This guide shows you how to upgrade ForgeRock® Access Management. ForgeRock Access Management provides authentication, authorization, entitlement, and federation software.


The Upgrade Guide describes how to upgrade ForgeRock Access Management servers, web and Java agents, and tools.

This guide is for anyone who needs to upgrade an Access Management deployment. This guide assumes you are familiar with installation and configuration, and that you are familiar with the current deployment that you plan to upgrade.

About ForgeRock Identity Platform™ Software

ForgeRock Identity Platform™ serves as the basis for our simple and comprehensive Identity and Access Management solution. We help our customers deepen their relationships with their customers, and improve the productivity and connectivity of their employees and partners. For more information about ForgeRock and about the platform, see

Chapter 1. About Upgrading

This chapter covers common aspects of upgrading an AM deployment, whether you are moving to a new maintenance release, upgrading to a new major release, or migrating from a legacy release to a newer AM release.

Release levels, and how much change to expect in a maintenance, minor, or major release, are defined in "ForgeRock Product Release Levels" in the Release Notes. Release levels are identified by version number.

1.1. Supported Upgrade Paths

The following table contains information about the supported upgrade paths to AM 5.5.2:

Upgrade Paths
VersionUpgrade Supported?
AM 5.x [a]
OpenAM 13.x.x


[a] Access Management is incompatible with SSO session tokens from OpenAM.

Storage and processing of SSO tokens changed in AM 5, meaning both stateful and stateless SSO sessions created in earlier versions of OpenAM are not supported.

After upgrading from an earlier version, any existing SSO tokens created by that version will become invalid, and users will need to reauthenticate.

In mixed version deployments, earlier versions of OpenAM will not be able to read or process SSO session tokens created by AM 5 or later.

This incompatibility only affects SSO session tokens. OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect 1.0 tokens are interoperable between versions.


Upgrading between Enterprise and OEM versions is not supported.

For more information, see Checking your product versions are supported in the ForgeRock Knowledge Base.

1.2. Planning the Upgrade

How much you must do to upgrade AM software depends on the magnitude of the differences between the version you currently use and the new version.

  • Maintenance releases have a limited effect on current functionality but contain necessary bug and security fixes. You should keep up to date with maintenance releases as the fixes are important and the risk of affecting service is minimal.

  • When upgrading to a new major or minor release, always plan and test the changes before carrying out the upgrade in production. Make sure you read release notes for intervening versions with care, identifying any changes likely to affect your deployment, and then plan accordingly.

  • These suggestions are true both for AM server components, and also for web and Java agents.

To upgrade from an AM server, use the Upgrade wizard. The AM server Upgrade wizard appears when you replace a deployed AM server .war file with a newer version and browse to the deployment URL. The Upgrade wizard brings the AM configuration, including the version number, up to date with the new version. The CLI counterpart of the Upgrade wizard is openam-upgrade-tool-, which you install as described in "Setting up Configuration Tools" in the Installation Guide.

1.3. Best Practices for Upgrades

Be prepared before you begin an upgrade, even if the upgrade is for a maintenance release.

1.3.1. Route Around Servers During Downtime

Upgrading servers takes at least one of your AM sites down while the server configurations are being brought up to date with the newer version. Plan for this site to be down, routing client applications to another site until the upgrade process is complete and you have validated the result. Make sure client application owners are well aware of the change, and let them know what to expect.

If you only have a single AM site, make sure the downtime happens in a low usage window, and make sure you let client application owners plan accordingly.

During an upgrade you must restrict access to the AM console: The Upgrade Wizard page does not require authorization; any user with access to the AM console immediately after you deploy the new .war can therefore initiate the upgrade process.

1.3.2. Back Up the Deployment

Always back up your deployment before you upgrade, as you must be able to roll back should something go wrong during the upgrade process.

  • Backing up your configuration as described in "Backing Up and Restoring Configurations" in the Setup and Maintenance Guide is good for production environments.

  • In preparation for upgrading AM servers and their configurations, also take LDIF backups of the configuration store data in the directory servers. If possible, stop servers before upgrading and take a file system backup of the deployed servers and also of their configuration directories as well. This can make it easier to roll back from a failed upgrade.

    For example, if you deploy AM server in Apache Tomcat under /openam, you might take a file system backup of the following directories for each AM server.

    • /path/to/tomcat/webapps/openam/

    • ~/openam/

    • ~/.openamcfg/

  • When upgrading web agents, take a file system backup of the web or Java agent installation and configuration directories.

    When upgrading Java agents, it can be easier to uninstall the new version and reinstall the old version than to restore from file system backup.

  • When upgrading tools, keep copies of any tools scripts that you have edited for your deployment. Also back up any trust stores used to connect securely.

1.3.3. Review REST API Versions Before Upgrading

An AM upgrade may update the default API version of several AM endpoints. After an upgrade, your applications may experience issues connecting to endpoints if they do not specify API version information in REST calls.

By default, an upgraded AM instance responds to REST calls that do not specify version information with the oldest version available for the endpoint. However, the oldest supported version may not be the one required by the application, as API versions become deprecated or unsupported.

To avoid version conflicts between application calls and REST endpoint APIs, consider specifying the protocol and resource version required by the application in the Accept-API-Version header when making requests to REST endpoints. For more information, see "Specifying an Explicit REST API Version" in the Development Guide.

You can configure AM's default REST API behavior. For more information, see "Configuring the Default REST API Version for a Deployment" in the Development Guide.

1.3.4. Apply Customization Before Upgrading

Before you upgrade AM servers, prepare a .war file that contains any customizations you require.

Customizations include any changes you have made to the AM server installation, such as the following.

  • Plugins and extensions such as custom authentication modules, response attribute providers, post authentication plugins, SAML v2.0 attribute mappers, and OAuth 2.0 scope implementations.

    These are described in the Development Guide.


    If you are upgrading from OpenAM 12.x and you have custom authentication modules, you must upgrade their service definitions to contain resourceName attributes in the Schema and SubSchema elements.

    For an example of a service definition compatible with AM 5.5, see "The Sample Auth Service Configuration" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide.

  • Customized JSPs, redesigned login or service pages, additional CSS and visual content, and modified authentication module callback files.

    These are described in the UI Customization Guide.

  • Any changes to AM classes.

  • Any changes or additional Java class libraries (such as .jar files in WEB-INF/lib.

1.3.5. Plan for Rollback

Sometimes even a well-planned upgrade operation fails to go smoothly. In such cases, you need a plan to roll back smoothly to the pre-upgrade version.

For AM servers, you can roll back by restoring from file system backup. If you use an external configuration directory service, restore the old configuration from LDIF before restarting the old servers. For more information, see "Backing Up and Restoring Configurations" in the Setup and Maintenance Guide.

For web agents, you can roll back by restoring from file system backup. If you used configuration only available to newer agents, restore the pre-upgrade configuration before restarting the old agents.

For Java agents, uninstall the newer agents and reinstall the older agents, including the old configurations.

Chapter 2. Upgrading Servers

This chapter covers upgrade from core server 12.0.0 or later to the current version. For other components, see "Upgrading Components".

AM server upgrade relies on the Upgrade Wizard to make the necessary changes to the configuration store. You must then restart AM or the container in which it runs. Even a version number change requires that you run the Upgrade Wizard, so needing to run the Upgrade Wizard says nothing about the significance of the changes that have been made to AM. You must run the Upgrade Wizard even for maintenance releases.

Make sure you try upgrading AM in a test environment before applying the upgrade in your production environment.


If you are upgrading from an unsupported version of AM to a later version, you must first upgrade to a supported version. In some cases, you may need to upgrade again depending on the upgrade path. For more information about supported upgrade paths, see "Supported Upgrade Paths" in the Release Notes.

To Upgrade From a Supported Version

Follow these steps to upgrade a site of servers. For information on the versions that are supported for upgrade, see "Supported Upgrade Paths" in the Release Notes.

During the upgrade process, you must take the AM servers in the site out of production, instead redirecting client application traffic elsewhere. This is required because upgrade involves making changes to AM's configuration model. If the upgrade fails, you must be able to roll back before the configuration changes impact other sites.


Do not perform an upgrade by deploying the new version and then importing an existing configuration by running the ssoadm import-svc-config command. Importing an outdated configuration can result in a corrupted installation.

  1. Ensure that you have reviewed the sections contained in "Best Practices for Upgrades".

  2. Prepare your customized AM server .war file.

  3. Back up your deployment.

  4. Route client application traffic to another site during the upgrade.

  5. For servers in the site, stop AM, or if necessary stop the container where AM runs.

  6. For servers in the site, deploy your customized server .war file.

    When you deploy the new .war file, you might have to delete working files left by the old installation. For example, if you deploy on Apache Tomcat, replacing /path/to/tomcat/webapps/openam.war, then also recursively delete the /path/to/tomcat/webapps/openam/ and /path/to/tomcat/work/Catalina/localhost/openam/ directories before restarting the server.

  7. For servers in the site, restart AM or the container where it runs.

  8. To upgrade the data in the configuration store, perform one of the following actions in one of the servers in the site:

    • Navigate to the AM URL, for example, and follow the instructions in the Upgrade Wizard for an interactive upgrade.

    • Use the openam-upgrade-tool- tool for an unattended upgrade:

      1. Install the openam-upgrade-tool- tool as described in "Setting up Configuration Tools" in the Installation Guide. A sampleupgrade file will be expanded in the directory where you install the tool.

      2. Create a configuration file for the openam-upgrade-tool- You can use the sampleupgrade file as a template to create a configuration file, for example

        An upgrade configuration file may resemble the following:

        $ grep -v "^#"
      3. Upgrade AM by using the tool with the properties file following this example:

        $ java -jar openam-upgrade-tool- --file
        Writing Backup; Done.
        Upgrading Services
        New service iPlanetAMAuthPersistentCookieService; Done.
        New service iPlanetAMAuthOpenIdConnectService; Done.
        New service OAuth2Provider; Done.
        New service iPlanetAMAuthDevicePrintModuleService; Done.
        New service crestPolicyService; Done.
        New service RestSecurity; Done.
        New service MailServer; Done.
        New service dashboardService; Done.
        New service iPlanetAMAuthOATHService; Done.
        Add Organization schema to sunFAMSAML2Configuration; Done.
        Upgrade sunAMAuthHOTPService; Done.
        Upgrade sunAMAuthADService; Done.
        Upgrade sunAMAuthOAuthService; Done.
        Upgrade iPlanetAMAuthCertService; Done.
        Upgrade sunIdentityRepositoryService; Done.
        Upgrade iPlanetAMPasswordResetService; Done.
        Upgrade iPlanetAMSessionService; Done.
        Upgrade iPlanetAMAuthService; Done.
        Upgrade iPlanetAMAuthLDAPService; Done.
        Upgrade sunAMAuthDataStoreService; Done.
        Upgrade AgentService; Done.
        New sub schema sunIdentityRepositoryService; Done.
        New sub schema AgentService; Done.
        Delete service sunFAMLibertyInteractionService; Done.
        Delete service sunFAMLibertySecurityService; Done.
        Creating entitlement application type crestPolicyService; Done.
        Creating entitlement application crestPolicyService; Done.
        Re-enabling Generic LDAPv3 Data Store; Done.
        Upgrading data store embedded; Done.
        Updating Platform Properties; Done.
        Writing Upgrade Log; Done.
        Upgrade Complete.

        For additional information about the command-line tool, see the reference documentation for upgrade.jar(1) in the Reference.

      4. Restart AM or the container where it runs.

  9. (Optional) If you installed AM using an external directory server as the configuration store, add an access control instruction (ACI) to the external directory to give the AM administrative user server-side sorting privileges.

    The ACI should be similar to the following:

    aci: (targetcontrol="1.2.840.113556.1.4.473")(version 3.0;
     acl "Allow server-side sorting"; allow (read)
     (userdn = "ldap:///uid=openam,ou=admins,dc=example,dc=com");)

    See "Preparing an External Configuration Data Store" in the Installation Guide for more information about using an external directory server as the AM configuration store.

  10. (Optional) If you installed AM using an external directory server as the user store, update the user store schema as follows:

    1. Log into AM.

    2. Navigate to Realm Name > Datastores > External User Store.

    3. Click Load schema when saved, and then click Save to apply your changes.

    4. If you have additional external user stores, repeat the previous steps for each user store.

  11. (Optional) If you want to configure the upgraded system for the Core Token Service (CTS), you need to import two schema files for proper CTS operation:

    • cts-add-multivalue.ldif

    • cts-add-multivalue-indices.ldif

    For more information, read "Supported Scripts" in the Installation Guide. For a list of supported directory services, see the "Data Store Requirements" in the Release Notes.

  12. Referral policies are not supported in AM 5.5. If your deployment has referral policies, the following warning message will appear when you upgrade your server to AM 5.5:

    Referrals found that require removing

    Specifically, if your deployment has policies in a sub-level realm that uses a referral in the top level realm, the upgrade process will fail. You must manually delete referrals and policies from your configuration after making note of your current policies. Then, run the upgrade.


    Simply disabling the referrals and running the upgrade will also result in a failure. You must delete the referrals and policies manually.

    After upgrading to AM 5.5, you are responsible for reconfiguring AM, so that policy evaluation that previously depended upon referrals continues to function correctly. You might need to take one or both of the following actions:

    • Reconfiguring your web or Java agent with the realm and policy set that contain policies to be evaluated when that agent requests a policy decision from AM. For more information about configuring an agent with a realm and policy set, see "Working With Realms and Access Management Agents" in the Setup and Maintenance Guide.

    • Copy or move a policy or a group of policies. AM 5.5 has REST API endpoints that let you copy and move policies. This functionality might be helpful when migrating away from policy deployments that use referral policies. For more information about the REST endpoints that let you copy and move policies, see "Copying and Moving Policies" in the Authorization Guide.

  13. If you have post authentication plugins that expect state to be maintained by AM between login and logout, you must rewrite and redeploy them.

    In versions prior to AM 5, the Keep Authentication Module Objects for Logout Processing option was available in the Core Authentication module. This option, when enabled, directed AM to maintain state information in server memory throughout a session's duration for post authentication plugin module instances. When logout was triggered, AM invoked the same post authentication plugin module instance, with state information intact. Therefore, developers could access module state stored at login when users logged out.

    AM 5.5 does not maintain state in post authentication plugins between login and logout. Post authentication plugins that rely on module state being maintained in AM's memory between login and logout must be rewritten. You can store any information that you want to save between login and logout in a session property. AM stores session properties in the CTS token store after login, and retrieves them from the token store as part of the logout process.

    To set a session property, call the setProperty method on an SSOToken object as demonstrated by the post authentication plugin sample code in "Building Your Sample Post Authentication Plugin" in the Authentication and Single Sign-On Guide.

  14. Validate that the service is performing as expected.

  15. Allow client application traffic to flow to the upgraded site.

To Complete Upgrade from OpenAM 13.0.x

If you configured one or more JDBC audit event handlers in OpenAM 13.0.x, make the following changes to the audit tables' schema:

  1. Run the following command on Oracle databases that support AM audit event handlers:

    ALTER TABLE am_auditaccess ADD (response_detail CLOB NULL);

    This command adds the response_detail column to the am_auditaccess table.

  2. Run the following commands on MySQL databases that support AM audit event handlers:

    ALTER TABLE audit.am_auditconfig CHANGE COLUMN configobjectid objectid VARCHAR(255);
    ALTER TABLE audit.am_auditaccess ADD COLUMN response_detail TEXT NULL;

    The commands change the name of the configobjectid column in the am_auditconfig table to objectid and add the response_detail column to the am_auditaccess table.

  3. If you use databases other than Oracle or MySQL to support AM audit event handlers, review their schema.

    If the am_auditconfig table has a column named configobjectid, change that column's name to objectid.

    If the am_auditaccess table does not have a column named response_detail, add that column to the table's schema.

Chapter 3. Upgrading Components

This chapter concerns upgrading web or Java agents, tools, and services.

3.1. Upgrading Web Agents

Follow the procedure in this section to upgrade web agents to a version earlier than 5. To upgrade web agents to 5, see ForgeRock Access Management Web Agents User Guide

To Upgrade Web Agents
  1. Refer to the ForgeRock Access Management Web Agents Release Notes of the version to which you are upgrading for information about changes and new functionality.

  2. Back up the web agent installation and configuration directories. For example:

     cp -r /path/to/web_agents/apache24_agent /path/to/backup
     cp -r /path/to/apache/httpd/conf /path/to/backup

    If the configuration if stored centrally in AM, back it up as described in "Backing Up and Restoring Configurations" in the Setup and Maintenance Guide.

  3. Redirect client traffic away from the protected application.

  4. Stop the web server where the web agent is installed.

  5. Remove the old web agent.

    For example, to remove an old web agent installed in Apache HTTP server, see Removing the Apache Web Agent in the ForgeRock Access Management Web Agents Guide. If the uninstall process has changed, refer to the version of the ForgeRock Access Management Web Agents Guide that corresponds to your web agent.

  6. Install the new web agent.

    For example, to install the new agent in Apache HTTP server, see Installing the Apache Web Agent in the ForgeRock Access Management Web Agents User Guide.

  7. Start the webserver where the agent is installed.

  8. Validate that the agent is performing as expected.

    For example, navigate to a protected page on the web site and confirm whether you can access it according to your configuration.

  9. Allow client traffic to flow to the protected application.

3.2. Upgrading Java Agents

Follow the procedure in this section to upgrade Java agents to a version earlier than 5. To upgrade Java agents to 5, see the ForgeRock Access Management Java Agents User Guide

To Upgrade Java Agents
  1. Refer to the ForgeRock Access Management Java Agents Release Notes of the version to which you are upgrading for information about changes and new web agent functionality.

  2. Back up the agent installation and configuration directories. For example:

    cp -r /path/to/j2ee_agents/tomcat_v7_agent /path/to/backup
    cp -r /path/to/tomcat/webapps/agentapp /path/to/backup

    If the configuration if stored centrally in AM, back it up as described in "Backing Up and Restoring Configurations" in the Setup and Maintenance Guide.

  3. Redirect client traffic away from the protected application.

  4. Stop the container where the agent is installed.

  5. Remove the old Java agent.

    For example, to remove an old agent installed in Apache Tomcat, see Removing the Tomcat Java Agent in the ForgeRock Access Management Java Agents User Guide. If the uninstall process has changed, refer to the version of the Java Agents User Guide that corresponds to your web agent.

  6. Install the new Java agent.

    For example, to install a Java agent in Apache Tomcat, see Installing the Tomcat Java Agent in the ForgeRock Access Management Java Agents User Guide.

  7. Start the container where the agent is installed.

  8. Validate that the agent is performing as expected.

    For example, navigate to a protected page on the web site and confirm whether you can access it according to your configuration.

  9. Allow client traffic to flow to the protected application.

3.3. Upgrading Tools

To upgrade the tools, perform the following procedure:

To Upgrade Tools
  1. Install the new version of the tools as described in "Installing and Using the Tools" in the Installation Guide.

  2. Once the new tools are working, you can delete the old tools.

3.4. Upgrading User Self Services

This section covers upgrading user self-service features.

3.4.1. Upgrading the Keystore for User Self-Service

AM's key management system allows the user self-service feature to successfully operate in a multi-instance server deployment behind a load balancer.

When upgrading from a version previous to OpenAM 13.5, AM deploys a JCEKS keystore that includes demo user self-service keys. This keystore is not configured as the default keystore after the upgrade because your existing deployment might depend on the JKS keystore. For example, you might have deployed SAML v2.0 using key aliases in the JKS keystore.

To help you decide whether to enable a JCEKS keystore after upgrading to AM 5.5, see the following table:

User Self Service Feature Upgrade
Upgrading from:Enabling JCEKS required?
Versions prior to OpenAM 13.0No
OpenAM 13.0 with the REST-based user self-service feature disabledNo
OpenAM 13.0 with the legacy user self-service feature enabledNo
OpenAM 13.0 with the REST-based user self-service feature enabledYes
OpenAM 13.5 with the REST-based user self-service feature enabledIt is already enabled.

You should not use the demo user self-service keys included in the JCEKS keystore for production purposes. Instead, create new key aliases for user self-service and configure them in AM. When moving your keystore from JKS to JCEKS, you must also review your existing use of keys in AM, and add existing keys available in the JKS keystore to the JCEKS keystore. For example, if you have a SAML v2.0 deployment that uses keys in AM's JKS keystore, you need to add the keys to the JCEKS keystore.

See the following sections for details:

3.4.2. Upgrading User Self-Service in Subrealms

AM ${platform.version} alters the method for specifying the realm in URLs. Upgrading from a previous version which has user self-service enabled in a subrealm requires that this new method is applied to the URLs used in confirmation emails, as follows:

To Upgrade User Self-service in a Subrealm
  1. Log in to the AM console of the upgraded instance as an administrator, for example amAdmin.

  2. Navigate to Realms > Subrealm Name > Services > User Self-Service, and then click the Advanced Configuration tab.

    Note that to view the Advanced Configuration tab you may need to click the small downwards-pointing triangle icon.

  3. On the Advanced Configuration tab, alter the following properties to include a realm parameter, as in the following examples:

    User Registration Confirmation Email URL${realm}#register/

    Forgotten Password Confirmation Email URL${realm}#passwordReset/

  4. Save your changes.

A clean install of AM will include a realm parameter in these properties by default.

Chapter 4. Migrating Legacy Servers

Rather than upgrade legacy servers (running OpenSSO or Sun Access Manager, or an OpenAM or AM version that is no longer supported), you instead manually migrate from your existing deployment to a new deployment.

For complex legacy deployments, ForgeRock can assist you in the migration process. Send mail to for more information.

To Upgrade A Legacy Deployment
  1. Prepare your customized AM server .war file.

  2. Prepare a new deployment, installing servers from the new, customized .war file, starting with the instructions in "Installing and Starting Servers" in the Installation Guide.

  3. After installation, configure the new servers in the same way as the old servers, adapting as necessary.

    You can use the ssoadm do-batch command to apply multiple changes with one command.

  4. Validate that the new service is performing as expected.

  5. Redirect client application traffic from the old deployment to the new deployment.

Chapter 5. Reference

5.1. Command-Line Tool Reference


upgrade.jar — upgrade AM using a configuration file


upgrade.jar {options}


This executable jar file, openam-upgrade-tool-, lets you perform a silent upgrade on a deployed AM server by applying settings from a configuration file or using arguments. This capability allows you to include the upgrade.jar from a command line or in an upgrade script.


The following options are supported.

-f | --file configuration-file

Upgrade a deployed AM web application archive using the specified configuration file. Upgrade configuration files are described in the sections below. Also, you can specify the system properties on the command line, instead of using the configuration file. See Example 2 below.


Auto-accept the software license agreement and suppress the display of the licence acceptance screen to the user. If the configuration file contains the ACCEPT_LICENSES property, it will have precedence over the command-line option.

-? | --help

Display the usage message.

Upgrade Configuration File

Base your configuration on the sampleupgrade file delivered with AM, and using the hints in this section, or the comments included in the file.

Upgrade Properties

URL to the web container where AM runs, such as


URI where AM is deployed on the web container, such as /openam.


Optional boolean property that can be set to always auto-accept the software license agreement and suppress displaying the license acceptance screen to the user. A value of true auto-accepts the license; any other value will be assumed to equal false, resulting in the presentation of the license. Default value is false. This property takes precedence over the --acceptLicense option, which can also be passed in to the application with the openam-upgrade-tool- file.


The following example shows a configuration file and the commands to upgrade a server using the upgrade.jar. The configuration file is saved as /tmp/upgrade.txt.

$JAVA_HOME/bin/java -jar ~/openam/tools/openam-upgrade-tool- \
 -f /tmp/upgrade.txt

The following example shows how to specify system properties with the upgrade.jar.

$JAVA_HOME/bin/java -jar ~/openam/tools/openam-upgrade-tool- \

The following example shows the use of the --acceptLicense option with the upgrade.jar.

$JAVA_HOME/bin/java -jar ~/openam/tools/openam-upgrade-tool- \

Appendix A. Getting Support

For more information or resources about AM and ForgeRock Support, see the following sections:

A.1. Accessing Documentation Online

ForgeRock publishes comprehensive documentation online:

  • The ForgeRock Knowledge Base offers a large and increasing number of up-to-date, practical articles that help you deploy and manage ForgeRock software.

    While many articles are visible to community members, ForgeRock customers have access to much more, including advanced information for customers using ForgeRock software in a mission-critical capacity.

  • ForgeRock product documentation, such as this document, aims to be technically accurate and complete with respect to the software documented. It is visible to everyone and covers all product features and examples of how to use them.

A.2. Using the Site

The site has links to source code for ForgeRock open source software, as well as links to the ForgeRock forums and technical blogs.

If you are a ForgeRock customer, raise a support ticket instead of using the forums. ForgeRock support professionals will get in touch to help you.

A.3. Getting Support and Contacting ForgeRock

ForgeRock provides support services, professional services, training through ForgeRock University, and partner services to assist you in setting up and maintaining your deployments. For a general overview of these services, see

ForgeRock has staff members around the globe who support our international customers and partners. For details on ForgeRock's support offering, including support plans and service level agreements (SLAs), visit


Access control

Control to grant or to deny access to a resource.

Account lockout

The act of making an account temporarily or permanently inactive after successive authentication failures.


Defined as part of policies, these verbs indicate what authorized subjects can do to resources.


In the context of a policy decision denying access, a hint to the policy enforcement point about remedial action to take that could result in a decision allowing access.

Agent administrator

User having privileges only to read and write agent profile configuration information, typically created to delegate agent profile creation to the user installing a web or Java agent.

Agent authenticator

Entity with read-only access to multiple agent profiles defined in the same realm; allows an agent to read web service profiles.


In general terms, a service exposing protected resources.

In the context of AM policies, the application is a template that constrains the policies that govern access to protected resources. An application can have zero or more policies.

Application type

Application types act as templates for creating policy applications.

Application types define a preset list of actions and functional logic, such as policy lookup and resource comparator logic.

Application types also define the internal normalization, indexing logic, and comparator logic for applications.

Attribute-based access control (ABAC)

Access control that is based on attributes of a user, such as how old a user is or whether the user is a paying customer.


The act of confirming the identity of a principal.

Authentication chaining

A series of authentication modules configured together which a principal must negotiate as configured in order to authenticate successfully.

Authentication level

Positive integer associated with an authentication module, usually used to require success with more stringent authentication measures when requesting resources requiring special protection.

Authentication module

AM authentication unit that handles one way of obtaining and verifying credentials.


The act of determining whether to grant or to deny a principal access to a resource.

Authorization Server

In OAuth 2.0, issues access tokens to the client after authenticating a resource owner and confirming that the owner authorizes the client to access the protected resource. AM can play this role in the OAuth 2.0 authorization framework.


Arrangement to federate a principal's identity automatically based on a common attribute value shared across the principal's profiles at different providers.

Bulk federation

Batch job permanently federating user profiles between a service provider and an identity provider based on a list of matched user identifiers that exist on both providers.

Circle of trust

Group of providers, including at least one identity provider, who have agreed to trust each other to participate in a SAML v2.0 provider federation.


In OAuth 2.0, requests protected web resources on behalf of the resource owner given the owner's authorization. AM can play this role in the OAuth 2.0 authorization framework.


Defined as part of policies, these determine the circumstances under which which a policy applies.

Environmental conditions reflect circumstances like the client IP address, time of day, how the subject authenticated, or the authentication level achieved.

Subject conditions reflect characteristics of the subject like whether the subject authenticated, the identity of the subject, or claims in the subject's JWT.

Configuration datastore

LDAP directory service holding AM configuration data.

Cross-domain single sign-on (CDSSO)

AM capability allowing single sign-on across different DNS domains.


Granting users administrative privileges with AM.


Decision that defines which resource names can and cannot be accessed for a given subject in the context of a particular application, which actions are allowed and which are denied, and any related advice and attributes.

Extended metadata

Federation configuration information specific to AM.

Extensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML)

Standard, XML-based access control policy language, including a processing model for making authorization decisions based on policies.


Standardized means for aggregating identities, sharing authentication and authorization data information between trusted providers, and allowing principals to access services across different providers without authenticating repeatedly.


Service provider application capable of participating in a circle of trust and allowing federation without installing all of AM on the service provider side; AM lets you create Java Fedlets.

Hot swappable

Refers to configuration properties for which changes can take effect without restarting the container where AM runs.


Set of data that uniquely describes a person or a thing such as a device or an application.

Identity federation

Linking of a principal's identity across multiple providers.

Identity provider (IdP)

Entity that produces assertions about a principal (such as how and when a principal authenticated, or that the principal's profile has a specified attribute value).

Identity repository

Data store holding user profiles and group information; different identity repositories can be defined for different realms.

Java agent

Java web application installed in a web container that acts as a policy enforcement point, filtering requests to other applications in the container with policies based on application resource URLs.


Federation configuration information for a provider.


Set of rules that define who is granted access to a protected resource when, how, and under what conditions.

Policy agent

Java, web, or custom agent that intercepts requests for resources, directs principals to AM for authentication, and enforces policy decisions from AM.

Policy Administration Point (PAP)

Entity that manages and stores policy definitions.

Policy Decision Point (PDP)

Entity that evaluates access rights and then issues authorization decisions.

Policy Enforcement Point (PEP)

Entity that intercepts a request for a resource and then enforces policy decisions from a PDP.

Policy Information Point (PIP)

Entity that provides extra information, such as user profile attributes that a PDP needs in order to make a decision.


Represents an entity that has been authenticated (such as a user, a device, or an application), and thus is distinguished from other entities.

When a Subject successfully authenticates, AM associates the Subject with the Principal.


In the context of delegated administration, a set of administrative tasks that can be performed by specified subjects in a given realm.

Provider federation

Agreement among providers to participate in a circle of trust.


AM unit for organizing configuration and identity information.

Realms can be used for example when different parts of an organization have different applications and user data stores, and when different organizations use the same AM deployment.

Administrators can delegate realm administration. The administrator assigns administrative privileges to users, allowing them to perform administrative tasks within the realm.


Something a user can access over the network such as a web page.

Defined as part of policies, these can include wildcards in order to match multiple actual resources.

Resource owner

In OAuth 2.0, entity who can authorize access to protected web resources, such as an end user.

Resource server

In OAuth 2.0, server hosting protected web resources, capable of handling access tokens to respond to requests for such resources.

Response attributes

Defined as part of policies, these allow AM to return additional information in the form of "attributes" with the response to a policy decision.

Role based access control (RBAC)

Access control that is based on whether a user has been granted a set of permissions (a role).

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)

Standard, XML-based language for exchanging authentication and authorization data between identity providers and service providers.

Service provider (SP)

Entity that consumes assertions about a principal (and provides a service that the principal is trying to access).


The interval that starts with the user authenticating through AM and ends when the user logs out, or when their session is terminated. For browser-based clients, AM manages user sessions across one or more applications by setting a session cookie. See also Stateful session and Stateless session.

Session high availability

Capability that lets any AM server in a clustered deployment access shared, persistent information about users' sessions from the CTS token store. The user does not need to log in again unless the entire deployment goes down.

Session token

Unique identifier issued by AM after successful authentication. For a Stateful session, the session token is used to track a principal's session.

Single log out (SLO)

Capability allowing a principal to end a session once, thereby ending her session across multiple applications.

Single sign-on (SSO)

Capability allowing a principal to authenticate once and gain access to multiple applications without authenticating again.


Group of AM servers configured the same way, accessed through a load balancer layer.

The load balancer handles failover to provide service-level availability. Use sticky load balancing based on amlbcookie values to improve site performance.

The load balancer can also be used to protect AM services.

Standard metadata

Standard federation configuration information that you can share with other access management software.

Stateful session

An AM session that resides in the Core Token Service's token store. Stateful sessions might also be cached in memory on one or more AM servers. AM tracks stateful sessions in order to handle events like logout and timeout, to permit session constraints, and to notify applications involved in SSO when a session ends.

Stateless session

An AM session for which state information is encoded in AM and stored on the client. The information from the session is not retained in the CTS token store. For browser-based clients, AM sets a cookie in the browser that contains the session information.


Entity that requests access to a resource

When a subject successfully authenticates, AM associates the subject with the Principal that distinguishes it from other subjects. A subject can be associated with multiple principals.

User data store

Data storage service holding principals' profiles; underlying storage can be an LDAP directory service or a custom IdRepo implementation.

Web Agent

Native library installed in a web server that acts as a policy enforcement point with policies based on web page URLs.

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