file. The file is in $HOME/.openig/logs and is named by the route’s name or filename. A separate log file is created for each route that is accessed.

  • By default, log messages with the level INFO or higher are recorded, with the titles and the top line of the stack trace. The messages are highlighted with a color related to their logging level.

16.2.  Reference Logback Configuration

The content and format of logs is defined by the reference logback.xml delivered with IG. This file defines the following configuration items for logs:

  • A root logger to set the overall level to INFO, and to write all log messages to the SIFT and STDOUT appenders.

  • A STDOUT appender to define the format of log messages on the console.

  • A SIFT appender to separate log messages according to the key routeId, to define when log files are rolled, and to define the format of log messages in the file.

  • An exception logger, called LogAttachedExceptionFilter, to write log messages for exceptions attached to responses.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><!--
  Copyright 2016-2017 ForgeRock AS. All Rights Reserved
 
  Use of this code requires a commercial software license with ForgeRock AS.
  or with one of its affiliates. All use shall be exclusively subject
  to such license between the licensee and ForgeRock AS.
--><configuration>
  <!-- To print the routeId in the log line, you can use the following layout pattern : %mdc{routeId:-system} -->

  <appender name="STDOUT" class="ch.qos.logback.core.ConsoleAppender">
    <encoder>
      <pattern>%nopex[%thread] %highlight(%-5level) %boldWhite(%logger{35}) - %message%n%highlight(%rootException{short})</pattern>
    </encoder>
  </appender>

  <appender name="SIFT" class="ch.qos.logback.classic.sift.SiftingAppender">
    <discriminator>
      <key>routeId</key>
      <defaultValue>system</defaultValue>
    </discriminator>
    <sift>
      <!-- Create a separate log file for each <key> -->
      <appender name="FILE-${routeId}" class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.RollingFileAppender">
        <file>${openig.base}/logs/route-${routeId}.log</file>

        <rollingPolicy class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.SizeAndTimeBasedRollingPolicy">
          <!-- Rotate files daily -->
          <fileNamePattern>${openig.base}/logs/route-${routeId}-%d{yyyy-MM-dd}.%i.log</fileNamePattern>

          <!-- each file should be at most 100MB, keep 30 days worth of history, but at most 3GB -->
          <maxFileSize>100MB</maxFileSize>
          <maxHistory>30</maxHistory>
          <totalSizeCap>3GB</totalSizeCap>
        </rollingPolicy>

        <encoder>
          <pattern>%d{HH:mm:ss:SSS} | %-5level | %thread | %logger{20} | %message%n%xException</pattern>
        </encoder>
      </appender>
    </sift>
  </appender>

  <!-- Disable logs of exceptions attached to responses by defining 'level' to OFF -->
  <logger name="org.forgerock.openig.filter.LogAttachedExceptionFilter" level="INHERITED"/>

  <root level="INFO">
    <appender-ref ref="SIFT"/>
    <appender-ref ref="STDOUT"/>
  </root>
</configuration>

16.3.  Changing the Logging Behavior

The Logback configuration is very flexible, providing a wide range of options for logging. For a full description of its parameters, see the Logback website. The following examples show some simple changes that you can make.

To change the logging behavior, create a new Logback file at $HOME/.openig/config/logback.xml. This Logback file overrides the default configuration.

To take into account edits to logback.xml, stop and restart IG or edit the configuration parameter to add a scan and interval:

<configuration scan="true" scanPeriod="5 seconds">

The configuration scan="true" requires logback.xml to be scanned for changes. The file is scanned after both of the following criteria are met:

  • The specified number of logging operations have occurred, where the default is 16.

  • The scan period has elapsed, where the example specifies 5 seconds.

Note

If your custom logback.xml contains errors, messages like these are displayed on the console but log messages are not recorded:

14:38:59,667 |-ERROR in ch.qos.logback.core.joran.spi.Interpreter@20:72 ...
14:38:59,690 |-ERROR in ch.qos.logback.core.joran.action.AppenderRefAction ...

16.3.1. Formatting Log Messages

You can format log messages in many ways. For example, to add the date to the log message, edit logback.xml to change the pattern of the log messages in the encoder part of the SIFT appender:

%d{yyyyMMdd-HH:mm:ss} | %-5level | %thread | %logger{20} | %message%n%xException

16.3.2. Logging for Different Object Types

You can change the log messages for a single object type without changing them for the rest of the configuration.

For example, to record log messages with the level ERROR or higher for the ClientHandler, edit logback.xml to add a logger defined by the fully qualified class name of the ClientHandler, and to set its logging level to ERROR:

<logger name="org.forgerock.openig.handler.ClientHandler" level="ERROR"/>

Log messages with a level lower than ERROR are no longer recorded for the ClientHandler but continue to be recorded for the rest of the configuration.

16.3.3. Logging for Scripts

The logger object provides access to a unique SLF4J logger instance for scripts. Events are logged as defined in by a dedicated logger in logback.xml, and are included in the logs with the name of with the scriptable object.

To log events for scripts:

  • Add logger objects to the script to enable logging at different levels. For example add some of the following logger objects:

    logger.error("ERROR")
    logger.warn("WARN")
    logger.info("INFO")
    logger.debug("DEBUG")
    logger.trace("TRACE")

  • Add a logger to logback.xml to reference the scriptable object and set the logging level. The logger is defined by the type and name of the scriptable object that references the script, as follows:

    • ScriptableFilter: org.forgerock.openig.filter.ScriptableFilter.filter_name

    • ScriptableHandler: org.forgerock.openig.handler.ScriptableHandler.handler_name

    • ScriptableThrottlingPolicy: org.forgerock.openig.filter.throttling.ScriptableThrottlingPolicy.throttling_policy_name

    • ScriptableAccessTokenResolver: org.forgerock.openig.filter.oauth2.ScriptableAccessTokenResolver.access_token_resolver_name

    For example, the following logger logs trace-level messages for a ScriptableFilter named cors_filter:

    <logger name="org.forgerock.openig.filter.ScriptableFilter.cors_filter" level="TRACE"/>

    The resulting messages in the logs contain the name of the scriptable object:

    14:54:38:307 | TRACE | http-nio-8080-exec-6 | o.f.o.f.S.cors_filter | TRACE

16.3.4. Logging for the BaseUriDecorator

During setup and configuration, it can be helpful to display log messages from the BaseUriDecorator.

For example, to record a log message each time a request URI is rebased, edit logback.xml to add a logger defined by the fully qualified class name of the BaseUriDecorator appended by the name of the baseURI decorator:

<logger name="org.forgerock.openig.decoration.baseuri.BaseUriDecorator.baseURI" level="TRACE"/>

Each time a request URI is rebased, a log message similar to this is created:

12:27:40| TRACE | http-nio-8080-exec-3 | o.f.o.d.b.B.b.{Router}/handler
        | Rebasing request to http://app.example.com:8081

16.3.5. Switching Off Exception Logging

To stop recording log messages for exceptions, edit logback.xml to set the level to OFF:

<logger name="org.forgerock.openig.filter.LogAttachedExceptionFilter" level="OFF"/>

Chapter 17. Troubleshooting

This chapter covers common problems and their solutions.

Get the product version and build information for the running instance of IG from the /api/info endpoint. If IG is set up as described in Chapter 2, "First Steps" in the Getting Started Guide, access the information at http://openig.example.com:8080/openig/api/info.

17.1. Requests Redirected to Access Management Instead of to the Resource

By default, ForgeRock Access Management 5 and later writes cookies to the fully qualified domain name of the server, for example, openam.example.com. Therefore a host-based cookie rather than a domain-based cookie is set.

Consequently, after authentication through Access Management, requests can be redirected to Access Management instead of to the resource.

To resolve this issue, add a cookie domain to the Access Management configuration. For example, in the Access Management console, go to Configure > Global Services > Platform, and add the domain example.com.

17.2. Troubleshooting the UMA Example

You have set up and are testing the example in Section 10.1, "About IG As an UMA Resource Server".

If you have problems creating shares for Alice, perform the following steps to see if you can get a PAT from AM:

  1. With AM running, run the following command to get a tokenID:

    $ curl --request POST \
    --header "X-OpenAM-Username: alice" \
    --header "X-OpenAM-Password: password" \
    --header "Content-Type: application/json" \
    --data "{}"  \
    http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/json/authenticate
    
    {"tokenId":"AQIC5wM2LY . . . Dg5AAJTMQAA*","successUrl":"/openam/console"}

  2. In the following command, replace tokenID with the value you got in the previous step:

    $ curl -X POST -H "Cache-Control: no-cache" -H "Cookie: iPlanetDirectoryPro=tokenID" \
    -H "Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded" \
    -d 'grant_type=password&scope=uma_protection&username=alice&password=password&client_id=IG&client_secret=password' \
    http://openam.example.com:8088/openam/oauth2/access_token
    
    {"access_token":"AQIC5wM2LY . . . Dg5AAJTMQAA*","scope":"uma_protection","token_type":"Bearer","expires_in":3599}

    An access token should be displayed. If you fail to get an access token, check that AM is configured as described in Section 10.5, "Setting Up AM As an Authorization Server".

If you continue to have problems, make sure that your IG configuration matches that shown when you are running the test on http://app.example.com:8081/uma/.

17.3. Can't Deploy Routes in IG Studio

IG Studio deploys and undeploys routes through a main router named _router, which is the name of the main router in the default configuration. If you use a custom config.json, make sure that it contains a main router named _router.

For information about IG Studio, see Section 11.4, "Creating Routes Through IG Studio ".

17.4. Object not found in heap

org.forgerock.json.fluent.JsonValueException: /handler:
   object Router2 not found in heap
    at org.forgerock.openig.heap.HeapImpl.resolve(HeapImpl.java:351)
    at org.forgerock.openig.heap.HeapImpl.resolve(HeapImpl.java:334)
    at org.forgerock.openig.heap.HeapImpl.getHandler(HeapImpl.java:538)

You have specified "handler": "Router2" in config.json, but no handler configuration object named Router2 exists. Make sure you have added an entry for the handler and that you have correctly spelled its name.

17.5. Extra or missing character / invalid JSON

When the JSON for a route is not valid, IG does not load the route. Instead, a description of the error appears in the log:

16:09:50 | ERROR | openig.example.com-startStop-1 | o.f.o.h.r.RouterHandler |
The file '/Users/me/.openig/config/routes/zz-default.json' is not a valid route configuration.

Use a JSON editor or JSON validation tool such as JSONLint to make sure that your JSON is valid.

17.6. The values in the flat file are incorrect

Ensure the flat file is readable by the user running the container for IG. Values are all characters including space and tabs between the separator, so make sure the values are not padded with spaces.

17.7. Problem accessing URL

HTTP ERROR 500

Problem accessing /myURL . Reason:

java.lang.String cannot be cast to java.util.List
Caused by:
java.lang.ClassCastException: java.lang.String cannot be cast to java.util.List

This error is typically encountered when using an AssignmentFilter as described in AssignmentFilter(5) in the Configuration Reference and setting a string value for one of the headers. All headers are stored in lists so the header must be addressed with a subscript.

For example, rather than trying to set request.headers['Location'] for a redirect in the response object, you should instead set request.headers['Location'][0]. A header without a subscript leads to the error above.

17.8. StaticResponseHandler results in a blank page

Define an entity for the response as in the following example:

{
    "name": "AccessDeniedHandler",
    "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
    "config": {
        "status": 403,
        "reason": "Forbidden",
        "entity": "<html><body><p>User does not have permission</p></body></html>"
    }
}
  

17.9. IG is not logging users in

If you are proxying to more than one application in multiple DNS domains, you must make sure your container is enabled for domain cookies. For details on your specific container, see Section 2.1, "Configuring Deployment Containers".

17.10. Read timed out error when sending a request

If a baseURI configuration setting causes a request to come back to IG, IG never produces a response to the request. You then observe the following behavior.

You send a request and IG seems to hang. Then you see a failure message, HTTP Status 500 - Read timed out, accompanied by IG throwing an exception, java.net.SocketTimeoutException: Read timed out.

To fix this issue, make sure that baseURI configuration settings use a different host and port than the host and port for IG.

17.11. IG does not use new route configuration

IG loads all configuration at startup. By default, it then periodically reloads changed route configurations.

If you make changes to a route that result in an invalid configuration, IG logs errors, but it keeps the previous, correct configuration, and continues to use the old route.

IG only uses the new configuration after you save a valid version or when you restart IG.

Of course, if you restart IG with an invalid route configuration, then IG tries to load the invalid route at startup and logs an error. In that case, if there is no default handler to accept any incoming request for the invalid route, then you see an error, No handler to dispatch to.

17.12. Make IG skip a route

If you have copied routes from another IG server, those routes might depend on environment or container configuration that you have not yet configured locally.

You can work around this problem by changing the route file extension. A router ignores route files that do not have the .json extension.

For example, suppose you copy route all sample route configurations from the documentation, and then start IG without first configuring your container. This can result in an error such as the following:

/handler/config/filters/0/config/dataSource: javax.naming.NameNotFoundException;
    remaining name 'jdbc/forgerock'
[       JsonValueException] > /handler/config/filters/0/config/dataSource:
    javax.naming.NameNotFoundException; remaining name 'jdbc/forgerock'
[    NameNotFoundException] > null

org.forgerock.json.fluent.JsonValueException:
    /handler/config/filters/0/config/dataSource:
    javax.naming.NameNotFoundException; remaining name 'jdbc/forgerock'
 at org.forgerock.openig.filter.SqlAttributesFilter$Heaplet.create(
    SqlAttributesFilter.java:211)
 at org.forgerock.openig.heap.GenericHeaplet.create(GenericHeaplet.java:81)
 at org.forgerock.openig.heap.HeapImpl.extract(HeapImpl.java:316)
 at org.forgerock.openig.heap.HeapImpl.get(HeapImpl.java:281)
...

This arises from the route in 03-sql.json, which defines an SqlAttributesFilter that depends on a JNDI data source configured in the container:

{
    "type": "SqlAttributesFilter",
    "config": {
        "dataSource": "java:comp/env/jdbc/forgerock",
        "preparedStatement":
          "SELECT username, password FROM users WHERE email = ?;",
        "parameters": [
            "george@example.com"
        ],
        "target": "${attributes.sql}"
    }
}

To prevent IG from loading the route configuration until you have had time to configure the container, change the file extension to render the route inactive:

$ mv ~/.openig/config/routes/03-sql.json ~/.openig/config/routes/03-sql.inactive
  

If necessary, restart the container to force IG to reload the configuration.

When you have configured the data source in the container, change the file extension back to .json to render the route active again:

$ mv ~/.openig/config/routes/03-sql.inactive ~/.openig/config/routes/03-sql.json
  

Appendix A. SAML 2.0 and Multiple Applications

Chapter 6, "Acting As a SAML 2.0 Service Provider" describes how to set up IG as a SAML 2.0 service provider for a single application, using AM as the identity provider. This chapter describes how to set up IG as a SAML 2.0 service provider for two applications, still using AM as the identity provider.

Before you try the samples described here, familiarize yourself with IG SAML 2.0 support by reading and working through the examples in Chapter 6, "Acting As a SAML 2.0 Service Provider". Before you start, you should have IG protecting the sample application as a SAML 2.0 service provider, with AM working as identity provider configured as described in that tutorial.

A.1. Installation Overview

In this chapter you use the Fedlet configuration from Chapter 6, "Acting As a SAML 2.0 Service Provider" to create a configuration for each new protected application. You then import the new configurations as SAML 2.0 entities in AM. If you subsequently edit a configuration, import it again.

In the following examples, the first application has entity ID sp1 and runs on the host sp1.example.com, the second application has entity ID sp2 and runs on the host sp2.example.com. To prevent unwanted behavior, the applications must have different values.


A.2. Preparing the Network

Configure the network so that browser traffic to the application hosts is proxied through IG.

Add sp1.example.com and sp2.example.com to your /etc/hosts file:

127.0.0.1    localhost openam.example.com openig.example.com app.example.com sp1.example.com sp2.example.com

A.3. Configuring the Circle of Trust

Edit the $HOME/.openig/SAML/fedlet.cot file created in Chapter 6, "Acting As a SAML 2.0 Service Provider" to include the entity IDs sp1 and sp2:

cot-name=Circle of Trust
sun-fm-cot-status=Active
sun-fm-trusted-providers=openam,sp1,sp2
sun-fm-saml2-readerservice-url=
sun-fm-saml2-writerservice-url=

A.4. Configuring the Service Provider for Application One

To configure the service provider for application one, you can use the example files Example A.1, "Configuration File for Application One" and Example A.2, "Extended Configuration File for Application One", saving them as sp1.xml and sp1-extended.xml. Alternatively, follow the steps below to use the files you created in Chapter 6, "Acting As a SAML 2.0 Service Provider".

Procedure A.1.  To Configure the Service Provider for Application One By Using Files Created In Chapter 6, "Acting As a SAML 2.0 Service Provider"
  1. Copy the SAML configuration files sp.xml and sp-extended.xml you created in Chapter 6, "Acting As a SAML 2.0 Service Provider", and save them as sp1.xml and sp1-extended.xml.

  2. Make the following changes in sp1.xml:

    • For entityID, change sp to sp1. The entityID must match the application.

    • On each line that starts with Location or ResponseLocation, change sp.example.com to sp1.example.com, and add /metaAlias/sp1 at the end of the line.

    For an example of how this file should be, see Example A.1, "Configuration File for Application One".

  3. Make the following changes in sp1-extended.xml:

    • For entityID, change sp to sp1.

    • For SPSSOConfig metaAlias, change sp to sp1.

    • For appLogoutUrl, change sp to sp1.

    • For hosted=, make sure that the value is 1.

    For an example of how this file should be, see Example A.2, "Extended Configuration File for Application One".

Example A.1. Configuration File for Application One
<!--
  - sp1-xml.txt
  - Set the entityID
  - Set metaAlias/<sp-name> at the end of each of the following lines:
     - Location
     - ResponseLocation
  - Note that AssertionConsumerService Location attributes include the metaAlias.
-->
<EntityDescriptor
  entityID="sp1"
  xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:metadata">
  <SPSSODescriptor
    AuthnRequestsSigned="false"
    WantAssertionsSigned="false"
    protocolSupportEnumeration="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:protocol">
    <SingleLogoutService
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:HTTP-Redirect"
      Location="http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloRedirect/metaAlias/sp1"
      ResponseLocation="http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloRedirect/metaAlias/sp1"/>
    <SingleLogoutService
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:HTTP-POST"
      Location="http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloPOST/metaAlias/sp1"
      ResponseLocation="http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloPOST/metaAlias/sp1"/>
    <SingleLogoutService
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:SOAP"
      Location="http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/fedletSloSoap/metaAlias/sp1"/>
    <NameIDFormat>urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:nameid-format:transient</NameIDFormat>
    <AssertionConsumerService
      isDefault="true"
      index="0"
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:HTTP-POST"
      Location="http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/fedletapplication/metaAlias/sp1"/>
    <AssertionConsumerService
      index="1"
      Binding="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:bindings:HTTP-Artifact"
      Location="http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/fedletapplication/metaAlias/sp1"/>
  </SPSSODescriptor>
  <RoleDescriptor
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:query="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:metadata:ext:query"
    xsi:type="query:AttributeQueryDescriptorType"
    protocolSupportEnumeration="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:protocol">
  </RoleDescriptor>
  <XACMLAuthzDecisionQueryDescriptor
    WantAssertionsSigned="false"
    protocolSupportEnumeration="urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:protocol">
  </XACMLAuthzDecisionQueryDescriptor>
</EntityDescriptor>

Example A.2. Extended Configuration File for Application One
<!--
  - sp1-extended.xml
  - Set the entityID.
  - Set the SPSSOConfig metaAlias attribute.
  - Set the value of appLogoutUrl.
  - Set the value of hosted to 1.
  - Comment out the attribute "com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultFedletAdapter".
-->
<EntityConfig xmlns="urn:sun:fm:SAML:2.0:entityconfig"
    xmlns:fm="urn:sun:fm:SAML:2.0:entityconfig"
    hosted="1"
    entityID="sp1">

    <SPSSOConfig metaAlias="/sp1">
        <Attribute name="description">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="signingCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="encryptionCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthOn">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthUser">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthPassword">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="autofedEnabled">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="autofedAttribute">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="transientUser">
            <Value>anonymous</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAdapter">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAdapterEnv">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <!--
        <Attribute name="fedletAdapter">
            <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultFedletAdapter</Value>
        </Attribute>
        -->
        <Attribute name="fedletAdapterEnv">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAccountMapper">
            <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultLibrarySPAccountMapper</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="useNameIDAsSPUserID">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAttributeMapper">
            <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultSPAttributeMapper</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAuthncontextMapper">
            <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.DefaultSPAuthnContextMapper</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAuthncontextClassrefMapping">
            <Value>
            urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:ac:classes:PasswordProtectedTransport|0|default
            </Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="spAuthncontextComparisonType">
           <Value>exact</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="attributeMap">
           <Value>employeenumber=employeenumber</Value>
           <Value>mail=mail</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="saml2AuthModuleName">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="localAuthURL">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="intermediateUrl">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="defaultRelayState">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="appLogoutUrl">
           <Value>http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/logout</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="assertionTimeSkew">
           <Value>300</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantAttributeEncrypted">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantAssertionEncrypted">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantNameIDEncrypted">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantPOSTResponseSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantArtifactResponseSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantLogoutRequestSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantLogoutResponseSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantMNIRequestSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="wantMNIResponseSigned">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="responseArtifactMessageEncoding">
           <Value>URI</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="cotlist">
       <Value>Circle of Trust</Value></Attribute>
       <Attribute name="saeAppSecretList">
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="saeSPUrl">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="saeSPLogoutUrl">
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="ECPRequestIDPListFinderImpl">
           <Value>com.sun.identity.saml2.plugins.ECPIDPFinder</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="ECPRequestIDPList">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="ECPRequestIDPListGetComplete">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="enableIDPProxy">
           <Value>false</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="idpProxyList">
           <Value></Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="idpProxyCount">
           <Value>0</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="useIntroductionForIDPProxy">
           <Value>false</Value>
       </Attribute>
       <Attribute name="spSessionSyncEnabled">
           <Value>false</Value>
       </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="relayStateUrlList">
        </Attribute>
    </SPSSOConfig>
    <AttributeQueryConfig metaAlias="/attrQuery">
        <Attribute name="signingCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="encryptionCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="wantNameIDEncrypted">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="cotlist">
            <Value>Circle of Trust</Value>
        </Attribute>
    </AttributeQueryConfig>
    <XACMLAuthzDecisionQueryConfig metaAlias="/pep">
        <Attribute name="signingCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="encryptionCertAlias">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthOn">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthUser">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="basicAuthPassword">
            <Value></Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="wantXACMLAuthzDecisionResponseSigned">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="wantAssertionEncrypted">
            <Value>false</Value>
        </Attribute>
        <Attribute name="cotlist">
            <Value>Circle of Trust</Value>
        </Attribute>
    </XACMLAuthzDecisionQueryConfig>
</EntityConfig>

A.5. Configuring the Service Provider for Application Two

Procedure A.2.  To Configure the Service Provider for Application Two
  1. Copy the SAML configuration files sp1.xml and sp1-extended.xml you created in Section A.4, "Configuring the Service Provider for Application One", and save them as $HOME/.openig/SAML/sp2.xml and $HOME/.openig/SAML/sp2-extended.xml.

  2. In both files, replace all incidences of sp1 with sp2. To prevent unwanted behavior. application two must have different values to application one.

A.6. Importing Service Provider Configurations Into AM

For each new protected application, import a SAML 2.0 entity into AM. If you subsequently edit a service provider configuration, import it again.

Procedure A.3.  To Import the Service Provider Configurations Into AM
  1. Log in to AM console as administrator.

  2. Select Applications > WS-Fed, and click Import Entity.

    In some versions of AM, this option is on a Federation tab.

  3. Import the entity provider:

    • For the metadata file, select File and upload sp1.xml.

    • For the extended data file, select File and upload sp1-extended.xml.

  4. Repeat the previous steps to upload sp2.xml and sp2-extended.xml for sp2.

  5. Log out of the AM console.

A.7. Preparing IG Configurations

For each new protected application, prepare an IG configuration. The configurations in this section follow the example in Chapter 6, "Acting As a SAML 2.0 Service Provider".

Tip

To prevent unspecified behavior, use different keys for session-stored values in the routes for each application. For example, use different keys for session.sp1Username and session.sp2Username.

To prevent configurations from overwriting each others' data, use the subjectMapping property of SamlFederationHandler to define a different session field for the subject name of each application. The two applications must not map data into the same session field.

A.7.1. Preparing the Base Configuration File

Edit config.json to comment the baseURI in the top-level handler. The handler declaration appears as follows:

{
    "handler": {
        "type": "Router",
        "name": "_router",
        "_baseURI": "http://app.example.com:8081",
        "capture": "all"
    }
}

Restart IG for the changes to take effect.

A.7.2. Preparing Routes for Application One

Set up the following routes for application one:

  • $HOME/.openig/config/routes/05-federate-sp1.json, to redirect the request for SAML authentication. After authentication, this route logs the user in to the application.

  • $HOME/.openig/config/routes/05-saml-sp1.json, to map attributes from the SAML assertion into the context, and then redirect the request back to the first route.

Example A.3. 05-federate-sp1.json
{
    "handler": {
        "type": "DispatchHandler",
        "config": {
            "bindings": [
                {
                    "condition": "${empty session.sp1Username}",
                    "handler": {
                        "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
                        "config": {
                            "status": 302,
                            "reason": "Found",
                            "headers": {
                                "Location": [
                                    "http://sp1.example.com:8080/saml/SPInitiatedSSO?metaAlias=/sp1"
                                ]
                            }
                        }
                    }
                },
                {
                    "handler": {
                        "type": "Chain",
                        "config": {
                            "filters": [
                                {
                                    "type": "StaticRequestFilter",
                                    "config": {
                                        "method": "POST",
                                        "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
                                        "form": {
                                            "username": [
                                                "${session.sp1Username}"
                                            ],
                                            "password": [
                                                "${session.sp1Password}"
                                            ]
                                        }
                                    }
                                }
                            ],
                            "handler": "ClientHandler"
                        }
                    }
                }
            ]
        }
    },
    "condition": "${matches(request.uri.host, 'sp1.example.com') and not matches(request.uri.path, '^/saml')}"
}

Example A.4. 05-saml-sp1.json
{
    "handler": {
        "type": "SamlFederationHandler",
        "config": {
            "comment": "Use unique session properties for this SP.",
            "assertionMapping": {
                "sp1Username": "mail",
                "sp1Password": "employeenumber"
            },
            "authnContext": "sp1AuthnContext",
            "sessionIndexMapping": "sp1SessionIndex",
            "subjectMapping": "sp1SubjectName",
            "redirectURI": "/sp1"
        }
    },
    "condition": "${matches(request.uri.host, 'sp1.example.com') and matches(request.uri.path, '^/saml')}"
}

A.7.3. Preparing Routes for Application Two

Set up the following routes for application two:

  • $HOME/.openig/config/routes/05-federate-sp2.json, to redirect the request for SAML authentication. After authentication, this route logs the user in to the application.

  • $HOME/.openig/config/routes/05-saml-sp2.json, to map attributes from the SAML assertion into the context, and then redirect the request back to the first route.

Example A.5.  05-federate-sp2.json
 {
    "handler": {
        "type": "DispatchHandler",
        "config": {
            "bindings": [
                {
                    "condition": "${empty session.sp2Username}",
                    "handler": {
                        "type": "StaticResponseHandler",
                        "config": {
                            "status": 302,
                            "reason": "Found",
                            "headers": {
                                "Location": [
                                    "http://sp2.example.com:8080/saml/SPInitiatedSSO?metaAlias=/sp2"
                                ]
                            }
                        }
                    }
                },
                {
                    "handler": {
                        "type": "Chain",
                        "config": {
                            "filters": [
                                {
                                    "type": "StaticRequestFilter",
                                    "config": {
                                        "method": "POST",
                                        "uri": "http://app.example.com:8081/login",
                                        "form": {
                                            "username": [
                                                "${session.sp2Username}"
                                            ],
                                            "password": [
                                                "${session.sp2Password}"
                                            ]
                                        }
                                    }
                                }
                            ],
                            "handler": "ClientHandler"
                        }
                    }
                }
            ]
        }
    },
    "condition": "${matches(request.uri.host, 'sp2.example.com') and not matches(request.uri.path, '^/saml')}"
}

Example A.6. 05-saml-sp2.json
 {
    "handler": {
        "type": "SamlFederationHandler",
        "config": {
            "comment": "Use unique session properties for this SP.",
            "assertionMapping": {
                "sp2Username": "mail",
                "sp2Password": "employeenumber"
            },
            "authnContext": "sp2AuthnContext",
            "sessionIndexMapping": "sp2SessionIndex",
            "subjectMapping": "sp2SubjectName",
            "redirectURI": "/sp2"
        }
    },
    "condition": "${matches(request.uri.host, 'sp2.example.com') and matches(request.uri.path, '^/saml')}"
}

A.8. Test the Configuration

If you use the example configurations described in this chapter, try the SAML 2.0 web single sign-on profile with application one by selecting either of the following links and logging in to AM with username george and password costanza:

Similarly, try the SAML 2.0 web single sign-on profile with application two by selecting either of the following links and logging in to AM with username george and password costanza:

If you have not configured the examples exactly as shown in this guide, then adapt the SSO links accordingly.

Read a different version of :